明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年02月21日 13:35:41
Microsoft Corp. has made big changes to its familiar Windows operating system to stay relevant amid booming sales of mobile devices such as Apple Inc.#39;s iPad. But some corporate customers worry Microsoft has made its workplace workhorse too unfamiliar.微软(Microsoft Corp.)对人们熟悉的Windows操作系统进行了大刀阔斧的变革,以便在苹果(Apple Inc.) iPad等移动设备热销之际不落人后。不过一些企业客户担心,微软让这套在工作场合应用广泛的主力操作系统变得令人过于陌生了。The new operating system, dubbed Windows 8, adds a new way to navigate a computer by touching rows of small windows, called tiles, that represent websites or apps, much like the icons familiar to smartphone users. Microsoft#39;s new interface can also be controlled with a mouse, and used in a mode similar to the old Windows #39;desktop.#39;这套名为Windows 8的新操作系统增添了一种新的操作电脑的方法,使用者可以触摸一排排代表网站或应用程序的小窗口来操控电脑。这些名叫“瓷贴”(tile)的小窗口和智能手机用户所熟悉的图标非常类似。微软的新界面也能够通过鼠标控制,还可以通过类似老版Windows系统的“桌面”模式进行操作。Yet some companies that have tried the new software─particularly those that expect to stick to traditional laptops and desktop computers for now─worry employees will be frustrated with the changes.REUTERS一款使用Windows 8操作系统的三星平板电脑。然而,一些已试用过新操作系统的公司担心员工会不适应这些变化,尤其是那些眼下希望继续使用传统笔记本电脑和台式机的公司。#39;The interface for a tablet is very nice,#39; said Adam Noble, chief information officer for GAF, a Wayne, N.J., building-materials company that uses about 3,000 Windows-based systems as well as some iPads. #39;On a laptop, it#39;s more difficult to use.#39;新泽西州韦恩市(Wayne)建材公司GAF的首席信息长诺布勒(Adam Noble)说,这个界面用于平板电脑非常合适,但装在笔记本电脑上则不太好用。GAF公司使用了约3,000台装有Windows系统的电脑,同时也使用iPad。The new software presents companies with a training issue they haven#39;t faced since Windows 95 first brought innovations such as the Start button, which is replaced by a Start screen in Windows 8.新系统也给企业带来了培训问题。自Windows 95首次采用“开始”按钮等一系列创新技术以来,企业还不曾碰到更换操作系统需要对员工进行培训的问题。Windows 8用“开始”界面取代了“开始”按钮。#39;This is going to be the first time in a decade and half that [companies are] actually going to have to teach someone to use Windows,#39; said Stephen Kleynhans, a Gartner Inc. analyst.研究机构Gartner Inc.的分析师克莱因汉斯(Stephen Kleynhans)说,这将是15年来企业首次需要教员工如何使用Windows。Microsoft officials note that there is always some initial customer resistance to change in its products that is eventually overcome, and insist that the benefits of Windows 8 are worth the learning curve. #39;We#39;re confident about the value we can deliver,#39; said Erwin Visser, senior director of the Microsoft team overseeing Windows for corporations.微软负责人指出,客户最初总是会对微软产品的变化存有一些抵触情绪,但这最终会被克,并坚持说Windows 8所带来的种种好处值得用户付出学习时间。微软负责向企业客户销售Windows操作系统的团队高级负责人维瑟(Erwin Visser)说,我们对所能传递的价值抱有信心。Some technology buyers aly seem to have moved on. #39;We believe today as a tablet, the iPad gives us a strong combination of functionality, security and price,#39; said Peter Hendel, associate director of the global business services arm of Procter amp; Gamble Co., which counts more than 5,000 iPads in use among sales people, executives and other workers who travel frequently.全球业务务部门副主管亨德尔(Peter Hendel)说,我们相信如今作为一款平板电脑,iPad为我们提供了一个集功能性、安全性和适中价格于一身的产品。宝洁公司使用的iPad数量超过5,000台,销售人员、公司高管以及其它经常出差的员工都在使用。Stuart Kippelman, chief information officer of Covanta Holding Corp.#39;s Covanta Energy unit, said he can envision his company and others buying fewer Microsoft computers in the future as the iPad replaces some uses of traditional computers. #39;I can see that happening,#39; Mr. Kippelman said.卡万塔控股(Covanta Holding Corp.)旗下卡万塔能源公司(Covanta Energy)的IT负责人吉普尔曼(Stuart Kippelman)说,将来随着传统电脑的某些用途被iPad取代,自己公司和其他公司购买的微软电脑越来越少。吉普尔曼说,我可以预料到这种情形的发生。Forrester Research Inc. found that about one-third of companies it surveyed plan to adopt Windows 8 eventually, while 57% haven#39;t considered Windows 8 yet or plan to skip it. At the same point before Windows 7 was released in 2009, two-thirds of companies surveyed said they planned to migrate to Windows 7, and 28% said they hadn#39;t yet considered Windows 7 or planned to skip it. One difference is in 2009 many businesses had been waiting for years to update old Windows software. Now, many have spent millions of dollars installing Windows 7 and are reluctant to spend the money again so soon.美国弗雷斯特研究公司(Forrester Research Inc.)发现,三分之一的受调查企业计划最终采用Windows 8,57%的企业要么还没有考虑采用Windows 8,要么打算跳过。2009年Windows 7发布之前的同一时间,三分之二的受调查企业表示打算升级为Windows 7,28%的企业表示还没有考虑采用或打算跳过。2009年的一个不同之处是,很多企业为升级老版Windows系统已经等了好几年。而现在,很多企业已经斥巨资安装Windows 7,不愿意这么快又花一笔钱。One fan of Windows 8 is Joe Simon, chief technical officer of Advance Publications Inc.#39;s Condé Nast, the New York publisher of Vanity Fair and Vogue magazines. #39;I think it#39;s the best operating system we#39;ve seen out of Microsoft for a long time,#39; he said.《名利场》(Vanity Fair)和Vogue杂志的出版方、Advance Publications旗下纽约出版公司Conde Nast的首席技术长西蒙(Joe Simon)是Windows 8的粉丝。他说,我觉得它是很长时间以来微软推出的最好的操作系统。To save money, Condé Nast has stuck with 11-year-old Windows XP for most of the company#39;s 3,000 Windows users, and Mr. Simon said he is enthusiastic to move to Windows 8 #39;as soon as possible.#39; The company has about 5,000 iPads in use; Mr. Simon said he is #39;agnostic#39; about whether he will try to shift those iPad users to Windows tablets.为了省钱,Conde Nast公司11年以来一直坚持让其3,000名Windows用户中的多数人使用Windows XP。西蒙说他非常希望公司尽快改用Windows 8。该公司有5,000部左右的iPad正在使用;西蒙说他“不知道”自己是否会试图让这些iPad用户改用Windows平板。