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芜湖鸠江区人民男科医院男科大夫芜湖鸠江区妇幼保健人民中医院治疗性功能障碍多少钱芜湖妇幼保健人民中医院有治疗前列腺炎吗 A team of scientists, in a groundbreaking analysis of data from hundreds of sources, has concluded that humans are on the verge of committing unprecedented damage to the oceans and the animals living in them.在对数百个来源的数据进行了开创性的分析之后,一个科学家团队得出结论:人类处在对海洋及海洋动物造成前所未有的大破坏的边缘。“We may be sitting on a precipice of a major extinction event,” said Douglas J. McCauley, an ecologist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and a co-author of the new research, which was published on Thursday in the journal Science.“我们可能就坐在重大灭绝事件的悬崖上,”加州大学圣巴巴拉分校生态学家道格拉斯·J·麦考利(Douglas J. McCauley)说,他是《科学》杂志本周四发表的一项新研究的合著者。But there is still time to avert catastrophe, Dr. McCauley and his colleagues also found. Compared with the continents, the oceans are mostly intact, still wild enough to bounce back to ecological health.但我们仍有时间来避免灾难,麦考利士和同事还发现。与陆地相比,海洋绝大部分依然保持完整,仍然有足够旺盛的生命力,可以恢复健康的生态。“We’re lucky in many ways,” said Malin L. Pinsky, a marine biologist at Rutgers University and a co-author of the new report. “The impacts are accelerating, but they’re not so bad we can’t reverse them.”“从很多方面来说,我们都很幸运,”该报告的合著者、罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)的海洋生物学家马林·L·平斯基(Malin L. Pinsky)说。“海洋受影响的速度正在加快,但状况没有糟糕到无法扭转的地步。”Scientific assessments of the ocean’s health are dogged by uncertainty: It’s much harder for researchers to judge the well-being of a species living underwater, over thousands of miles, than to track the health of a species on land. And changes that scientists observe in particular ocean ecosystems may not reflect trends across the planet.对海洋健康状况进行的科学评估存在着不确定性:与追踪陆上物种的健康状况相比,研究人员很难判断踪迹延伸万里的水下物种的状况。科学家们观察到的某一海洋生态系统的具体变化,可能无法反映地球的整体发展趋势。Dr. Pinsky, Dr. McCauley and their colleagues sought a clearer picture of the oceans’ health by pulling together data from an enormous range of sources, from discoveries in the fossil record to statistics on modern container shipping, fish catches and seabed mining. While many of the findings aly existed, they had never been juxtaposed in such a way.平斯基士、麦考利士和同事们努力为海洋的健康状况绘制出了一幅更清晰的图像,他们对海量数据进行了汇总,从化石记录的发现,到现代集装箱航运、渔获量和海底采矿的统计数据,这些数据的来源多种多样。虽然很多研究结果已经存在,但之前从未以这样的方式进行过汇总分析。A number of experts said the result is a remarkable synthesis, along with a nuanced and hopeful prognosis.一些专家表示,综合分析得出了一个非凡的结论,以及一个微妙的、让人充满希望的预测。“I see this as a call for action to close the gap between conservation on land and in the sea,” said Loren McClenachan of Colby College, who was not involved in the study.“我认为这是一个呼吁,敦促大家行动起来,把海洋保护行动提升到陆地的水平,”科尔比学院(Colby College)洛伦·麦克拉里琴(Loren McClenachan)说,他没有参与这项研究。There are clear signs aly that humans are harming the oceans to a remarkable degree, the scientists found. Some ocean species are certainly overharvested, but even greater damage results from large-scale habitat loss, which is likely to accelerate as technology advances, the scientists reported.科学家们发现,已经有明显的迹象表明,人类对海洋的损害程度非常巨大。一些海洋物种肯定遭到了过度捕捞,但更大的损害是物种栖息地的大规模丧失,这种情况可能会随着技术的进步而加速,科学家表示。Coral reefs, for example, have declined by 40 percent worldwide, partly as a result of climate-change-driven warming.例如,全球的珊瑚礁已经减少40%,部分原因是气候变化导致的温度升高。