郴州汝城县有泌尿科吗
时间:2019年10月17日 07:57:02

RON DEPINHO is a man on a mission. Oddly, though, he does not yet know exactly what that mission is. Dr DePinho is the new president of the MD Anderson Cancer Centre in Houston, Texas. (He took over in September, having previously headed the Belfer Institute, part of Harvard#39;s Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.) Mindful of his adopted city#39;s most famous scientific role, as home to Mission Control for the Apollo project, he says his own mission is akin to a moon shot. He aims to cure not one but five varieties of cancer. What he has not yet decided is: which five?罗恩bull;徳平厚肩负着一个使命。虽然奇怪的是,他现在仍不清楚他的使命的确切目标是什么。徳平厚士是德克萨斯州休斯顿市的MD bull;安德森癌症研究中心的新任主任,他此前是哈佛的丹娜-法波尔癌症研究院下属的贝尔佛研究所所长。徳平厚知道,休斯顿在科学领域最广为人知的,是其作为阿波罗登月计划的目标控制中心所在地。因此,他说他自己的目标也类似于登月。这就是,要找到攻克不仅一种,而是五种癌症的方法。他现在还没有决定的是哪五种癌症。That it is possible to talk of curing even one sort of cancer is largely thanks to an outfit called the International Cancer Genome Consortium. Researchers belonging to this group, which involves 39 projects in four continents, are using high-throughput DNA-sequencing to examine 50 sorts of tumour. They are comparing the mutations in many examples of each type, to find which are common to a type (and thus, presumably, causative) and which are mere accidents. (The DNA-repair apparatus in malignant cells often goes wrong, so such accidents are common.)现在,人们之所以敢于谈论攻克癌症(即便是其中一种癌症),主要是因为一个名为国际癌症基因图谱研究联盟的组织。这个组织包括遍布四大洲的39个研究项目,该组织的研究人员使用高流量的基因测序方法来检测50种不同的肿瘤。他们把每种肿瘤的众多基因突变案例进行比较,区分出对某种肿瘤来说,哪些突变是共同的(从而,估计是致病原因),哪些突变是偶然的(恶性细胞中的基因修复机制经常出错,所以偶然突变是常见的事)。The consortium#39;s work is progressing fast, and preliminary results for many tumours are aly in. But such knowledge is useless unless it can be translated into treatment. That is where Dr DePinho comes in;for his career has taken him into the boardroom as well as the clinic. He is a serial entrepreneur: he helped found Aveo Pharmaceuticals, which is developing a drug to block the growth of blood vessels in tumours, Metamark Genetics, which works on diagnosing cancers, and Karyopharm Therapeutics, which is trying to regulate the passage of molecules into and out of the cell nucleus, and thus control the nucleus#39;s activities. His aim in coming to MD Anderson, he says, is to ;industrialise; other aspects of biological research in the way that genetics has been pushed forward by high-throughput sequencing.这个联盟的工作进展很快,已经得出了很多种肿瘤的初步研究成果。但是,对病因的认知只有转化为治疗方法才是真正有用的。这正是徳平厚士要做的事,因为在他的职业生涯中,他既做过诊疗工作,也做过经营管理工作。他是一个富有经验的企业家,参与创建过若干个公司,包括:正在研制阻碍肿瘤中血管生长的药品的Aveo制药公司;研究癌症诊断方法的Metamark遗传研究公司;还有Karyopharm 诊疗研究所,这个所的研究方向是,通过控制分子进出细胞核的方法来控制细胞核的活动。他说,他来MD bull;安德森癌症研究中心的目的是,以高流量测序推动遗传研究的同样方式,用;产业化;的方法来推动生物学领域其它方面的研究。That will cost billions of dollars. Fortunately, the state of Texas;no pushover when it comes to spending taxpayers#39; cash;is creating a billion cancer-research fund to help pay for it. Local philanthropists, including T. Boone Pickens and Ross Perot, are chipping in, too. Their model is the original Human Genome Project, during which the cost of sequencing a single genetic ;letter; (a DNA base pair) fell from in 1991 to ten cents in 2001;and is now 3,000 base pairs a cent. They hope their dollars will encourage people working with what are now, essentially, craft technologies to think about how they might industrialise them.