Spending on Windows devices still dwarfs the iPad, though use of Apple#39;s device is growing at a rapid clip. Forrester estimates business spending on iPads will total nearly billion this year, a 76% jump from 2011. Spending on Windows-based computers is projected to dip 3% to 4 billion.企业采购Windows设备的花费仍然远高于iPad,不过iPad的使用正在快速增长。据Forrester估计,今年企业iPad出总额将接近100亿美元,较2011年增长76%,而Windows电脑出总额预计将为1,240亿美元,下降3%。Microsoft and PC makers that are developing tablets to work with its new software say they offer a key advantage: the ability to run popular business software such as Microsoft#39;s Word and Excel. Microsoft also says its software is better at letting technology managers electronically send new software applications to hundreds of Windows computers, or wipe corporate data from a lost or stolen tablet.微软和开发Windows 8平板电脑的PC制造商说,Windows 8有一个至关重要的优势:它可以运行微软Word和Excel等流行企业软件。微软还说,Windows 8还使技术管理人员能够更加方便地通过网络将新的软件应用发送到数百台Windows电脑上,或从丢失、被盗的平板电脑中擦除公司数据。#39;It#39;s the tablet enterprise customers have been waiting for,#39; said Mr. Visser of Microsoft.微软的维瑟说,这是企业客户一直在等待的平板电脑。There is pressure for companies to shift from Windows XP, since Microsoft plans to end extended support for the software in April 2014. Yet Barclays Capital, in surveys of corporate chief information officers, says it has found more desire for customers to upgrade to Windows 7 rather than Windows 8 over the next year.企业也有升级Windows XP的压力,因为微软打算在2014年4月结束对这款操作系统的后续持。但巴克莱资本(Barclays Capital)在对企业IT负责人的调查中发现,未来一年用户更愿意升级为Windows 7而不是Windows 8。 /201210/204696

The many promises of 3D-printing include intricate product prototypes, one-of-a-kind jewelry, even human tissue. Now, a group has revealed a proof-of-concept of another sort: a gun.3D打印机术有很多光明前景,其中包括打印复杂的原型产品、款式独一无二的珠宝,甚至是打印人体组织。不过现在,有一个组织又发现了3D打印的另一用途,那就是制造。Texas-based Defense Distributed, founded by 25-year-old University of Texas law student Cody Wilson, has given Forbes.com images it says show the first 3D-printed handgun. The group, which is aiming for nonprofit status, claims the weapon can fire standard handgun rounds. The majority of the device, called the ;Liberator,; is fabricated entirely out of plastic, save for a nail used as a firing pin as well as a six-ounce piece of steel, intended to allow the gun to be detected by metal detectors.德克萨斯州非盈利组织Defense Distributed是由一名年仅25岁的德州大学法律系学生科迪威尔森创办的。该组织近日给《福布斯》杂志的网站Forbes.com提供了一些图片,声称图片中的就是世界上第一完全采用3D打印技术造出的手。这个组织还表示,这手可发射标准的手子弹。这手的名字叫“解放者”(Liberator),它的主体部分完全是用塑料制造的,只有撞针是金属。另外,里还装了一块6盎司的铁片,目的是为了让这能够被金属探测器探测出来。Wilson generated headlines last year when he announced his plans to produce a 3D-printed gun. It took the group about eight months to design the Liberator.去年,威尔森宣布打算利用3D打印技术制造一的时候,他的大胆计划就吸引了大量关注。这个组织大概花了8个月的时间设计出了“解放者”。Also known as additive manufacturing, 3D printing is a method of making a three-dimensional solid objects from a computerized model. Commonly, 3D printers lay down successive layers of plastic material to create objects of virtually any shape. The printers can also create interlocking mechanical parts, such as gears and cogs. The process is distinct from traditional machining, in which objects are whittled or sculpted down from larger blocks of material.3D打印技术也叫叠加制造技术,它是一种可以通过电脑模型制作出三维实物的技术。简单来说,3D打印机通过连续不断地叠加塑料材料,几乎可以塑造出任何形状的物体。3D打印机也可以制造出具有连锁机制的零部件,比如齿轮和接榫等。这个过程与传统加工方法存在显著的区别,后者通常是通过对大块材料进行切割或雕塑来加工复杂的零件。Boston-based Luxe Research estimates that the 7 million 3D printing market will grow to a whopping .4 billion by 2025. Most of that growth will be driven by industrial applications, particularly in medical, automotive and aerospace industries.据波士顿Luxe Research研究公司预测,到2025年,3D打印市场的市值将从现在的7.77亿美元猛增到84亿美元。其中大多数增长是由商业应用驱动的,尤其是在医药、汽车和航空领域。But devices aimed at consumers are increasingly popular. Late last month, New York-based Shapeways raised a million investment round lead by Andreessen Horowitz. The company has some 10,000 ;shop owners,; or individuals who have designed products, from shoes to cellphone cases, that they print out and sell through Shapeways#39; website.不过以普通消费者为目标的3D打印设备也在变得越来越流行。上个月末,纽约的Shapeways公司获得了一轮由安德里森霍洛维茨基金(Andreessen Horowitz)等公司投资的3,000万美元融资。Shapeways公司拥有大约10,000个“店主”或个体手工业者,他们自行设计了从鞋子到手机壳等各种产品,然后用3D打印技术制造出来,再通过Shapeways的网站销售。On Friday, office supply giant Staples (SPLS) announced that it is the first major American retailer to sell 3D printers. The retailer will sell the Cube 3D Printer from 3D Systems on Staples.com for 99.99. The device will be available in a limited number of Staples stores by the end of June.上周五,办公用品提供商史泰(Stapes)宣布,它将成为美国第一家销售3D打印机的零售企业。它将在自己的官网Staples.com的“3D系统”一栏里以1299.99美元的价格销售Cube 3D打印机。另外到今年六月底,在史泰的门店里也将能够买到数量有限的3D打印机。According to Forbes, the Liberator is capable of connecting to different barrels, allowing for various calibers of ammunition. The device#39;s creator plans to eventually publish the files necessary to print it at home as well as details on its operation.据《福布斯》报道,“解放者”手可以安装不同口径的管,从而能发射不同口径的子弹。该型的设计者打算最终在网络上发布可以让人们在家自行“打印”这手所需的图纸,以及这手的详细操作方法。That will surely raise another round of concerns, particularly in the wake of recent gun violence around the country. Stratasys, a company that makes 3D printers, confiscated their machine from Defense Distributed last year after the company discovered the printer was being used for gun development.此举当然会引起新一轮的担忧,尤其是在美国最近案频发的背景下。3D打印机制造商Stratasys去年发现Defense Distributed在利用它的3D打印机研发后,就从Defense Distributed手里收回了它的3D打印机。 /201305/241302