Some fish are migrating to cooler waters aly. Black sea bass, once most common off the coast of Virginia, have moved up to New Jersey. Less fortunate species may not be able to find new ranges. At the same time, carbon emissions are altering the chemistry of seawater, making it more acidic.有些鱼类已经迁徙到了较冷的水域。曾经在弗吉尼亚州海岸十分常见的黑鲈鱼,如今已经北迁至新泽西。而没有那么幸运的物种,就未必能找到新的栖息地了。与此同时,碳排放正在改变海水的化学成分,让它变得更具酸性。“If you cranked up the aquarium heater and dumped some acid in the water, your fish would not be very happy,” Dr. Pinsky said. “In effect, that’s what we’re doing to the oceans.”“如果你把水族箱里的加热器开高一些,倒一些酸性物质到水里,你的鱼可能会出问题,”平斯基士说。“实际上,这就是我们正在对海洋做的事情。”Fragile ecosystems like mangroves are being replaced by fish farms, which are projected to provide most of the fish we consume within 20 years. Bottom trawlers scraping large nets across the sea floor have aly affected 20 million square miles of ocean, turning parts of the continental shelf to rubble. Whales may no longer be widely hunted, the analysis noted, but they are now colliding in greater numbers with rising numbers of container ships.像红树林这种脆弱的生态系统,正在被养殖场所取代,预计不到20年,我们消耗的大部分鱼类就将来自这些养殖场。底拖网渔船拖着横扫海底的大网,驶过了2000万平方英里的海域,把部分大陆架夷为平地。鲸可能不会再遭受广泛猎杀,但这份报告指出,随着集装箱船只的数量与日俱增,鲸与船只发生碰撞的事件也增多了。Mining operations, too, are poised to transform the ocean. Contracts for seabed mining now encompass 460,000 square miles underwater, the researchers found, up from zero in 2000. Seabed mining has the potential to tear up unique ecosystems and introduce pollution into the deep sea.采矿作业也会改变海洋。研究人员发现,目前的海底矿业合同覆盖了水下46万平方英里的地方,而2000年时这个数字为零。海底采矿可能会破坏独特的生态系统,并将污染带入深海。The oceans are so vast that its ecosystems may seem impervious to change. But Dr. McClenachan warned that the fossil record shows that global disasters have wrecked the seas before. “Marine species are not immune to extinction on a large scale,” she said.海洋如此浩瀚,这些变化看上去好似不会对它的生态系统造成冲击。但麦克拉里琴士警告说,化石记录表明,之前曾经有全球灾害对海洋造成过破坏。“海洋物种也无法在大规模灭绝中幸免,”她说。Until now, the seas largely have been spared the carnage visited on terrestrial species, the new analysis also found.这项研究还发现,陆地上物种大量灭绝的状况,迄今基本上还没有在海洋中出现过。The fossil record indicates that a number of large animal species became extinct as humans arrived on continents and islands. For example, the moa, a giant bird that once lived on New Zealand, was wiped out by arriving Polynesians in the 1300s, probably in just a century.化石记录表明,随着人类到达大陆和岛屿,很多大型动物灭绝了。例如曾经生活在新西兰的恐鸟,14世纪波利尼西亚人到达那里后,这种巨鸟可能在短短的一个世纪内就灭绝了。But it was only after 1800, with the Industrial Revolution, that extinctions on land really took off.但直到1800年后,随着工业革命的发生,陆地物种的灭绝才真正加快了速度。Humans began to alter the habitat that wildlife depended on, wiping out forests for timber, plowing under prairie for farmland, and laying down roads and railroads across continents.在各个大陆上,人类开始改变野生动物赖以生存的栖息地,砍伐森林以获取木材,翻耕草原以种植作物,而且还修建了遍布各地的公路和铁路。Species began going extinct at a much faster pace. Over the past five centuries, researchers have recorded 514 animal extinctions on land. But the authors of the new study found that documented extinctions are far rarer in the ocean.物种开始以远超从前的步伐灭绝。在过去的五百年中,研究人员记录下了514种陆地动物的灭绝。但这项新研究的作者发现,海洋动物灭绝的文档记录则要罕见许多。Before 1500, a few species of seabirds are known to have vanished. Since then, scientists have documented only 15 ocean extinctions, including animals such as the Caribbean monk seal and the Steller’s sea cow.