泉州市激素脸激素依赖性皮炎水光针哪家便宜价格飞度云指南

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月17日 08:00:22
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The amount of land used for new property developments in China fell more than 25 per cent last year, reflecting sluggish demand that could exacerbate local governments’ debt burdens.中国去年新增房地产开发用地数量下降了逾25%,这反映出需求疲软,进而可能加剧地方政府的债务负担。Citing data from the ministry of land and resources, the official Xinhua news agency reported that 151,000 hectares had been allocated for new real estate, down more than a quarter from 2013.官方的新华社援引中国国土资源部的数据,报道说,2014年15.1万公顷土地被用于新的房地产开发,同比下降超过四分之一。China’s property sector is a key contributor to overall investment, which accounts for about half of the country’s gross domestic product and feeds demand for commodities.中国的房地产业是总投资的关键推动者,投资占中国国内生产总值(GDP)的大约一半,并推动对大宗商品的需求。While urban home prices in China have fallen for nine months, the full impact of the correction has yet to hit the broader economy and will probably cause a lot more pain when it does. Property investment increased more than 10 per cent last year to Rmb9.5tn (.5tn), according to the National Bureau of Statistics, compared with an 8 per cent fall in sales as measured by gross floor area.虽然中国城市房价已连续9个月下跌,但这一价格回落的全面影响尚未冲击整体经济,一旦这种冲击到来,很可能会导致更多阵痛。中国国家统计局的数据显示,去年房地产投资增加了超过10%,至9.5万亿元人民币(合1.5万亿美元),而总建筑面积的销量却下跌了8%。Property sales in big cities in the week before the Chinese new year holiday, which officially began on February 18, fell by about 20 per cent from the corresponding week a year earlier.中国农历新年假期(正式开始于2月18日)前一周,大城市房地产销售比去年同期下降了约20%。Power production and sales of cars and consumer items such as fridges and washing machines also fell from the same period last year in the run-up to the country’s most important national holiday, according to a report from Haitong Securities, the Chinese brokerage.中国券商海通券(Haitong Securities)的一份报告称,中国最重要的全国假期前夕,发电量以及汽车和消费者产品(如冰箱和洗衣机等)的销售也比去年同期有所下滑。With consumer price inflation expected to come in at less than 1 per cent in February, after an increase of just 0.8 per cent in January, a growing number of analysts are calling for Beijing to cut interest rates again to boost growth. “The time is now ripe for another cut,” Haitong said.鉴于2月份消费价格指数(CPI)涨幅预计将低于1%(1月份仅上涨0.8%),越来越多的分析师呼吁中国政府再次降息以刺激经济增长。“再次降息的时机已经成熟,”海通券称。In November China cut benchmark interest rates for the first time in more than two years in the face of the country’s weakest annual growth in nearly a quarter of a century.面对近25年来最低速的年度经济增长,去年11月中国在两年多来首次下调了基准利率。Aly indebted local governments rely heavily on land sales for revenue. According to the latest estimate from China’s national auditor, local government debts stood at Rmb18tn as of June 2013.债台高筑的地方政府本已严重依赖土地出让获得财政收入。中国国家审计署最近的数据显示,截至2013年6月,地方政府债务达18万亿元人民币。Since then only one provincial government has revealed updated debt figures. Hainan said that local debt had increased by more than 20 per cent in the 18 months to last December, reaching Rmb170bn, according to Caixin magazine. This included Rmb145bn in direct debts, with guarantees or contingent liabilities accounting for the rest.自那以来,只有一个省级政府公布了更新的债务数据。据《财新》(Caixin)杂志报道,海南省政府称,该省地方债务在截至去年12月的18个月内增长逾20%,达到1700亿元人民币。这包括1450亿元人民币的直接债务,其余是债务担保和或有债务。