  Every one of today’s smartphones has thousands of times more processing power than the computers that guided astronauts to the moon. And if Moore’s law – the theory that computing capacity doubles roughly every two years – continues to be accurate, tomorrow’s computers will be even stronger.与当年指导宇航员登月的计算机相比,今天每一部智能手机的数据处理能力都要胜出几千倍。如果尔定律依旧准确,未来计算机将更加强大。根据尔定律,计算能力大约每两年增加一倍。But Americans today dream less often of feats that computers will help us to accomplish; more and more we have nightmares about computers taking away our jobs. The optimism that many felt in the 1960s over labour-saving technology is giving way to a fearful question: will your labour be good for anything in the future? Or will you be replaced by a machine?但今日的美国人较少再幻想计算机将帮人类实现丰功伟绩,而是越来越恐惧计算机将夺走我们的工作。20世纪60年代时,许多人对节省人力的技术抱持乐观态度,而今这种乐观已让位于一个可怕的问题:你的劳动在未来有利用价值吗?或者是,你会被机器取代吗?Fear of replacement is not new. Fifteen years ago American workers were worried about competition from cheaper Mexican substitutes. In 1992 US presidential candidate Ross Perot predicted that a “giant sucking sound” would be heard along the country’s southern border as soon as the North American Free Trade Agreement was signed.这种害怕被取代的情绪并不新鲜。15年前,美国工人曾担心来自墨西哥廉价劳力的竞争。1992年美国总统候选人罗斯#8226;佩罗(Ross Perot)曾预言,一旦《北美自由贸易协定》(North American Free Trade Agreement)签订,那么沿着美国南部边境,人们将听到一个“巨大的吮吸声”。Today people think they can hear that sound once more – but they trace it to server farms in Texas instead of cut-rate factories in Tijuana. Americans fear the technology of the near future because they see it as a replay of the globalisation of the near past.今天人们认为自己又再度听到这个声音,但当他们循声追踪,找到的却不是蒂华纳(Tijuana,墨西哥西北部城市)的廉价工厂,而是得克萨斯州的务器群。美国人害怕“不久的将来”的科技,因为他们将此视作“不久的以前”出现的全球化的重演。But the situations are very different: unlike fellow humans of different nationalities, computers are not substitutes for American labour. Men and machines are good at different things. People form plans and make decisions in complicated situations. We are less good at making sense of enormous amounts of data. Computers are exactly the opposite: they excel at efficient data processing but struggle to make basic judgments that would be simple for any human.但两种情况有很大不同:电脑不像他国人类同胞,它们无法取代美国劳工。人和机器擅长的事情是不同的。人类可以在复杂情况下制定计划和作出决定。我们不擅长分析海量数据。计算机则正相反,它们擅长高效处理数据,但很难作出任何人都能轻易作出的基本判断。I came to understand this from my experience as chief executive of PayPal. In mid-2000 we had survived the dotcom crash and we were growing fast but we faced one huge problem: we were losing upwards of m a month to credit card fraud. Since we were processing hundreds or even thousands of trans#173;actions each minute, we could not possibly review each one. No human quality control team could work that fast.我是从担任Paypal首席执行官的经验中得出这一结论的。在21世纪头十年中期,我们挺过了互联网泡沫破灭,得到了快速增长,但我们遇到了一个大问题:我们每月因信用卡欺诈起码要损失1000万美元。由于我们每分钟要处理成百上千笔交易,所以不可能对每笔交易进行审查。由人力构成的质量管理团队绝不可能审查得这么快。We tried to solve the problem by writing software that would automatically identify bogus transactions and cancel them in real time. But it quickly became clear that this approach would not work: after an hour or two, the thieves would catch on and change their tactics to fool our algorithms.我们试过用编写软件来解决这一问题,该软件可以自动识别虚假交易,并实时取消。但事实很快明这种方法行不通,只一两个小时后,窃贼们就搞懂了软件,然后改变策略以欺骗我们的算法。Human analysts, however, were not easily fooled by criminals’ adaptive strategies. So we rewrote the software to take a hybrid approach: the computer would flag the most suspicious trans#173;actions, and human operators would make the final judgment.然而人工分析师不会轻易被犯罪分子的适应性策略骗过。因此我们采取混合的方法重新编写了软件,先由计算机标记出最可疑的交易,再由人工操作者作出最终判断。This kind of man-machine symbiosis enabled PayPal to stay in business, which in turn enabled hundreds of thousands of small businesses to accept the payments they needed to thrive on the internet.这种人机合作令Paypal得以维持经营,反过来又让几十万家小企业能够收到付款,令它们得以在互联网上茁壮成长。It would have been impossible without the man-machine solution – even though most PayPal customers would never even hear about it, thinking of us simply as a software company. Fas#173;cinated by automation, most people still overlook the role that humans play in running software that would be worthless on its own.尽管大多数Paypal客户以为我们只是一家软件公司,他们甚至从没听过人机合作解决方案,但没有它的话,我们不可能获得这样的成绩。大多数人因对自动化的着迷,而忽视人类在软件运行中的作用,忘记如果没有人类操作,软件自身毫无价值。Venture capitalist Marc Andreessen has declared: “Software is eating the world.” But it is irrational to be so afraid of being devoured.风险投资家马克#8226;安德烈森(Marc Andreessen)曾宣称:“软件正吞噬整个世界。”但这种担心是缺乏理性的。We seem to have forgotten that computers do not eat. Their desires – for work or for anything else – are not just different. They are non-existent. All computers require is a small amount of electricity – and they are not smart enough to want even that.我们似乎已经忘了计算机不会吃东西。无论是对工作还是其他任何事物,它们都没有任何欲望。它们是不存在的。计算机所需要的不过是少许电力,而且就连这点需求它们都没聪明到主动提出。Unlike computers, people do eat: whether shark fins in Shanghai or fish tacos in San Diego, everyone needs food. Humans also drink, drill for oil and mine for minerals – all on the same planet.与计算机不同的是,人类确实要吃东西:无论是上海的鱼翅还是圣地亚哥的鱼肉玉米饼,人人都需要食物。人类还要喝饮料、钻石油、开采矿藏——而这些物资都在同一颗行星上。So while American consumers have benefited from access to cheap toys and textiles from a newly globalised China, they have had to pay higher prices for the petrol newly desired by millions of Chinese motorists.所以美国消费者一方面得益于中国新近的全球化,能够买到便宜的玩具和纺织品,另一方面也要付更高昂的油钱,因为中国新兴车主们的需求推高了汽油价格。