公元1500年之前,已知的灭绝海鸟只有区区几种。自那之后,科学家只记录下了15个海洋物种的灭绝,其中包括加勒比僧海豹和斯特拉海牛这样的动物。While these figures are likely underestimates, Dr. McCauley said that the difference is nonetheless revealing.虽然这些数字很可能遭到了低估,但麦考利士说,这种差距仍然发人深省。“Fundamentally, we’re a terrestrial predator,” he said. “It’s hard for an ape to drive something in the ocean extinct.”“从根本上说,我们是陆地捕食者,”他说。“猿类很难导致海洋中的东西灭绝。”Many marine species that have become extinct or are endangered depend on land — seabirds that nest on cliffs, for example, or sea turtles that lay eggs on beaches.已经灭绝或者濒临灭绝海洋物种中,很多都对陆地有所依赖——例如在悬崖上筑巢的海鸟,或在海滩上产卵的海龟。Still, there is time for humans to turn the tide, Dr. McCauley said, with effective programs limiting the exploitation of the oceans. The tiger may not be salvageable in the wild — but the tiger shark may well be.人类仍然有时间扭转局面,麦考利士说,这需要制定并执行有效的程序,来限制对海洋的开发利用。野生老虎可能已经无法挽救——但虎鲨还大有希望。“There are a lot of tools we can use,” he said. “We better pick them up and use them seriously.”“我们可以利用的工具有很多,”他说。“我们最好拿起这些工具,认认真真地把它们利用起来。”Dr. McCauley and his colleagues argue that limiting the industrialization of the ocean to some regions could allow threatened species to recover in other ones. “I fervently believe that our best partner in saving the ocean is the ocean itself,” said Stephen R. Palumbi of Stanford University, a co-author of the new study.麦考利士和同事们认为,限制某些海域的开采利用,可能有助于其他地区濒危物种的恢复。“我坚定地相信,在拯救海洋的过程中,我们最好的合作伙伴就是海洋本身,”这项研究报告的合著者、斯坦福大学的斯蒂芬·R·帕鲁比(Stephen R. Palumbi)说。The scientists also argued that these reserves had to be designed with climate change in mind, so that species escaping high temperatures or low pH would be able to find refuge.科学家们还认为,在规划这些保护区的时候必须把气候变化考虑在内,以便让物种逃离高温或者较低PH值,找到避难所。“It’s creating a hopscotch pattern up and down the coasts to help these species adapt,” Dr. Pinsky said.“需要在沿岸一带规划出错落有致的保护区,来帮助各个物种适应环境,”平斯基士说。Ultimately, Dr. Palumbi warned, slowing extinctions in the oceans will mean cutting back on carbon emissions, not just adapting to them.最终,帕鲁比士警告说,要减缓海洋物种灭绝速度,就需要削减碳排放,而不仅仅是适应它们。“If by the end of the century we’re not off the business-as-usual curve we are now, I honestly feel there’s not much hope for normal ecosystems in the ocean,” he said. “But in the meantime, we do have a chance to do what we can. We have a couple decades more than we thought we had, so let’s please not waste it.”“如果到本世纪结束时,我们仍然没有脱离目前的事态发展曲线,老实说,我觉得要维持海洋生态系统的正常就没有太大希望了,”他说。“但与此同时,我们确实也有机会,可以尽其可能地来改变这种状况。和我们之前以为的相比,时间有了几十年的宽裕,所以千万不要把它们白白浪费了。” /201501/355041Eccentric Chinese tycoon Chen Guangbiao took out a full-page bilingual advertisement in the New York Times, inviting underprivileged Americans to a charity lunch and offering cash handouts.据CNN报道,中国大亨陈光标在纽约时报刊登整版双语广告,邀请美国弱势人群吃慈善午餐,并发放现金。According to Chinese media reports, the ad appeared in the New York Times print edition on Monday, announcing that Chen would host a charity luncheon at New York Central Park#39;s Loeb Boathouse on June 25 for 1,000 ;poor and destitute Americans;. Each participant would also receive 0.这则广告出现在周一的《纽约时报》印刷版,广告称陈光标将于6月25日在纽约中央公园为1000名“贫困美国人”举办一场慈善午宴,每位参加者还将获得300美元。Chen, who is known for theatrical philanthropic stunts, has a photo of himself in the ad placed side-by-side with a picture of Lei Feng, a Chinese soldier from the Mao-era who is celebrated as a selfless model citizen. The title above the images says, ;China#39;s #39;Lei Feng for a new era.