他的计划将花费数十亿美元。幸运的是,尽管德克萨斯州在花纳税者的钱上是非常谨慎的,但已经建立了一个30亿美元的癌症研究基金来持这个计划。当地的慈善家,如T. Boone Pickens 和 Ross Perot等也给与了持。他们的模式和原先的;人类基因图谱项目;相同,在那个项目中,单个DNA碱基的测序价格从1991年的10美元降到2001年的1毛钱,现在是3,000个碱基1分钱。他们希望,他们的资金将鼓励那些现在基本上是运用手工技术的研究人员,考虑如何把那些技术产业化的问题。Several techniques look ripe for such industrialisation. Dr DePinho sets great store, for example, by the use of genetically modified mice (he calls them ;little patients;) in which mutations found in human cancers can be replicated precisely, but one at a time, to discover the shape of each piece of the jigsaw. If this process can be scaled up it will, as he puts it, allow cancer#39;s genetic generals to be distinguished from the foot soldiers.对于这种产业化方式,若干技术看来已经相当成熟。例如,徳平厚士很重视运用基因被改造过的老鼠(他称之为;小患者;),研究者把人类癌症的基因突变精确地复制到这些老鼠身上,从而发现这些突变的基因图谱每一部分的形状。但是,基因突变的复制只能一次做一个,他认为,如果这个过程可以成规模地来做,就可以区分基因突变的主因和偶然事件。Another field that has great potential is imaging technology;in particular, a combination of (which uses radioactive sugar to measure how metabolically active tissue is) and computerised tomography (which uses X-rays to map the body#39;s internal anatomy). Together these can show whether a treatment is reducing a cancer#39;s energy consumption, and thus its metabolism. This gives a good indication of how well that treatment is working.另一个很有希望的领域是成像技术,具体说,这是两种技术的结合:正电子放射层扫描术(用放射性糖来测量细胞组织新陈代谢的活跃程度),和电脑化的体层摄影技术(用X-射线来绘制人体内部的解剖结构)。两种技术一起运用,可以显示某种治疗方法是否降低了肿瘤的能量消耗,从而是否减缓了它的新陈代谢。这对于评价治疗方法的有效性很有帮助。A family businessDr DePinho himself will have more duties at MD Anderson than just dealing with the five chosen tumours. The donkey work of creating the Institute for Applied Cancer Science, as the new mission control is to be known, will be done by Lynda Chin. Dr Chin, too, worked at the Belfer Institute. She is part of the International Scientific Steering Committee of the cancer-genome project. And she is also Dr DePinho#39;s wife. Dr Chin will be assisted by some 55 other scientists from the Belfer, who are making the journey to Texas with her and her husband. That sort of team poaching is common in investment banking but rarer in academic research. Dr DePinho refers to it, jokingly, as metastasis, since a clone of his primary creation will be taking root elsewhere in the country.夫妻店生意徳平厚士在MD安德森的作用远不止确定哪五种肿瘤。建立肿瘤应用科学研究所(这是新的目标控制机构的名称)的艰苦工作是琳达bull;秦的责任,她也曾在贝尔佛研究所工作。她还是癌症图谱项目的国际科学指导委员会的成员,并且是徳平厚士的妻子。55名科学工作者将和徳平厚夫妇一起从贝尔福来到德克萨斯,帮助秦士工作。这种挖走人家整个团队的做法在投资界司空见惯,但是在学术研究界却不多见。徳平厚士把此事戏称为;细胞转移;,因为他原先创造的研究机构的克隆物将在另一个地方扎下根来。As to which five cancers to attack, that decision will be made by the middle of 2012. A crucial consideration will be how likely it looks that research into the tumour in question could get rapidly to the ;proof of concept; stage;the point at which it could be taken forward by a business that relied on commercial sources of capital, rather than on the sorts of grants that usually propel academic research. At that moment a new firm might be spun out of the institute, or a deal might be done with an established pharmaceutical firm, to try to get a new drug developed.至于把哪五种癌症作为目标,将在2012年年中决定。