And desire does not stop at subsistence: people will demand ever more as globalisation continues. Now that millions of Chinese peasants can finally enjoy a secure supply of basic calories, they want more of them to come from pork than grain.而且人类的欲望并不仅限于维持生存,随着全球化推进,人们的要求将越来越多。中国数亿农民既然终于可以吃饱,他们自然希望肉的比例能够提高。Spiralling demand for resources of which our world contains a finite supply is the great long-term threat posed by globalisation. That is why we need new technology to relieve it.这个世界的资源是有限的,全球化带来的一大长期威胁就是资源需求急剧上升。所以我们需要新技术来减轻这一威胁。The alternative to working with computers in the new businesses they make possible is not a placid world where all the old jobs stay the same. It is one in which wages decline and prices rise as the whole world competes both to work and to spend.人类与电脑合作,将可以致力于因为电脑而出现的新事务,倘非如此,我们将处于一个不平静的世界。在这个世界里,所有旧式工作将保持不变,工资将下降,物价将上涨,因为整个世界的人们将竞相工作,竞相消耗物资。We are our own greatest enemies. Our most important allies are the machines that enable us to do new things.人类最大的敌人是人类自己,人类最重要的盟友是机器,它们让我们能够去做新的事情。The writer is an investor, entrepreneur and author of ‘Zero to One’本文作者为投资家、企业家,著有《从无到有》(Zero to One)一书 /201410/337034


  Owning a smartphone may not be as smart as you think.使用智能手机也许并不像你想的那样明智。They may let you surf the internet, listen to music and snap photos wherever you are...but they also turn you into a workaholic, it seems.使用智能手机可以让你随时随地上网、听音乐、拍照片……但也可能让你变成工作狂。A study suggests that, by giving you access to emails at all times, the all-singing, all-dancing mobile phone adds as much as two hours to your working day.最新调查显示,智能手机能让你随时查收邮件,因此这种花哨的手机会让你每天的工作时间延长多达两个小时。Researchers found that Britons work an additional 460 hours a year on average as they are able to respond to emails on their mobiles.调查人员发现,由于可以随时用手机查收电邮,英国人每年的工作时间平均增加了460个小时。The study by technology retailer Pixmania, reveals the average UK working day is between nine and 10 hours, but a further two hours is spent responding to or sending work emails, or making work calls.科技产品零售商Pixmania开展的这项调查显示,英国人平均每天工作9到10小时,但额外加班的两个小时通常用来收发工作邮件或者打工作电话。More than 90 percent of office workers have an email-enabled phone, with a third accessing them more than 20 times a day.超过90%的职员有可以收发电邮的手机,其中1/3每天查看20次以上。Almost one in ten admits spending up to three hours outside their normal working day checking work emails, and even those without a smartphone check emails on their home computer.近1/10的职员承认每天日常工作时间外,还要花长达3个小时来查看工作电邮,没有智能手机的员工甚至要打开家中的电脑查看。Some workers confess they are on call almost 24 hours a day, with nine out of ten saying they take work emails and calls outside their normal working hours.有些员工表示,他们几乎全天24小时待命,其中9成受访者表示要在正常工作时间外收发电邮和接打工作电话。Nearly two-thirds say they often check work emails just before they go to bed and as soon as they wake up, while over a third have replied to one in the middle of the night.近2/3的受访者表示睡前和醒后会查收电邮,超过1/3的受访者曾在半夜回复电邮。The average time for first checking emails is between 6am and 7am, with more than a third checking their first email in this period, and a quarter checking them between 11pm and midnight.受访者在一天中首次查看电邮的平均时间在早晨6点到7点,超过1/3的受访者在这段时间首次查看电邮,1/4的受访者在晚上11点到半夜查看电邮。Ghadi Hobeika, marketing director of Pixmania, said: ‘The ability to access literally millions of apps, keep in contact via social networks and take photos and as well as text and call has made smartphones invaluable for many people.Pixmania的市场总监甘地-胡贝卡说:“人们通过智能手机能够接触到几百万种应用程序,能通过社交媒体保持联系,拍摄照片和视频,还有发送短信接打电话,这些让智能手机显得尤为重要。”‘However, there are drawbacks. Many companies expect their employees to be on call 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and smartphones mean that people literally cannot get away from work.“但这也有坏处。很多公司希望员工一周七天每天24小时随叫随到,智能手机意味着人们无法脱离工作。”‘The more constantly in contact we become, the more is expected of us in a work capacity.’“人们之间的联系越频繁,对我们的工作能力期待越高。” /201211/207029


  Apple seems to be gaining some ground in the world#39;s largest smartphone market.苹果公司(Apple)在全球最大智能手机市场的“版图”似乎有所扩大。In China, Apple#39;s market share rose slightly in the fourth quarter of last year, helped by strong demand for its new iPhone 5S, the latest market research data shows.最新市场研究数据显示,受新款iPhone 5S的强劲需求推动,苹果在中国的市场份额去年第四季度小幅上升。According to research firm IDC, Apple#39;s market share in mainland China rose to 7% in the quarter from 6% in the third quarter. The fourth quarter was the first full quarter after Apple launched its iPhone 5S and 5C in China in late September, on the same day the new phones came out in the U.S. and a host of other markets. In the past, iPhones went on sale in China months after they were launched in the U.S.据研究公司国际数据公司(IDC)说,第四季度苹果在中国内地的市场份额从第三季度的6%上升至7%。第四季度是苹果去年9月底在中国、美国及其他一些市场同时推出iPhone 5S和5C之后第一个完整的季度。过去,iPhone通常是登陆美国几个月后才在中国推出。Still, the latest quarterly ranking was yet another reminder that China#39;s smartphone market consists mainly of Android models that are much cheaper than the iPhone. With its 7% share, Apple was the fifth-largest smartphone vendor in China.尽管如此,最新的季度排名让人们再次看到,中国的智能手机市场主要由比iPhone便宜得多的安卓(Android)手机占主导。苹果销量在中国智能手机市场排第五,占7%的市场份额。Samsung, which sells smartphones at various price points from high-end to low-end, held onto its No. 1 position in China with a 19% share in the fourth quarter, followed by Lenovo Group with a 13% share. Coolpad -- the smartphone brand of Shenzhen-based Yulong Computer Telecommunication Scientific -- and Huawei Technologies came third and fourth, taking up 11% and 10% respectively.