The rest of China’s 30 provinces are supposed to report updated debt figures to the finance ministry by March 8. The ministry wants to rein in local government borrowing through special purpose financing vehicles and instead raise funds by selling bonds.中国其它30个省级行政区应该在3月8日之前向财政部报告更新的债务数据。财政部希望遏制地方政府通过特殊目的融资工具的借贷行为,转向通过发债筹集资金。Despite their financial squeeze, provincial governments have pledged to increase fixed asset investment this year to bolster growth. Hunan, Hubei and Shaanxi provinces recently revealed plans to invest a combined Rmb6bn in infrastructure and other fixed assets in 2015, a 20 per cent increase over last year.尽管财政困难,但一些省级政府已承诺,今年将增加固定资产投资以撑增长。湖南、湖北和陕西最近出台计划,拟在2015年在基础设施和其它固定资产上投资共计60亿元人民币,比去年增加20%。 /201502/360783

China will launch a long-awaited deposit insurance system next month, the central bank said on Tuesday, a crucial step towards deregulating domestic interest rates and promoting market-based capital allocation.中国央行(PBoC)周二表示,中国将在下月推出期待已久的存款保险制度。这是旨在取消国内利率管制和推动以市场为基础的资本配置的关键举措。Zhou Xiaochuan, the central bank governor, told reporters last month that China could remove the cap on bank deposit rates — the last remaining domestic interest rate subject to administrative regulation — by the end of this year.中国央行行长周小川上月对记者表示,中国可能在今年底之前取消存款利率上限,存款利率是中国最后一种受到行政监管的利率。Deposit insurance lays the foundation for freeing up rates by ensuring that savers are protected even if competition for deposits leads to excessive risk-taking and bank failure. The People’s Bank of China said deposits up to Rmb500,000 (,600) would be insured.存款保险将确保即便揽储竞争导致过度冒险和倒闭,储户也会得到保护,从而为利率自由化奠定基础。中国央行表示,最高偿付限额为50万元人民币(约合8.06万美元)。“Deposit insurance is a precondition for interest-rate liberalisation. The implementation of the system means rate liberalisation is speeding up,” said Tao Wang, greater China economist at UBS in Hong Kong.“存款保险是利率市场化的前提。该制度的执行意味着利率市场化开始加速,”瑞银(UBS)驻香港的大中华区经济学家汪涛表示。Economists say lifting the cap on bank deposit rates will lead to higher interest rates as banks compete for funds. That should improve capital allocation as lenders seek out more productive borrowers able to afford higher rates, including small, privately owned businesses that have long struggled to obtain bank loans.经济学家们表示,放开存款利率上限将导致利率升高,因为各将为获得资金展开竞争。这应会改善资本配置状况,因为会寻找能够承受更高利率的更具成效的借款人,包括那些长期以来很难获取贷款的小型民企。The PBoC was widely expected to launch deposit insurance last year but bankers say behind the scenes wrangling led to delays. Larger banks resisted a structure that would have forced them to pay a disproportionate share of insurance premiums, in effect subsidising smaller lenders that are most likely to fail.外界曾普遍预期中国央行会在去年推出存款保险制度,但家们表示,幕后角力导致了延迟。对于一种将迫使它们付份额超出比例的保费、实际上对最可能倒闭的中小进行补贴的保险安排,大进行了抵制。The details of the system largely match those of a draft plan released in late November last year. Analysts said at the time that the Rmb500,000 limit would fully cover about 98 per cent of Chinese depositors, though the large share of deposit funds held by wealthy savers means that would still leave a significant chunk of the banking system’s Rmb126tn in deposits uninsured.存款保险制度的细节基本上与去年11月下旬公布的草案相吻合。分析师们当时表示,偿付上限定为50万元人民币,将为约98%的中国储户提供全额保护,不过,富裕储户持有的高比例存款意味着,体系126万亿元人民币存款中仍将有相当大一部分得不到保护。