一个关键因素是看对目标癌症的研究是否能尽快达到;概念验;的阶段,到了那个阶段,研究工作就可以在商业资本的持下作为一个生意来向前推进,而不是仅仅是依靠科研拨款。这样,或者可以在研究所的基础上成立一个新公司,或者可以和既有的制药公司合作,从而研发一种新药。In recent years many big drug companies have gutted their research departments. This is partly because those departments have failed to come up with new ;blockbuster; drugs of the sort that created Big Pharma in the first place, and partly because the big firms#39; bosses had hoped that smaller biotechnology companies, of the sort Dr DePinho has helped set up, would do the hard work of drug discovery instead, and then let themselves be bought by the big firms.最近这些年来,很多大制药公司取消了他们的研究部。部分原因是,这些研究部没能研制出当初做大这些大制药公司的拳头产品那种量级的新产品,部分原因是,那些大制药公司的老板们希望徳平厚士那样的小生物技术公司承担发明新药的艰巨工作,然后再把这些小公司收购进来。Unfortunately, it hasn#39;t quite worked out like that. The output of the biotech firms has been a trickle, rather than a torrent. They have been one of the worst-performing parts of the private-equity market since 2007, according to Dr DePinho. He hopes to change that;and in the matter of new anti-cancer drugs, the science is looking auspicious. For example, a drug called vemurafenib, which was approved for use in America in August 2011, gives months of extra life to people with metastasising melanoma, one of the deadliest cancers. Vemurafenib is so powerful that some people call it a ;Lazarus; drug, after the chap Jesus is said to have raised from the dead.令人失望的是,事情并没有像他们设想的那样发展。生物技术公司只有一些点滴的成果,没有产生什么大的成果。徳平厚士指出,自2007年以来,这个领域是私募股份市场上表现最差的领域之一。他希望改变这个局面。而研制抗癌新药的科技看来正处于幸运期。例如,2011年8月,美国批准了一种名为vemurafenib的新药,它可以把最恶性的癌症之一黑色素瘤病人的生命延长数月。这种药的效力是如此显著,以致一些人把它称为;拉扎罗斯;;; 那个被耶稣起死回生的麻风病人的名字。Crucially for Dr DePinho#39;s project, the development of vemurafenib was stimulated by the identification of a mutated gene often present in melanomas. He and others like him hope that the cancer-genome consortium will throw up dozens of similar genes, and that they, too, will prove tractable targets for drug development.对徳平厚士很有意义的是,vemurafenib的研发正是由于辨识了经常出现在黑色素瘤中的一种突变基因所推动的。徳平厚和同行们希望癌症基因图谱研究联盟能够发现几十种类似的基因,从而能够为新药研发提供可控的目标。Of course, if Dr DePinho had a penny for every time a ;cure for cancer; headline proved premature, he wouldn#39;t need munificent donors. But if his bets on the science and on adopting business methods pay off, the drug industry and millions of patients will benefit. That would be one benign sort of metastasis.当然,过去已经有太多关于;攻克癌症;的宣告最终被明是为时过早。[注]但是,如果徳平厚士的科研选题和运用商业方式的办法能够奏效,制药行业和数百万患者将会受益。那倒真可以称之为一个良性的细胞转移。 /201201/168407

Apple Inc. #39;s answer to the increasingly cutthroat tablet-computer market: more product choices and free software. 苹果(Apple Inc.)应对竞争日益白热化的平板电脑市场的法宝是:提供更多的产品选择,以及免费的软件。 At an event here Tuesday, Apple showed off a new full-size tablet--now called iPad Air--that is thinner and slimmed down to one pound. It also revealed an updated iPad Mini with a faster processor and a sharper display. 在周二举行的苹果发布会上,该公司发布了一款新的全尺寸平板电脑。新款平板电脑如今更名为iPad Air,比老款更轻薄,重量降至约一磅(约合0.45公斤)。苹果还发布了处理器速度更快、屏幕清晰度更高的新款iPad Mini。 Just as important, Apple#39;s new holiday lineup lowers the entry price for the cheapest iPads to below 0 for the first time. Apple said it will sell a range of tablets starting with last year#39;s iPad Mini for 9, up to the new iPad Air, which starts at 9. That brings Apple closer in line with competitors like Amazon.com Inc., who have pushed tablet prices down as far as 9. 