三星(Samsung)继续保持在中国销量第一的位置,第四季度市场份额为19%,其次是联想(Lenovo Group),市场份额为13%。三星销售从高端到低端等各种价位的智能手机。酷派(Coolpad)和华为技术有限公司(Huawei Technologies)分别以11%和10%的份额排在第三和第四位。酷派是深圳宇龙计算机通信科技(Yulong Computer Telecommunication Scientific)推出的智能手机品牌。Lagging just outside of the top five in the quarter is upstart smartphone maker, Xiaomi, with 6% of the market, a significant jump from about three years ago when the company first began offering phones. Though Xiaomi sits below Apple in China for now, IDC analyst Melissa Chau said the company is poised to get into the top five soon.第四季度销量排第六的是新贵智能手机生产商小米(Xiaomi),市场份额为6%,较大约三年前该公司首次开始销售手机时有大幅上升。尽管目前小米在华销量排名不及苹果,但国际数据公司的分析师Melissa Chau说,小米很快有望跻身前五。#39;[Xiaomi] is still rising, at some point it could come into top five on the growth path it#39;s on,#39; she said.她说,小米仍在上升,按它目前的增长势态,有朝一日可能跻身前五。Still, Apple, which sat just above Xiaomi in the fourth quarter, is expected to get a boost of its own in the current quarter through March due to its new agreement to sell its phones through China Mobile, which is by far the country#39;s largest carrier with more than 760 million subscribers. China Mobile, which started selling iPhones Jan. 17, is expanding its speedier fourth-generation network in the country, and the iPhone is expected to play a major role in getting more subscribers to sign up for 4G services.尽管如此,由于苹果与中国移动(China Mobile)达成新的手机销售协议,预计苹果销量在今年第一季度可能获得提振。中国移动是中国最大的移动运营商,有超过7.6亿用户。中国移动于1月17日开始销售iPhone。该公司目前正在中国扩大速度更快的4G网络,预计iPhone将在吸引更多用户使用4G务方面发挥重要作用。Apple couldn#39;t immediately be reached for comment.记者无法立即联系到苹果置评。As a measure of Apple#39;s performance in China, shipment volume is a tricky one that often triggers heated debates. Some argue that maintaining a certain level of market share by volume is essential, while others say Apple as a high-end brand doesn#39;t have to compete on volume with cheap Chinese smartphones.发货量作为衡量苹果在华表现的一个指标也常常引发激烈争论。有些人称,通过提高销量保持一定水平的市场份额很重要,另外一些人则说,苹果作为一个高端品牌,不必在销量上与其他低价中国智能手机竞争。Either way, a slowdown in total smartphone sales in the fourth quarter from the third quarter shows that both high-end and low-end makers are now competing for a China market that is unlikely to return to the eye-popping growth levels it experienced over the past two years.无论怎样,第四季度智能手机总销量增速较第三季度放缓都是一个不争的事实,显示出高端和低端生产商都在争夺中国市场,而目前的中国市场不太可能重现过去两年那种惊人的增长水平。#39;Not everyone will be picking up a smartphone. A segment of the market won#39;t be able to afford them,#39; said Chau, pointing out that new users in China will increasingly be coming from smaller cities and rural areas.Chau说,并非每个人都会买智能手机,有些人买不起。她指出,中国新的智能手机用户将越来越多地来自较小的城市和农村地区。Still, Apple is competing to win over users who might look to upgrade their phone, or switch from Android, as fourth-generation networks continue to be built in China.尽管如此,随着中国继续建设4G网络,苹果正在努力争取可能寻求手机更新换代或从安卓转向其他系统的用户。In an interview with The Wall Street Journal earlier this month, Apple Chief Executive Tim Cook shared his view on market share. #39;I look at the mobile phone market as having three kinds of phones: feature phones, smartphones that function as or are used as feature phones, and real smartphones,#39; he said. #39;I do care about the market share of the last category and you want to be relevant.#39;在本月早些时候接受《华尔街日报》采访时,苹果首席执行长库克(Tim Cook)讲述了自己对市场份额的看法。他说,我认为手机市场有三类手机:功能手机、被当做功能手机使用的智能手机和真正的智能手机。我确实关心最后一个类别的市场份额,我们希望参与其中。 /201402/276580

  A key reason why Yahoo#39;s board hired Marissa Mayer as its CEO was her deep-reaching social and professional connections through Silicon Valley.雅虎董事会聘用玛丽莎-梅耶尔为CEO的一大原因是其在硅谷与科技大腕们深厚的人脉关系。Those connections were on display last night at a dinner hosted by Nirav Tolia, a longtime Silicon Valley entrepreneur who#39;s now running Nextdoor, a local social network.这一点在昨晚尼拉夫-托利亚举办的晚宴中得以展现。尼拉夫-托利亚是硅谷资深企业家、本地社交网络Nextdoor的负责人。A prominent guest: Jony Ive, Apple#39;s senior vice president of hardware and software design. The CEOs of Twitter, Yelp, Path, and Dropbox were also there. Mike Cassidy, a director of the Google X skunkworks, posted a photo of the dinner on Facebook. A source alerted us to its presence.一大批硅谷科技大腕们齐聚一堂:苹果硬件和软件设计高级副总裁乔纳森-艾维;Twitter、Yelp、Path和Dropbox公司的CEO也悉数到场;谷歌X部门主管迈克-卡西迪出席并在Facebook上发布了一张晚宴照片。The interconnections between this group are staggering. Think of how Path#39;s mobile social network relies on Twitter and Apple, for example; or how Apple once courted Dropbox; or how Marissa Mayer, while at Google, reportedly championed an acquisition of Yelp.这些硅谷大佬们之间的关系让人感到惊讶。想想看:Path的移动社交网络依赖于Twitter和苹果;而苹果曾欲收购Dropbox;现任雅虎CEO的玛丽莎-梅耶尔在谷歌时又曾想要收购Yelp。We contacted several attendees or their press representatives. Stephanie Ichinose, a spokesperson for Yelp, confirmed CEO Jeremy Stoppelman#39;s attendance: ;He was at a dinner with a bunch of execs last night. Nothing more to report.;我们联系了几位与会人员或其媒体代表。Yelp公司发言人史蒂芬妮-伊奇诺斯实了该公司CEO杰里米-斯托普尔曼出席了宴会的消息,“他昨晚与其他高层们一起出席了晚宴。其他无可奉告。”No one else has commented on the event.对此事没有其他更多。Below the photo, a list of who came to dinner, from left to right, and how they#39;re connected.照片下方是参加这次晚宴的所有要人名单及他们之间的相互关系,从左到右依次是:1.Drew Houston, CEO, Dropbox: Steve Jobs tried to buy his online file-storage company.1.Dropbox在线文件存储公司CEO德鲁-豪斯顿:苹果的乔布斯曾试图收购他的在线文件存储公司。