Citing the experience of other countries, the International Monetary Fund has previously said that the rollout of deposit insurance could lead to deposit outflows from smaller banks, as it highlights bank failure as a realistic possibility and explicitly defines some deposits as unprotected.国际货币基金组织(IMF)此前曾援引其他国家的经验表示,存款保险制度的推出可能导致存款流出中小,因为它凸显了倒闭的现实可能性,并明确地将部分存款界定为不受保护。Almost all Chinese banks are state-owned, and domestic savers have traditionally viewed all bank deposits as carrying an implicit government guarantee.中国几乎所有都是国有,因而国内储户传统上认为所有存款都得到政府的隐性担保。In reality, even with deposit insurance in place, analysts remain sceptical that China’s government — with its focus on financial and social stability — would allow a bank failure. A series of technical defaults on risky high-yield debt has been permitted in recent years, but in each case the government ended up bailing out retail investors.在现实中,即便在存款保险制度实施后,分析师们仍怀疑专注于维护金融与社会稳定的中国政府是否会允许倒闭。近年来,中国政府已允许一连串高风险、高收益债券发生技术性违约,但每一次,政府最终都安排散户投资者得到了全额偿付。The PBoC added that it could adjust the insurance limit if economic conditions change. The central bank will manage the deposit insurance fund, which can invest in government bonds, central bank bills, and other high-rated bonds.中国央行补充称,如果经济条件发生变化,可能对最高偿付限额进行调整。中国央行将管理存款保险基金,该基金可以投资政府债券、央行票据和其他高评级债券。Additional reporting by Ma Nan in ShanghaiMa Nan上海补充报道 /201504/368050

  

  Frankfurt airport has caused controversy after it painted a section of its car park pink and designated it entirely for the use of women.法兰克福机场近日将部分停车区涂成粉色并将其指定为女士专用,这一举动引发了广泛争议。Worse still for people striving for equality, the Ladies Parking section has bigger parking bays insinuating they require less skill to manoeuvre their vehicle safely into the parking spot.对于那些追求男女平等的人来说,更过分的是“女士专用停车区”的停车位比普通停车位要宽敞,似乎在暗示她们即使技术欠佳也可将自己的座驾安全停进这种停车位。According to airport authorities, the new bays offer #39;quick, safe and convenient from your parking to the terminal.#39;机场管理人员表示,新停车位会使您“快速、安全且便捷地从停车场到达航站楼”。Airport officials said the bays are #39;bigger, nicer and close to the terminals#39;.机场官员说,新停车位“更大、更好且靠近航站楼”。They added: #39;This is our exclusive parking offer at Frankfurt Airport for women only. With new and special designed parking areas, which are colour-coded and easy to find.#39;他们还补充说道:“这是我们法兰克福机场为女士提供的专享停车务。我们的新停车区专为女士设计,这一区域用色标出很容易找到。”Women hoping to avail of the new parking zones have to find their way to the pink areas which are located in several areas.然而,这些粉色停车区分散在多个地点,那些希望使用新停车区的女士不得不想办法找到前往那里的路线。According to the airport#39;s website, forward-planning women can avail of #39;early bird online rates#39; and save more than 50 per cent on the cost of their parking.机场网站上称,提前计划出行的女士可以享受“网上预订优惠价”,可以省下一半以上的停车费。Geraldine Herbert, editor of Wheels for Women magazine told The Local that many areas in Germany have a requirement that 30 per cent of parking spaces are allocated exclusively for women.《Wheels for Women》杂志的编辑杰拉尔丁·赫伯特(Geraldine Herber)在接受The Local采访时说道,德国很多地方都要求划出停车区域的30%给女司机专用。She said: #39;It#39;s very patronising for women to be singled out in this way. All this does is reinforce the stereotype that women are bad at parking.#39;她说:“以这样的方式给女性搞特殊化,施舍的意味很浓。这种做法只会强化女司机停车技术差的成见。”Ms Herbert said that all parking spaces needed to be increased in size to accommodate larger, modern vehicles.赫伯特女士说所有的停车位都需要加大以停下更大的现代车辆。