同样重要的是,苹果的新产品阵容将使最便宜的iPad起价首次降至300美元以下。苹果说,它将销售一系列平板电脑,从去年推出的、售价299美元的iPad Mini到起价499美元的新款iPad Air。这将使苹果产品的价位更接近亚马逊(Amazon.com Inc.)等竞争对手。竞争对手已将平板电脑价格压到低至229美元的水平。 Apple also said it would offer for free access to its iWork productivity suite, which competes with Microsoft Corp.#39;s Office, and iLife photo, movie and music making apps for customers buying new devices. The company used to charge between .99 and .99 for each program. 苹果还说,它将向购买新设备的顾客免费开放iWork办公室软件套装及iLife照片、电影及音乐制作应用。iWork办公室软件套装与微软(Microsoft Corp.)的Office相互竞争。该公司过去的做法是每个程序收费4.99美元至9.99美元。 Following the announcements, Apple#39;s Chief Executive Tim Cook said the changes amounted to #39;the biggest iPad announcement ever, by a large margin.#39; 新产品发布后,苹果首席执行长库克(Tim Cook)说,这些调整可以说是迄今为止iPad做出的最大调整,大大超过了以往。 Improved technical specs, coupled with free software, may help Apple appeal to more customers, particularly students and small businesses, said Patrick Moorhead, an analyst at Moor Insights amp; Strategy. #39;You#39;re not paying extra money for the brand, you#39;re getting real technology to back it up,#39; he said. 咨询公司Moor Insights amp; Strategy的分析师穆尔黑德(Patrick Moorhead)说,升级的技术配置和免费的软件有望帮助苹果吸引更多的客户,特别是学生和小企业。他说,你不是为了品牌多花钱,你享受到的是实实在在的技术,物有所值。 The new iPads and changing software strategy come at a critical time for the Cupertino, Calif., gadget maker. For the first time, Apple sold fewer iPads in the three months ended in June than the same period a year earlier. Rivals including South Korea#39;s Samsung Electronics Co. and Amazon are eroding Apple#39;s one-time dominance of the tablet market. 对总部位于加州丘珀蒂诺(Cupertino)的设备生产商苹果来说,新款iPad的推出和软件策略的调整正值一个重要时刻。在截至6月的三个月中,苹果iPad的销量较上年同期首次出现下滑。包括韩国公司三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)和亚马逊在内的竞争对手正在侵蚀苹果曾经在平板电脑市场的主导地位。 Research firm Gartner expects Apple#39;s share of the tablet market to fall below 50% this year, down from 54% last year and 65% in 2011. Tablets powered by Google Inc. #39;s Android software are expected to hit as much as 50% of the market this year, up from about 45% last year. 研究公司Gartner预计,今年苹果在平板电脑市场的份额将下滑至50%以下,低于去年的54%和2011年的65%。预计搭载谷歌(Google Inc.)安卓(Android)系统的平板电脑今年的市场份额可达50%,而去年约为45%。 Nokia Corp. unveiled its first tablet computer Tuesday. Also Tuesday, Microsoft, which plans to acquire Nokia#39;s mobile-computing business, put the second version of its Surface tablet on sale. 诺基亚(Nokia Corp.)周二发布了首款平板电脑。同样是在周二,微软的第二版Surface平板电脑开售。微软正计划收购诺基亚的移动计算业务。 Google, Sony Corp. and Asian manufacturers including Asustek Computer Inc. and Lenovo Group Ltd. are pushing tablets of their own. 谷歌、索尼公司(Sony Corp.)以及包括华硕(Asustek Computer Inc.)和联想集团(Lenovo Group Ltd.)在内的亚洲生产商都在力推自己的平板电脑产品。 Apple#39;s answer this year was to fix complaints about its current lineup, adding in its latest processor, the A7, to the new devices, making the iPad lighter and giving the iPad Mini a sharper screen. 苹果今年的战略是解决针对当前产品阵容的一些抱怨,比如在新设备上使用了最新的A7处理器,以及让iPad变得更轻、为iPad Mini配备更高分辨率的屏幕。 The iPad Air goes on sale in the U.S. and a host of other countries, including China, on Nov. 1. The new iPad Mini will go on sale later in November, the company said. iPad Air将于11月1日在美国和包括中国在内的其他一些国家开卖。