2.Trevor Traina, Traina Interactive: The son of San Francisco socialite Dede Wilsey worked at Microsoft and founded several startups. He#39;s a link between San Francisco#39;s older elites and the tech nouveau riche.2.Traina Interactive公司的特雷弗-特莱纳:他是美国旧金山社交名人戴德-威尔西的儿子,曾在微软工作,并创办了好几家创业公司。他是旧金山技术元老和新贵的联络人。3.Dave Morin, CEO, Path: Mayer is an investor in his wife#39;s startup, Brit amp; Co.3.Path公司CEO戴夫-莫林:他的妻子创办了一家公司Brit amp; Co,而梅耶尔是该公司的投资人。4.Dick Costolo, CEO, Twitter: Costolo seems to be close to Mayer, who invested in Twitter chairman Jack Dorsey#39;s payments startup, Square.4.Twitter公司CEO迪克-科斯特罗:科斯特罗似乎与梅耶尔关系密切,而梅耶尔则投资了Twitter董事长杰克-多西创办的付创业公司Square。5.Dion Lim, education startup CEO: Lim hasn#39;t revealed the name of his latest venture yet. He#39;s close to dinner host Tolia; the two cofounded Round Zero, a business-networking group popular in the dotcom era, and Epinions, a product-reviews site.5.某教育创业公司CEO迪昂-利姆:利姆并未透露其最新创业公司的名称。他与宴会主人托利亚关系密切,他们联手创办了Round Zero企业网络群组务和Epinions产品网站。6.Nirav Tolia, CEO, Nextdoor: Tolia was the face of Yahoo in the #39;90s, frequently appearing on TV to promote properties like Yahoo Finance. He now runs Nextdoor, a private social network for neighborhoods.6.Nextdoor公司CEO尼拉夫-托利亚:在上世纪90年代,托利亚就是雅虎的形象,经常出现在电视上,负责推广雅虎财经等资产。他现在运营Nextdoor本地社交网络。7.Jeremy Stoppelman, CEO, Yelp: Mayer, an early and enthusiastic user of Yelp, tried to buy the local-business-reviews site when she worked at Google.7.Yelp公司CEO杰里米-斯托普尔曼:梅耶尔是Yelp本地商家网站的早期热心用户,她在谷歌工作时,曾试图收购这家网站。8.Michael Birch, cofounder, Bebo: After selling his social network to AOL for 0 million, Birch now focuses on nonprofit efforts like Charity:Water and running a startup incubator.8.Bebo公司联合创始人迈克尔-波奇:波奇将其社交网络Bebo作价8.5亿美元出售给了AOL。现在,他一门心思地做起了公益事业Charity:Water,他还经营着一家创业公司孵化机构。9.Mike Cassidy, director, Google X: Google X is the search giant#39;s secretive skunkworks for projects like self-driving cars and Google Glass, an Internet-connected headset.9.谷歌X部门主管迈克-卡西迪:谷歌X是这个搜索巨头的非常神秘的部门,负责的项目包括无人驾驶汽车和谷歌眼镜。10.Jony Ive, SVP, Apple: After executive Scott Forstall#39;s departure, Ive gained oversight over Apple#39;s software design as well as its hardware products. As such, he#39;s a critical contact for pretty much everyone in the room.10. 苹果高级副总裁乔纳森-艾维:在苹果高管斯科特-福斯托尔离职后,艾弗担起了苹果软件和硬件设计的全部重任。因此,他是晚宴上举足轻重的人物。11.Marissa Mayer, CEO, Yahoo: She has work or personal connections to almost everyone in this room.11.雅虎CEO玛丽莎-梅耶尔(Marissa Mayer):她与晚宴上的每个人都有工作或私人方面的联系。12.Bret Taylor, CEO, Quip: The former CTO of Facebook is now running a stealth startup.12. Quip公司CEO布雷特-泰勒(Bret Taylor):他曾是Facebook的首席技术官,现在经营着一家神秘的创业公司。 /201301/221561



  Russia is gearing up for an oil boom on the same scale as the US, as the techniques that sparked the shale revolution are applied to Siberia’s deposits of unconventional oil, according to one of the country’s top oil executives.俄罗斯一位石油业高管表示,俄罗斯将迎来一场规模堪比美国的石油热潮,引发美国页岩气革命的技术正应用于西伯利亚的非常规石油储量。Leonid Fedun, vice-president of Lukoil, said Russia, the world’s second-largest oil producer after Saudi Arabia, will be able to maintain crude output of 10m barrels a day for years to come as output from West Siberia’s Bazhenov Shale offsets declines in its mature oilfields.卢克石油公司(Lukoil)副总裁列奥尼德#8226;费顿(Leonid Fedun)表示,仅次于沙特阿拉伯的全球第二大产油国——俄罗斯将有能力在未来几年保持1000万桶的原油日产量,来自西西伯利亚地区巴热诺夫页岩油田(Bazhenov Shale)的产量将抵消俄罗斯成熟油田产量下滑的影响。But he said such an outcome hinged on tax breaks the government has promised for the industry. Ministers have proposed a waiver of Russia’s onerous mineral extraction tax for groups drilling in the Bazhenov.但他表示,这一局面取决于政府承诺向该行业提供的税收优惠措施。部长们已提出免除在巴热诺夫钻采的石油集团繁重的矿产开采税。Mr Fedun told the Financial Times that President Vladimir Putin’s goal of keeping Russian oil production at 10m b/d till 2020 was “absolutely realistic”, “but only if these fiscal innovations are introduced”.费顿告诉英国《金融时报》,俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)提出的在2020年前将俄罗斯石油日产量保持在1000万桶的目标“绝对切合实际”,“但前提是落实这些财政创新措施”。Experts have long placed Russia at or near the top of the list of countries with the potential to replicate North America’s shale revolution. It has huge unconventional resources, a sophisticated oil industry and little of the environmental opposition that has blocked shale in some European countries.长期以来,专家们一直将俄罗斯列在有可能复制北美页岩能源革命的国家名单的首位或前列。俄罗斯拥有巨大的非常规资源,技术实力雄厚的石油业,同时几乎没有遭到环保组织的反对,此类反对阻止了一些欧洲国家开采页岩资源。 /201304/232950

  At first glance, Jibo looks a bit like Wall-E’s robot girlfriend. Both Jibo, a real robot, and Wall-E’s girlfriend, the fictional Pixar character, have the look of a futuristic Apple product: reflective white plastic, round curves, a black screen for a “face,” and smooth swiveling movements.乍一看,Jibo长得有点像皮克斯动画工作室(Pixar)创作的《机器人总动员》(Wall-E)里那个主人公的女友Eve。Jibo和Eve的外观都颇具未来主义范儿,看上去像是苹果公司(Apple)的产品:光滑的白色塑料外壳,圆润的曲线,一张充当“脸”的黑色屏幕,转动灵活。But Jibo’s raison d’être is slightly more in line with Rosie, the robot maid from the 1960s animated television series The Jetsons, and its operating system is more akin to the one employed by Samantha, the artificially intelligent character from the 2013 Spike Jonze film Her. (One key difference: Jibo is male, according to its makers.)不过从本质上看,Jibo其实更像上世纪60年代动画片《登家庭》(The Jetsons)里的机器人女佣Rosie。它的操作系统更类似于2013年斯派克o琼斯的电影《她》(Her)中的虚拟人工智能角色Samantha使用的那种。(但根据其制作者介绍,一个关键的区别是,Jibo其实是个男孩。)Jibo is described as a “family robot” because it is able to see, hear, speak, learn, and help families with a variety of tasks around the house. It—he?