She branded the women-only spots as #39;sexist parking spaces#39;.她将这种女士专用停车位称作“性别歧视停车位”。Campaigners claim that women-only parking spots enable the introduction of better security and CCTV systems to help lady drivers feel safer.持者称女士专用停车位意味着可以引进更好的安全和闭路电视(CCTV)监控系统,使女司机感到更安全。The German Automobile Association added: #39;We believe that in car parks, every parking space should be a ;women#39;s; parking space.德国汽车协会(German Automobile Association)补充道:“我们认为停车场的任一停车位都应该是女士停车位。”#39;This means making sure every space and stairwell is well-lit, avoiding blind spots and corners and installing sufficient electronic security systems - most importantly surveillance and emergency call systems.#39;“这意味着我们要确保每寸空间、每个楼梯口都要配备良好的照明系统,避免出现盲点和看不见对向来车的转弯,并且安装充足的电子安全系统,其中最重要的是安装视频监控和紧急呼叫系统。” /201508/392808。

  

  China has ordered the closure of small plants in 10 dirty industries and a clampdown on the tapping of underground water sources in a renewed effort to tackle contamination.中国已经下令关闭10个肮脏行业的小型工业企业,并且严控地下水超采,从而再度发起解决污染的努力。An action plan released yesterday lowers import tariffs on components for treatment plants and other equipment used to cut water pollution. The initiative offers international companies an opportunity as China cleans up after years of unfettered industrialisation.昨日公布的《水污染防治行动计划》称,旨在降低水污染的处理厂和其他设备所用零部件将免征进口关税。在中国清理多年不受约束的工业化的后果之际,此举为海外企业提供了一个机遇。Pollution is becoming a political liability for the ruling Communist party as citizens become more aware of the extent of the damage done to the country’s air, rivers and soil.随着中国公民越来越敏锐地意识到国内空气、河流和土壤所受的损害程度,污染正成为执政的共产党的政治负担。“At present, water quality in some regions of our country is poor, the water ecology has been damaged severely and hidden dangers of environmental problems are prominent,” the report said.“当前,我国一些地区水环境质量差、水生态受损重、环境隐患多等问题十分突出,”《行动计划》称。The goal is to make more than 93 per cent of the supply to cities meet the standard of “water suitable for drinking” by 2020, and raise above 70 per cent the proportion of water meeting that standard in seven river basins. About 63 per cent of water in those rivers meets the standard, according to Financial Times calculations.《行动计划》中提出的目标是,到2020年,城市集中式饮用水水源水质达到适于饮用标准的比例总体高于93%,七大重点流域水质达到这一标准的比例总体达到70%以上。根据英国《金融时报》的计算,目前这些流域大约63%的水达标。Authorities in Beijing, Tianjin, a neighbouring city, Hebei province and in the Pearl and Yangtze river deltas have been told to identify areas where tapping aquifers should be limited or forbidden. Depletion of aquifers is acute in those areas and the wider North China plain, where farmers, golf courses and luxury compounds rely on wells. To help hydrate the arid north, China last year inaugurated the South-North Water Diversion project that draws supplies from the Yangtze Basin to the capital.京津冀以及珠三角和长三角的地方政府,被要求确定应当限采或禁采地下水的地区。目前这些地区乃至整个华北平原超采地下水的问题十分严重,农民、高尔夫球场和高档居住区都依靠水井。为了帮助向干旱的北方供水,去年中国启用南水北调引水项目,将长江流域的水引流至首都。“As long as there is a wall in the suburbs and villages around Beijing you can see advertisements for well diggers, and they have to dig deeper and deeper because the aquifer is lower and lower,” said Dai Qing, an environmentalist who has raised the alarm.“在北京周围的郊区和乡村,只要有一堵墙,你就会看到凿井的广告,他们不得不挖得越来越深,因为含水层越来越低了,”曾在这个问题上敲响警钟的环保人士戴晴表示。