苹果说,新款iPad Mini将在11月晚些时候开售。 #39;I can#39;t think of another product that#39;s come so far, so fast,#39; Mr. Cook said during the event, noting that Apple has sold more than 170 million iPads. 库克在发布会上说,我想不出还有哪种产品能如此快速地做到如此程度。他指出,苹果已经卖出了逾1.7亿部iPad。 One bright spot for the company is that even as it loses market share, its customers remain the heaviest users of tablets. 对该公司而言,一个好消息是,即便它失去了一些市场份额,其客户仍然是最“重度”的平板电脑使用者。 Mobile-advertising firm Chitika Inc. says 84.3% of the website traffic from tablets that it analyzed in June came from iPads. Amazon#39;s Kindle Fire tablet ranked second, with 5.7% of Web traffic, followed by Samsung#39;s Galaxy tablets, with 4.2%. Usage of the iPad increased from May to June, Chitika said, while the others declined. 移动广告公司Chitika Inc.说,该公司6月份分析的数据表明,平板电脑上84.3%的网络流量来自iPad。亚马逊的Kindle Fire平板电脑排名第二,占比5.7%,之后是三星的Galaxy平板电脑,占比4.2%。Chitika说,从5月到6月间,iPad的使用情况有所增长,而其他平板电脑则出现下降。 #39;Regardless of what you might hear or about how many are sold or activated, iPad is used more than any of the rest,#39; Mr. Cook said, adding that the iPad is used four times more than competitors. 库克说,不管你听到、读到任何有关卖了多少、激活了多少的信息,iPad的使用情况比任何其他品牌都高。他还补充说,iPad的使用情况是竞争对手的四倍还多。 Among other announcements, Apple said a new version of its computer operating system, OS X Mavericks, along with updates to 20 more of its apps, would be available for existing customers to download free immediately. In the past, Apple has typically charged for major software updates, particularly for its OS X operating system. 苹果宣布的其他消息包括,新版的电脑操作系统OS X Mavericks以及对该系统应用的20个升级将很快就能供现有顾客免费下载。过去,苹果通常会对重大升级收费,特别是OS X操作系统。 With the free software approach, #39;we are turning the industry on its ear,#39; Mr. Cook said. 库克说,这个免费软件的策略将令整个行业气象一新。 Apple also unveiled a slate of new computers. Its latest MacBook Pro laptop computers will start at a price of ,299, about 0 less than past models, while its high-end Mac Pro desktop computer will start at ,999. 苹果还推出了一系列新的电脑。最新型的MacBook Pro笔记本电脑的起价是1,299美元,比以往的型号低了大约200美元。而高端的Mac Pro台式电脑的起价为2,999美元。 /201310/261752

Another week, another regulatory battle for Uber, the Silicon Valley private car hire network with a German name. This time it is in Germany, where a Frankfurt court has banned its Uber Pop“ride-sharing” service that introduces passengers to unlicensed drivers through a smartphone app.又一起监管争斗,焦点是Uber这个起了德语名的硅谷私营拼车网络。法兰克福一家法庭禁止了其Uber Pop“拼车”务——该务通过一款智能手机应用,为没有出租车牌照的车主招揽乘客。In a narrow sense, the court is right. Not only is Uber breaking German law but the country is correct to demand that a company that operates what is blatantly a private hire business is appropriately licensed and regulated. Pretending that Uber Pop is part of the “sharing economy” and should be allowed to skirt the rules is neither fair to taxi-drivers nor sound policy.从狭义角度看,法庭是正确的。不但Uber违反了德国法律,而且德国要求一家经营私人租车业务的公司通过正当途径获得执照并接受监管,是正确的。以Uber Pop是“分享经济”的一部分为由绕过规则,不仅对出租车司机不公平,也不是稳妥的政策。In the broad sense, however, Uber is right. If what the state of California now calls a Transportation Network Company – a technology platform such as Uber and Lyft that expands the market for minicabs and private hire – is prevented from operating on a commercial basis, it is bad for consumers. The potential benefits of innovation are lost.