—can “relate” by expressing itself in natural language, using “social and emotive cues so you understand each other better.” Jibo is meant to be a companion.Jibo被称做一款“家庭机器人”,因为它具有看、听、说、学等功能,而且可以帮助我们干许多家务活。它(或者说“他”?)可以使用自然语言来表达自己,并且可以“使用社交性和感性的暗示,让你们更好地理解对方。”总之,Jibo致力于成为一个居家伙伴。It’s the creation of a team of robot architects, cloud computing engineers, animators, conversational technologists, and human-robot interaction engineers. Jibo, Inc. is backed by .59 million in venture funding from investors including Charles River Ventures, Fairhaven Capital Partners, Osage University Partners, and angel backers.它是一群机器人设计师、云计算工程师、动画工程师、会话技术专家和人机互动工程师的心血之作。Jibo公司也从查尔斯河风险投资公司(Charles River Ventures)、菲尔海文资本合作公司(Fairhaven Capital Partners)、奥塞治大学合伙公司(Osage University Partners)和天使投资人那里获得了559万美元的融资。So far, people like Jibo. A crowdfunding campaign, launched last month, raked in more than .5 million from more than 3,500 people, handily surpassing its 0,000 target. (The Boston-based company does not expect to ship its first units, priced at 9 each, until the 2015 winter holiday season. The crowdfunding campaign is designed to get developers excited about building apps for the robot, it said.)到目前为止,人们都很喜欢Jibo。上个月Jibo推出了一个众筹项目,很快就从3500多人那里筹集到了150多万美元,轻而易举地超过了该公司预设的10万美元的目标。(这家总部位于波士顿的公司预计,第一批定价为499美元的产品要等到2015年冬的假日季才能上市。该公司表示,推出这个众筹项目是为了激发软件开发者为Jibo设计应用程序的兴趣。)Naturally, I had to meet Jibo. Off to a hotel room in Midtown Manhattan, then, where two Jibos and Dr. Cynthia Breazeal, the robot’s creator, awaited me. The robot is not yet fully functioning, it turns out. I watched a prepared demo where Jibo, about a foot tall, turned to look me in the eye. This was disarming at first, as if I was being followed by a security camera. Once he started talking to me, it began to feel more natural—as natural as a robot in a 1980s science fiction movie, anyway. Unlike his lesser robotic peers, or, say, a smartphone, Jibo did not rudely buzz or ding when there was a new message to communicate to me. He politely said, “Excuse me, Erin,” and waited for me to respond before continuing.当然,我也要去见一下Jibo。在曼哈顿市中心的一家酒店的房间里,两个Jibo机器人和它们的发明者辛西娅o布雷西亚士正在等着我。事实明,Jibo的功能还没有充分完善。就在我观看一段准备好的演示视频时,大概一英尺高的Jibo突然扭过头来直勾勾地看着我。这种眼神一开始让我觉得有点紧张,好像是被一台安保摄像机盯着。一旦开始说话,它给人的感觉就自然多了——至少像80年代科幻片里的机器人一样自然。和那些自动化程度不高的智能设备相比(比如智能手机),准备向我传递新信息时,Jibo不会粗鲁地“嗡”或“叮”一声,而是会礼貌地说道:“打扰了,艾林”,然后等我做出反应后,才会继续说话。In the room, Jibo showed off his swiveling, spinning and leaning moves to me, along with some of the programs he’ll feature. He ended his performance with a cheesy joke, and his eyes turned to tiny half-moons when he laughed at the punch line.在房间里,Jibo向我展示旋转,偏头等动作,以及一些他搭载的一些程序。最后他以一个很劲爆的笑话结束了表演。当这个笑点惹得他大笑的时候,Jibo眼睛眯成了一个小小的月芽。Jibo can perform a number of functions. He can tell children’s stories and snap family photos using face recognition. He can place Skype calls and handle communications for which you would normally use a phone. Jibo is meant to stay in the home, perched on a table or countertop, and a demo shows him greeting a single man when he comes home from work and offering to order Chinese takeout. In another scene, Jibo is hanging out while a woman kneads b. He chimes in to remind her that her daughter is picking her up soon. “Thanks, Jibo,” the woman responds, not unlike Jane Jetson talking to Rosie.Jibo可以实现一些功能,比如给小孩子讲故事、利用面部识别技术抓拍家庭照片等等。它也可以用Skype打电话,另外某些需要用手机完成的通讯也可以通过他来完成。Jibo是为家庭设计的,它可以放在桌子或工作台上。在一段展示视频中,当一个男人下班回家时,Jibo立即向他问好,然后问他需要不需要叫中餐外卖。在另一幕中,一个女人正在揉面。这时Jibo提醒她,她的女儿很快要来接她外出购物。那个女人回答道:“谢谢你,Jibo。”和《登家庭》里简o杰特森对Rosie所说的话没什么区别。Jibo can be considered the next logical step past today’s “telepresence” robots, which work only by connecting a smartphone or tablet—a brain, if you will—to a mobile base. For example, Romo augments your cell phone with rubber tank ts, though it requires a tablet or another phone to serve as a remote controller. Ubooly is a plush children’s toy in which parents can insert their cell phone for playtime. The Double telepresence robot, essentially an iPad on top of a Segway, allows people to feel physically present in meetings and move around the office when they’re working remotely. It’s a bit like Max Headroom on a broomstick and, to be frank, a little silly in practice.Jibo可以被视为目前的“远程呈现”机器人的下一步发展方向。所谓的“远程呈现”机器人就是把一台手机或平板电脑(也就是机器人的“大脑”)连接到一个移动基座上。比如,Romo无非就是给你的手机安装了一个橡胶“坦克底盘”,而且它还需要另一台平板或手机作为遥控器。Ubooly则是一款儿童玩具,父母可以把他们的手机插到毛绒玩具的肚子里,让它陪孩子玩。远程呈现机器人Double,本质上就是把iPad放在一辆赛格威两轮车(Segway)上面,让身处异地的人们觉得他们亲自参加会议或在办公室走来走去。它有点像英剧《超级麦克斯》(Max Headroom)里的主人公,但老实说,实际使用时,它看起来真是蠢萌蠢萌的。Jibo works with smartphones, but Breazeal chose to give the robot its own brain, rather than rely on a smartphone. The smartphone would have limited the robot’s capabilities, she says. As it turns out, people don’t like to put their phones into a robot anyway. They prefer to keep it on hand, Breazeal says.Jibo也可以和智能手机一起工作,但布雷西亚决定给予它一个属于自己的大脑,而不是完全依赖智能手机。她认为智能手机会限制它的能力。事实明,人们并不喜欢把自己的手机放在一个机器人身上,而是喜欢一直把手机拿在手上。Whether that can make a difference—or translate to sales of in-home robots—is up for debate, but if anyone can figure this out, it’s Jibo’s inventor. Breazeal has dedicated her career to social robots, starting as a grad student at M.I.T. When she was younger, she didn’t understand why NASA was sending robots to Mars but they still hadn’t arrived in people’s homes. It’s because those robots weren’t designed to be social, she reasoned. Breazeal went on to build the first a social robot, which was called Kismet and intended for children. She has since published numerous studies on social robotics and in 2010 delivered a TED talk on the subject. People respond to human-like robots the same way they respond to people, she argued, and robots with the ability to convey expression increase empathy, engagement, and collaboration among people in a way that a robot with a flat demeanor cannot.