The plan also assigns tasks to specific industries, since previous attempts to address pollution have often been hobbled by competing interests.《行动计划》还将任务分配给特定的行业,因为以往治理污染的努力往往被相互竞争的利益所阻碍。Industries ordered shut include fertiliser and coking plants, small tanneries, paper mills and oil refineries. Larger plants will be given access to technology to reduce the discharge of waste water, the plan says. Planners believe small plants lack the capital and profit margins to invest in pollution mitigation.被勒令关闭小型企业的行业包括农药、炼焦、制革、造纸和炼油等《行动计划》称,较大的工厂将获得技术以减少废水排放。规划者相信,小厂缺乏投资于降低污染所需的资本和利润率。Additional reporting by Owen Guo郭晨(Owen Guo)补充报道 /201504/370910

  The year 2014 is on track to be the hottest on record, the UN’s weather agency has reported, and leading scientists say humans are likely to be responsible.联合国旗下的世界气象组织(World Meteorological Organisation, WMO)报告称,2014年将成为有记录以来最热的一年,而领先科学家们表示,人类活动可能应对此负责。After a year of heatwaves from Australia to Argentina, provisional data from the UN’s World Meteorological Organisation show that if temperatures stay high for the rest of the year, 2014 will probably be the warmest year on record. This would mean 14 of the 15 warmest years will have been since the turn of the century.WMO发布的初步数据显示,从澳大利亚到阿根廷,很多国家在过去一年遭受了热浪袭击,如果气温在今年剩余时间继续保持高位,2014年将很可能成为有记录以来最热的一年。这将意味着,在有记录以来的15个最热年份中,有14个是在21世纪。The data came as British government scientists said that humans were likely to be responsible for the exceptional temperatures.WMO发布该数据之际,英国政府科学家表示,人类可能要对异常气温负责。“We would not be breaking these records without human influence on the climate,” said Peter Stott, the UK Met Office’s head of climate attribution, an emerging field of research enabling the rapid detection of a link between weather extremes and climate change.英国气象局(Met Office)气候归因主任彼得#8226;斯托特(Peter Stott)表示:“如果没有人类对气候的影响,我们将不会打破这些纪录。”气候归因是一个快速发现极端天气和气候变化之间联系的新兴研究领域。“We can say this because we have now got the ability to attribute climate change to specific weather extremes,” he added.他补充称:“我们之所以可以这么说,是因为我们现在有能力将气候变化归因于特定的极端天气。”To determine such a link, scientists use climate models to see how likely an abnormal event would be in a world without the human greenhouse gas emissions driving global warming.为了确定此类联系,科学家们使用气候模型来研究,如果没有人类温室气体排放推动全球变暖,异常天气发生的可能性有多大。Mr Stott said it was “remarkable” to see a record year of heat occur in the absence of an El Ni#241;o, a warming water pattern in the eastern Pacific Ocean that has boosted temperatures in the recent past. But he also added it was still too early to know whether 2014 signalled an end to the so-called pause in the rate of global warming that has occurred over the past decade.斯托特表示,在没有“厄尔尼诺”(El Ni#241;o)的一年,气温创出最高纪录是“很不寻常的”。“厄尔尼诺”是太平洋东部海域的一种海水周期性升温规律,它曾在前些年推升气温。但斯托特也补充称,目前还不清楚2014年是否标志着过去十年所谓的全球变暖速度暂停的结束。The UK is on course for what could be its warmest year in a record stretching back to 1659, the Met Office said, as well as its fourth wettest year since 1910. And human influences had made breaking the current UK temperature record about 10 times more likely, Mr Stott said.英国气象局表示,英国正迎来可能是1659年有记录以来最温暖的一年,以及自1910年以来第四潮湿的一年。斯托特表示,人类影响让打破当前英国气温纪录的可能性增加10倍左右。The WMO said the record-breaking heat and torrential rainfall seen around the world in 2014 were consistent with a changing climate.WMO表示,2014年世界各地打破纪录的高温和暴雨与日益变化的气候相符。“There is no standstill in global warming,” said Michel Jarraud, WMO secretary-general. “What is particularly unusual and alarming this year are the high temperatures of vast areas of the ocean surface, including in the northern hemisphere.”WMO总干事米歇尔#8226;雅罗(Michel Jarraud)表示:“全球变暖没有停步。今年尤其异常和令人不安的是,包括北半球在内的大片海洋表面的高温。” /201412/346750

  