然而,从广义角度看,Uber又是正确的。如果加利福尼亚州目前所称的交通网络公司(Transportation Network Company)——如Uber和Lyft这样的扩大了电话预约出租车和私车出租市场的技术平台——被禁止商业运营,那对消费者是不利的。创新的潜在收益会被浪费掉。Germany is a good test of the skirmishes in which Uber is engaged around the US and Europe. Its regulations – although they involve some very long words, such as Personenbef#246;rderungsschein, the licence for taxi drivers – have served consumers fairly well. Most cities have plenty of Mercedes taxis, which are both comfier and cheaper than London cabs.德国是Uber在美欧各地卷入的遭遇战的一块良好试金石。德国的法规——尽管有些使用了Personenbef#246;rderungsschein这样特别长的名字——迄今为消费者起到了相当好的作用。大多数城市拥有足量的梅赛德斯(Mercedes)出租车,与伦敦出租车相比,不但更舒适,而且更便宜。It is also a world leader in actual, as opposed to rhetorical, ride-sharing. There are lots of carpooling agencies, including Carpooling.com, that co-ordinate travel as a mutual service. Drivers share the fuel costs with passengers on long-distance rides, without profiting.德国也是事实上的——并非口头上的——拼车市场世界领袖。德国拥有Carpooling.com等大量拼车机构,可以协调出行,提供一种共享务。车主与远程搭载乘客共担燃料费用,并非为了盈利。As in many other countries, however, the city regulations are tilted in favour of the co-operatives that operate the bulk of taxi services. German private hire operators have little freedom of manoeuvre – they face restrictions including having to operate from registered offices to which all the cars must return between rides – and most people use taxis.不过,就像其他许多国家一样,城市法规仍向运营大部分出租车务的联营机构倾斜。德国私车出租运营商基本没有回旋空间——他们受到各种限制,包括必须通过注册办公室运营,所有车辆在结束一次务后,必须返回经营地点,才能启动下一次务——大多数人都使用出租车。Uber obeys the private hire rules for its Uber Black limousine service – both drivers and cars are licensed and commercially insured – while defying them for Uber Pop, its basic service. Uber Pop drivers use their own vehicles and are not officially licensed, although the company carries out criminal record checks and says they are fully insured.Uber旗下的Uber Black豪华轿车务遵守私车出租规则,司机和车辆都已取得执照并已参加商业保险,而其基本务Uber Pop没有遵守规则。Uber Pop司机使用的是私车,也没有获得商业执照,尽管该公司进行犯罪记录核查,并称司机们有完善的保险。The company has adopted its usual approach in awkward markets – if it comes up against a regulatory barrier, it ignores it and hopes to gain popular backing for a change in the rules. In London, transport authorities have allowed Uber to operate despite protests from taxi drivers that its app is an illegal taximeter.Uber在难缠的市场采取了其惯常手法——如果遭遇监管障碍,就不予理会,寄望获得公众持以改变规则。在伦敦,交通当局已放行Uber展开运营,尽管出租车司机抗议称,Uber的应用是一种非法计程表。The company, which raised .2bn in funding from backers including Google Ventures and Kleiner Perkins at a bn valuation in June, is in a hurry to establish its network before Lyft and other rivals. Treating legal challenges as a cost of doing business is characteristic of its aggression – it is also poaching drivers from Lyft in the US.今年6月,Uber从Google Ventures和Kleiner Perkins等资金后台筹得12亿美元,使其估值达到170亿美元。Uber急于抢在Lyft等竞争对手之前建立自己的网络。把法律挑战视为一种经营成本,是Uber咄咄逼人特点的体现;它在美国正试图吸引Lyft的司机跳槽。Taxi Deutschland, the consortium of taxi operators that brought the Frankfurt case, accuses Uber of “[wrapping] itself in a start-up look and selling itself as a new economy saviour” while hurting the public good. It is not alone in being sceptical – Berlin’s DIW research institute argued recently that the taxi market should not be subjected to “full deregulation”.