目前还不知道,这究竟是不是一个明智的决定,这样做能否给Jibo带来好销量。但对这个问题最有发言权的人,可能还是Jibo的发明者布雷西亚。早在麻省理工学院(MIT)读书时,布雷西亚就把她的整个职业生涯奉献给了社交型机器人。她最初不明白为什么美国国家航空航天局(NASA)可以把机器人送上火星,却不能把机器人送进地球上的千家万户。后来她究其根源,觉得这是因为机器人在设计上缺乏社交性的缘故。后来布雷西亚设计了她的第一款专门针对小孩子的社交机器人Kismet。从那时起,她发表了不计其数的关于社交型机器人的论文。2010年,她还在TED大会上针对这个课题发表了一篇演讲。她认为,人们会像跟真人沟通一样与仿人型机器人进行交流。而能够传递感性信号的机器人,可以提高人们的代入感、参与感和协作性,这是缺少人性化因素的工作机器人所做不到的。An estimated 3 million service robots, which are intended for personal and domestic use, were sold in 2012, according to the International Federation of Robotics, representing sales of .2 billion. The IFR predicts 22 million robots to be sold through 2016.根据国际机器人联合会(International Federation of Robotics)统计,2012年,全球共售出大约300万台家用和个人用途的务型机器人,销售额达12亿美元。该组织预测称,到2016年,全球将卖出2200万台机器人。Jibo is purposely designed to not resemble a human, Breazeal says. The goal is to create what she calls a humanized experience, “because that’s what empowers people,” she says. Robots that try to look like human beings end up being a little too science fiction.布雷西亚表示,Jibo有意地没有设计成人的外型。Jibo的目标是创建她所谓的“拟人体验”,因为她认为:“那才是让人之所以成为人的东西。”试图模仿人类外观的机器人不免科幻色太浓了。Artificial intelligence has certainly been top-of-mind for many Americans, both because of the film Her and ever-present economic fears that robots will make our jobs redundant. A recent New York Times article, “The Future of Robot Caregivers,” sunnily outlined how robots could lighten the burden of caring for aging baby boomers:人工智能无疑是很多美国人耳熟能详的东西,这既托了电影《她》的福,也是因为很多人一直担心机器人会抢了我们的饭碗。《纽约时报》(The New York Times)最近刊发的一篇名为《机器人护士的未来》的文章乐观地表示,机器人护工未来可能会承担起照顾“婴儿潮”一代老年人的重任,从而将大大减轻我们这一代年轻人的养老压力。“In an ideal world, it would be: Each of us would have at least one kind and fully capable human caregiver to meet our physical and emotional needs as we age. But most of us do not live in an ideal world, and a reliable robot may be better than an unreliable or abusive person, or than no one at all.”“在理想世界里,等我们老了,每个人都应该至少有一名善良、合格的人类护工来照顾我们的身体和精神需求。但我们大多数人并非住在‘理想国’,因此一个可靠的机器人很可能强于一个不可靠甚至有虐待倾向的人——更别说可能根本没人来照顾我们。”In Japan, robots help with a nursing shortage by conversing with patients that have dementia. Similar life-helper robots can be found in Sweden and around Europe, according to the Times.这篇文章声称,在日本,由于护工不足,机器人已经承担起了与老年痴呆患者交谈的任务。类似的护士机器人也出现在了瑞典等欧洲国家。Not everyone welcomes this development. “This how to fail the third machine age,” wrote Zeynep Tufekci, a sociology professor at the University of North Carolina’s iSchool, in response to the article.但也并非所有人都欢迎这种新进展。对于这篇文章,北卡罗来纳大学(University of North Carolina)信息学院社会学教授泽伊内普o图菲克希撰文回应道:“这是第三个机器时代的失败。”“In my view, warehousing elderly and children—especially children with disabilities—in rooms with machines that keep them busy, when large numbers of humans beings around the world are desperate for jobs that pay a living wage is worse than the Dickensian nightmares of mechanical industrialization, it’s worse than the cold, alienated workplaces depicted by Kafka.”“在我看来,把大量的老人和孩子关在屋子里——尤其是有残疾的儿童,然后用机器人陪着他们干这干那,而全球大量的人类则忙着找一份勉强糊口的工作,这其实比狄更斯笔下的机器工业化噩梦更可怕,比卡夫卡笔下冷漠、疏远的职场更可悲。”“It’s an abdication of a desire to remain human, to be connected to each other through care, and to take care of each other.”“这相当于放弃了对保持人性的渴望,放弃了通过关爱来彼此联系,放弃了互相照顾。”Tufekci argues that based on unemployment figures, we’re not facing a shortage of caregivers. Rather, she writes, “we’re facing a shortage of caring.”图菲克希认为,从失业数据来看,我们并非面临护工的短缺。相反,“我们面临的是缺乏关爱。”Meanwhile, a new study from Pew Research suggests that tech industry influencers are split on whether robots will help or hurt the economy. Just over half of those surveyed believed robots won’t take away more jobs than they create, resulting in a net positive for the economy. However, the other half felt less optimistic about our robotic future.与此同时,皮尤研究中心(Pew Research)的一项新研究显示,对科技行业有影响力的人们在机器人究竟会促进还是会损害国民经济的问题上持不同态度。约半数以上受访者认为,机器人抢走的工作不会比它们创造的工作多,因此会给经济带来正能量。另一半受访者则对与机器人共处的未来感到不太乐观。“The other 48%, though, think that robots will displace huge numbers of white and blue collar workers in the next 10 years, which would not only leave people unemployed but which could disrupt social order.”“有48%的受访者认为,未来10年里,机器人将会取代大量白领和蓝领工人。这不仅会导致大量人口失业,还会导致社会失序。”Breazeal contends that Jibo isn’t meant to be a caregiver for aging people or a replacement for human labor. The robots are meant to help older users age independently. “Jibo is about empowerment and helping people do what they want to do and what they need to do,” she says. “Its not about replacing people.”布雷西亚认为,Jibo并不是要成为老年人的护工,也不想取代人力劳动。研制这些机器人的目的,是为了帮助用户能够独立面对老年生活。她表示:“Jibo是要给人以能量,帮助人们做他们想做、需要做的事,而不是要取代别人。”“There’s a lot of kneejerk reaction,” she adds. “We’re not trying to create a robot caregiver at all. We’re empowering people to live independently and be emotionally connected to their family, because that’s what matters.”她表示:“有很多人本能地表示反对。我们并不是要发明一个机器人护工,而是要让人们能够独立生活,在情感上与他们的家庭保持连接,因为这才是最重要的。” /201408/323641

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