  Clampdowns on bank secrecy in Europe and a proliferation of billionaires in Asia helped Hong Kong and Singapore attract more overseas money over the past two years than rivals such as Switzerland, according to a report by Deloitte.咨询机构德勤(Deloitte)的一份报告称,欧洲对保密制度的打击以及亚洲亿万富翁数量的增多,促使香港和新加坡在过去两年吸引的海外资金规模超过瑞士等竞争对手。The consultancy’s annual ranking of wealth centres highlights how the Asian cities are seen by the world’s rich as the best places to park money amid global tighter regulation of private wealth managers in Switzerland and elsewhere.德勤的年度财富中心排行榜显示,亚洲城市正被全球富人视为最佳资金存放场所,此际,全球对瑞士和其他地区的私人财富管理机构加强了监管。Many of those wealthy people are from China, which helped propel the amount of money flowing into Hong Kong to rise 47 per cent to 0bn during 2012-2014. Singapore saw a 32 per cent increase in the value of funds entering the state to 0bn, according to the report.很多富人来自中国,促使2012年至2014年流入香港的资金规模扩大47%,至6400亿美元。根据这份报告,流入新加坡的资金规模增长了32%,至4700亿美元。Over the same period, Switzerland managed only a 2 per cent rise in the money it attracted from overseas, to tn. But it remains the largest wealth management centre — measured by assets coming from abroad — followed by the UK, the US, and Panama and the Caribbean.同期,瑞士吸引的海外资金规模仅增长2%,至2万亿美元。但根据来自海外的资产规模衡量,瑞士仍是全球最大财富管理中心,排在后面的分别是英国、美国、巴拿马和加勒比海地区。Deloitte did not rank centres by assets under management, which would include domestic wealth. But its ranking of locations by funds flowing from outside indicates where the wealthy perceive as being the best destination for their money.德勤没有按照管理资产规模对金融中心进行排名(这将包括国内财富),而是按照从外部流入的资金规模编制排行榜,这显示了富人对资金的最佳去向的地区偏好。The consultancy said its findings suggested that European centres such as Switzerland “suffered from the combined effect” of the eurozone crisis and regulations such as Fatca — the US Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act which is intended to detect and deter tax evasion by US citizens via overseas accounts.德勤表示,研究发现,瑞士等欧洲财富中心“受到”欧元区危机和美国《海外账户纳税法案》(Fatca)等监管规定的“双重影响”。《海外账户纳税法案》旨在发现并遏制美国公民通过海外账户避税。Singapore is growing fast as a money management centre because of a rising number of wealthy entrepreneurs in Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia. Its three local banks are providing stiff competition for longer-established groups such as JPMorgan, Citi and Swiss banks Credit Suisse and UBS.因东南亚(特别是印尼)富有企业家数量不断增多,新加坡正迅速成长为财富管理中心。新加坡国内3家正对根大通(JPMorgan)、花旗(Citi)以及瑞士瑞信(Credit Suisse)和瑞银(UBS)等更久负盛名的构成有力竞争。Singapore has for some years been projected to overtake Switzerland as the world’s largest wealth management centre. But Deloitte’s findings suggest that Hong Kong may have a better chance of taking the top slot.数年来,外界一直预测新加坡将取代瑞士,成为全球最大财富管理中心。但德勤的报告显示,香港更有可能拔得头筹。Mohit Mehrotra, global wealth management group leader at Deloitte, said Hong Kong overtook Singapore in 2012 in terms of attracting offshore wealth. “The trajectory of growth in Singapore from 2008 to 2014 has been fairly positive, but it’s just that growth in Hong Kong has accelerated a lot faster,” said Mr Mehrotra.德勤全球财富管理团队负责人莫希特#8226;梅赫罗特拉(Mohit Mehrotra)表示,在吸引海外财富方面,香港在2012年超过新加坡。他表示:“2008年至2014年,新加坡的增长轨迹相当乐观,但香港的增速要快的多。” /201502/359376。

  