出租车运营商联盟Taxi Deutschland在法兰克福法庭对Uber提起了诉讼,指责Uber“把自己‘装扮成’一家初创企业,以新经济救世主的身份进行自我推销”,同时损害了公共利益。不仅该联盟产生怀疑,柏林的德国经济研究所(DIW)不久前也声称,出租车市场不应“完全放开管制”。Regulation of taxis clearly has benefits – people climb into taxis and private hire cars without knowing who the driver is or how safe the vehicle is, and they need some safeguards. They also benefit from official taxis being required to take a passenger to any destination, based on a clear fare structure.对出租车实施监管显然有很多好处——人们钻进出租车和私租汽车时,不知司机是谁,也不知车辆是否安全,他们需要一些安全保障。官方许可的出租车必须按乘客要求前往任何地点,收费结构清清楚楚,乘客从中受益。It makes sense to give taxis privileges, such as the right to be hailed in the street, to compensate for being tightly regulated (and not, for example, applying “surge pricing” at times of scarcity, as Uber does). It would be short-sighted to permit a free-for-all private hire, or unfettered amateur ride-sharing, and put taxis out of business.对出租车给予特权是合情合理的(比如有权在街头接纳招手打车的乘客),这些特权是对受到严密监管的补偿(比如说,他们不能像Uber那样,在供应紧缺时段实行“峰时价格”)。放行所有私车出租,或任由业余司机提供拼车务,从而把出租车赶出市场,将是短视做法。The problem, however, is not that taxis are endangered, but the opposite – they are overly protected. “The private for-hire market is very extremely locked down in many cities,” says Pierre-Dimitri Gore-Coty, the head of Uber in western Europe. Two legislative efforts to liberalise private hire in Germany have failed amid taxi opposition.但问题不是出租车被置于危险之中,而是相反,它们受到了过度保护。Uber西欧业务主管皮埃尔-迪米特里#8226;戈尔-柯提(Pierre-Dimitri Gore-Coty)表示,“在很多城市,私车出租市场非常受限。”在德国,由于出租车行业的反对,两次放开私车出租市场的立法努力以失败告终。As a result, the bulk of the market in many cities is taken by taxis, with a slice of private hire operators at the top and bottom. These provide executive limousines for companies and radio cabs for people who do not want to pay the taxi fare. Taxis face very weak competition in the middle – well-trained and courteous drivers in smart, clean cars.其结果是,许多城市的大部分市场份额由出租车占据,私车出租运营商仅在顶层和底层市场占据很小份额。后者向企业提供高管豪车,向不想付打车费的人提供电话预约的出租车。在中层市场,受过良好培训、彬彬有礼的司机开着整洁的出租车,他们面临的竞争非常弱。Where Uber and others have been allowed to enter in a regulated way – Uber drivers in London must hold a commercial licence and insurance – they have helped to expand it. There are more cars for hire in London and the quality has risen. Minicabs used to be battered and smelly bangers; many are now BMWs.在Uber等公司获准以受监管方式进入的地方——Uber司机在伦敦必须持有商业牌照和保险——这些公司帮助扩大了市场。伦敦有了更多轿车可供出租,务质量也得到了提升。过去的电话预约出租车是破旧不堪、味道难闻的老爷车;如今许多都换成了宝马(BMW)。There is starting to be a similar effect in France, where the number of limousine companies has grown rapidly as a result of new entrants being allowed. It is better for cities to reap the advantages of new technology than try to ignore it, and provoke an outbreak of illegal ride-sharing by outsiders.法国也开始出现类似效果,由于新公司获准进入,豪车出租公司的数量大幅增加。城市最好利用新科技的优势,而不是努力忽视它,导致不受监管的非法拼车现象大量涌现。As Germany has found, Uber is not only willing to become a ride-sharing outlaw, but the resulting publicity serves it well. Infuriating, aggressive and American it may be; it is still worth learning from.正如德国所发现的,Uber不但愿意在拼车领域打法律的擦边球,而且随之而来的宣传效果对它很有利。尽管Uber可能令人抓狂、咄咄逼人且具有美国人的做派,但它仍有值得借鉴的地方。 /201410/333773


文章编辑: QQ晚报
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