#39;;陈光标一向以其特立独行的慈善方式而广为人知。在广告中他将有自己的照片和雷锋的照片并列。雷锋是一个毛泽东时代的士兵,被赞誉为无私的模范公民。照片上面的标题为,“中国新时代的雷锋。”Those who wish to join the luncheon need to RSVP via a Hotmail email address.希望参加午餐的人需要给一个Hotmail电子邮件地址尽快回复。Chen said he was hoping the lunch would show the US that there are Chinese philanthropists.陈光标说,他希望通过这次午餐告诉美国中国是有慈善家的。;There are many wealthy Chinese billionaires but most of them gained their wealth from market speculation and colluding with government officials while destroying the environment. I can#39;t bear the sight of it,; Chen told theSouth China Morning Post.“中国有很多富豪,但大多数人的财富是通过市场投机和勾结政府官员获得的,而且还破坏环境。我不能忍受这种现象,”陈光标在接受《南华早报》采访时说。Making his fortune from recycling domestic waste and construction materials in China, Chen has been in the media spotlight in recent years for his dramatic publicity stunts promoting philanthropic causes. He arrived at the scene of the 2013 Lushan earthquake in Sichuan just hours after the disaster took place and personally handed out cash to the victims.通过在中国回收生活垃圾和建筑材料发家的陈光标,用夸张的宣传来推动慈善事业,近年来一直受到媒体关注。2013年四川芦山地震发生仅几个小时候,他就到达地震灾区,并亲自给灾民发放现金。Chen has also tried unsuccessfully to buy the New York Times as part of his ongoing campaign to develop closer ties between US and China.陈光标还试图收购《纽约时报》,尽管没有成功,但这是他发展更紧密中美关系活动中的一部分。He recently expressed a desire to reignite discussions to buy the paper#39;s opinionsection and fill it with articles about environmental protection and charity.他最近表示希望重新开始与《纽约时报》商讨打算购买报纸中读者意见版面,全部发表环保和慈善事业的文章。Founder of the Huangpu Renewable Resources Utilization Group, Chen has donated hundreds of millions of dollars to various charitable causes over the years and has made it more than once onto Forbes#39; list of Asia#39;s leading philanthropists.陈光标是黄埔再生资源利用集团创始人,多年来已向各种慈善事业捐赠巨资,不止一次荣登福布斯亚洲慈善英雄榜。But not everyone is taken with Chen#39;s flashy generosity.但并非所有人都认同陈光标的浮夸的慷慨行为。Jeremy Goldkorn, director of Chinese media research firm Danwei, says: ;Chen is a clown whose so-called philanthropy appears to consist entirely of self-promotional stunts like giving handouts of cash in Taipei and New York, and cans of air to people in China.;Goldkorn has also tweeted that Chen is the ;greatest insult to the Chinese people.;中国媒体研究公司单位网的主管金玉米(Jeremy Goldkorn)说:“陈光标是一个小丑,其所谓的慈善事业似乎完全是由自我宣传的噱头组成的,比如在台北和纽约发放现金,给中国人发放灌装空气。”Other critics find it difficult to take Chen seriously when his English namecard lists an absurdly long string of self-aggrandizing titles, including ;Most Charismatic Philanthropist of China.;其他批评者在发现它的英文名片后也觉得对其不能太当真。他的英文名片中列出了一大串自我炫耀的头衔,其中包括列出的自我夸大冠军,其中包括“中国最有魅力的慈善家”。 /201406/307385芜湖不育检查

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芜湖哪里做孕前检查好 Whenever a company suffers a setback or calamity, business school professors and management journalists lay out the lessons for other businesses.每当一家公司遇到挫折或者灾难,商学院教授和管理类新闻记者就会为其它公司总结经验教训。That was true for General Motors and its faulty ignitions (make sure employees who spot problems bring them to management’s attention) and Starbucks’ UK tax difficulties (don’t underestimate consumers’ ability to do you damage).在通用汽车(General Motors)的点火开关缺陷(教训是保发现问题的员工将问题传达到管理层)事件上是这样,在星巴克(Starbucks)在英国遭遇税务问题(教训是别低估消费者给你造成损失的能力)的时候也是这样。