  The world faces an unprecedented challenge: to change the high-carbon energy DNA of the global economy in the next three decades to low carbon. This requires directed technological change on a historic scale.世界面临史无前例的挑战:在未来30年将全球经济的能源DNA从高碳转变为低碳。这需要一种历史性的有控技术革新。It could well fail, and with failure will come a planet wrecked by climate change. At Tuesday’s UN climate summit, nations began the negotiations to last through 2015 that are our last chance to change course.这一变革很可能失败,如果失败的话,气候变化将给地球带来巨大的破坏。在上周二的联合国(UN)气候峰会上,各国开始了将持续至2015年的谈判,这是我们做出改变的最后机会。The reasons we need to change course on the economy, energy and environment are diverse and interconnected. They include persistence of extreme poverty and rising inequality; human-induced climate change; the destruction of biodiversity; and, most generally, the many challenges of a large and growing world economy and population that press far too hard on the earth’s fragile ecosystems and resources.我们需要在经济、能源和环境方面做出改变,改变的理由是多样化的、彼此关联的。这些理由包括:难以根除的极度贫困,日益加重的不平等;人为导致的气候变化;生物多样性遭到破坏;而最主要的理由是,庞大并日益增长的世界经济和人口带来了许多挑战,这对地球脆弱的生态系统和资源造成了极大的压力。The question is not the need for change but how to achieve it. The challenges of global-scale social and economic change are profound, not least high levels of inertia visible in the world’s economic and technological systems – industry, energy, transport, production, trade and investment.问题不在于是否有必要改变,而是如何做出改变。要在全球范围内从社会和经济方面做出改变,挑战是艰巨的,尤其是全球经济和技术体系——工业、能源、交通、生产、贸易和投资——存在显而易见的巨大惰性。The inertia of the global economy results from several powerful factors: long-term infrastructure, vested interests (perhaps no lobby is more powerful than Big Oil), geopolitical competition, short-termism and massive technological uncertainties and challenges. The world needs to chart a new low-carbon energy trajectory, but what will it be? Of course, different countries will make different choices and should be supported to do so.全球经济的惰性源于多个强有力的因素:长期基础设施建设、既得利益者(或许没有比大型石油公司更强大的游说集团了)、地缘政治竞争、短期主义和巨大的技术不确定性和挑战。世界需要绘制新的低碳能源轨迹,但这种轨迹是什么样子?当然,不同的国家将会做出不同的选择,而且我们也应该持他们的选择。For the politicians, the issue of climate change is deeply unpleasant. It is filled with uncertainty and technical complexity; it involves time horizons far beyond election cycles; it requires patient long-term investments; and it requires new public-private institutions that are no joy to design and implement over the din of lobbyists. And these issues involve counterintuitive choices, such as stranding fossil fuel reserves that have been discovered but cannot safely be burned because of the need to limit carbon emissions.对政客们来说,气候变化问题令人头疼。它充斥着不确定性,技术上也非常复杂;它的时间跨度远远长过选举周期;它需要耐心的长期投资;而且它需要建立新型的公私合作机制——在游说者的吵吵嚷嚷中,这种机制是很难成功设计和实施的。这些问题还涉及一些违反直觉的选择,比如停止开采已被发现、但由于需要限制碳排放而无法安全燃烧的化石燃料储藏。These considerations have so far caused 22 years of inaction since the signing of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. So how to move forward? Here’s my take. First, we should hold on for dear life to the globally agreed commitment to keep the rise in mean temperature below 2C. This is not meant to be a target, mind you; it is meant to be an upper limit. By all accounts, right now we are on a 4C-6C trajectory instead.基于上述问题,世界在自签署《联合国气候变化框架公约》(UNFCCC)以来的22年间无所作为。那么应该如何推进进展?我的建议有如下几点。首先,我们应该坚持全球达成一致的承诺,让平均气温升幅低于2摄氏度。提醒人们注意的是,这并不是目标,而是上限。人人都说,我们现在实际上已经处于气温上升4至6摄氏度的轨迹当中。Second, each of the countries that is a big emitter (and many other high-income and smaller middle-income countries) should agree to design – and present to the world – a country-specific pathway to deep decarbonisation by 2050 that is consistent with the 2C limit. Such deep decarbonisation pathways would provide country-level scenarios of how each of the world’s leading economies proposes to cut emissions to 1-1.5 tons a head by 2050, implying a reduction of about 90 per cent in the US, and about 80 per cent in China and Europe.其次,每个温室气体排放大国(以及其他许多高收入国家和规模较小的中等收入国家),都应该同意设计(并向世界展示)本国到2050年深度脱碳的路径规划,该规划要与气温升幅不超过2摄氏度的上限相符。此类深度脱碳规划应让我们从国家层面上看到,所有全球主要经济体计划如何到2050年将人均排放削减到1-1.5吨——这意味着美国减排约90%,中国和欧洲减排约80%。Third, the world’s governments and leading businesses (especially in energy, transport, industry and construction) need to undertake a massive and co-operative programme of research, development, demonstration and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. A clear, predictable carbon tax would help those technologies by giving a market-based incentive to shift from carbon; but carbon pricing is not enough to generate the rapid development and uptake of new technologies, or the network infrastructure to deploy them.第三,世界各国政府和大型企业(尤其是在能源、交通、工业和建筑领域)需要大规模地开展合作项目,对低碳技术进行研发、论和传播。明确而可预测的碳税将对放弃高碳提供市场激励,从而有助于这些技术的发展,但现在的碳价还不足以让新技术迅速发展和实施,也不足以促进用于实施这些技术的网络基础设施的发展。Such public-private partnerships in low-carbon technologies are not a new type of co-operation. They are familiar from the military sector, informatics, computing, space science, genomics and physics (as in the government-backed hunt for the Higgs boson). Several leading economies are indeed very good at directed technological change. But when it comes to low-carbon energy, we just haven’t really tried.低碳技术上的此类公私合作并非新的合作模式。它们常见于军事部门、信息学、计算科学、空间科学、基因组学和物理学领域——寻找希格斯玻色子(Higgs boson)的政府持项目就是这样。多个主要经济体实际上非常擅长于有针对性的技术变革。但就低碳能源来说,我们甚至没有真正尝试过。There is a narrow path up to climate safety. It involves holding on to a clear goal, in this case the 2C limit. It involves finding practical pathways to success for each of the big emitting countries. And it requires a well-funded, generation-long effort to develop the low-carbon technologies that we will need.通往气候安全的道路狭窄。它包括坚持明确的目标,也就是2摄氏度的升温上限。它还包括为每个排放大国成功减排找到切实可行的道路。它需要资金充裕、长达一代人之久的努力来开发我们需要的低碳技术。As the politicians met at the UN this week, they had not yet decided on such a bold, co-operative, generation-long effort. Yet our survival depends on it. Tuesday’s gathering will have mattered if its pushes political and business leaders in the direction of survival. We can save our planet and ourselves if we decide to do it. With crucial negotiations ahead in 2015, next year will be the year of decision.当政客们上周在联合国会晤之际,他们还没有就如此大胆、需要一代人之久的合作努力做出决定。然而,这关系到我们的生死存亡。如果上周二的峰会把政界和商界领导人推向为人类存活而努力的方向,那么峰会将是具有重要意义的。如果我们决定这么做,就可以挽救我们的星球和我们自己。2015年将举行关键的谈判,那将是决定性的一年。 /201410/332609

  

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