But there does not appear much other companies can learn from Malaysia Airlines’ travails. Its twin disasters – one passenger jet lost and the other apparently shot down – are too unusual to generate advice for anyone else.但是其它公司似乎没办法从马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines)的困境中学到什么。一架客机失踪,一架客机则明显被击落,马航遭遇的这两起灾难太不寻常,不能给其他人带来什么重要教训。It is hard to see what the airline itself can learn from the tragedies. The first is still unexplained. The second was not its fault. It was flying over a war zone, but so were other respectable carriers.马航自身能从这些悲剧中学到什么也很难说。第一起事故至今还未查明原因。第二起事故错不在马航。马航客机的确飞经战区,但是其他优秀航空公司也这样做。Given these awful misfortunes, it is understandable that the airline is contemplating changing its name and starting again as something else.考虑到这些可怕的不幸事故,也难怪马航正在考虑更改公司名称,以新的身份重新开始。We can see how extraordinary Malaysia Airlines’ plight is by looking at the International Civil Aviation Organisation’s safety report.看一看国际民航组织(International Civil Aviation Organisation)的安全报告,我们就能理解马航的困境有多不寻常了。In 2013, 3.1bn passengers took a scheduled international or domestic flight. Of those, 173 died in an accident. This year’s figures will be higher – there have been other fatal crashes, including that of Air Algérie in Mali – but they will still be a tiny proportion of passengers.2013年,有31亿名乘客乘坐国际或者国内的定期航班,其中有173人死于事故。今年的死亡人数会更高——除了马航两起事故以外,还发生了其他坠机事故,包括阿尔及利亚航空公司(Air Algérie)的飞机在马里坠毁——但依然只会占乘客总数的很小一部分。But not even these statistics show how unusual the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 and the downing of Flight MH17 over eastern Ukraine were.但仅仅这些统计数字还不能说明马航MH370航班失踪和MH17航班在乌克兰东部坠落有多么不同寻常。The vast majority of air accidents take place while aircraft are landing or taking off. Just 10 per cent of 2013 accidents happened mid-flight.绝大多数飞行事故是在飞机降落或者起飞时发生的。在2013年发生的飞行事故中,仅有10%发生在飞行途中。And while both Malaysian aircraft were Boeing 777 jets, turboprop planes are more likely to crash. As many as 46 per cent of aircraft accidents involve turboprops, even though they account for a far smaller percentage of the world’s commercial fleet than jets do.马航失事的两架客机都是波音(Boeing)777喷气式飞机,相比之下,涡轮螺旋桨飞机更有可能发生坠机事故。在世界商用飞机中,涡轮螺旋桨飞机所占比例比喷气式飞机要小得多,但前者发生的空难却占到了46%的比例。There will be small lessons the airline industry can learn from Malaysia Airlines’ experience. They will have another look at how they communicate with customers after a tragedy. I was impressed, flying on Malaysia Airlines after its first disaster, to note that, rather than avoiding the subject, Ahmad Jauhari Yahya, its chief executive, expressed his sorrow on the front page of the in-flight magazine.航空业可以从马航的事件中学到一些小小的经验。他们应该反思在悲剧发生后怎么和客户沟通。在马航的第一起灾难发生后,我乘坐了马航的客机,发现马航没有对事故避之不谈,在飞机上的杂志的头版文章中,马航首席执行官艾哈迈德#8226;乔哈里#8226;叶海亚(Ahmad Jauhari Yahya)表达了他的悲痛之情,这给我留下了深刻的印象。As to the lessons on flights across war zones: as Hugh Dunleavy, Malaysia Airlines’ commercial director, wrote in the Sunday Telegraph, a central international body should determine what is safe, not individual airlines.对于飞经战区的飞机的经验教训是:就如马航的商业总监休#8226;邓利维(Hugh Dunleavy)在《星期日电讯报》(Sunday Telegraph)上发表的文章中所写的,应该由一个主要国际组织,而非个体的航空公司,来确立安全标准。Malaysia Airlines appears to have suffered from two episodes of extreme misfortune rather than mismanagement (unless we discover something new about the lost aircraft).让马航陷入困境的,似乎是这两起极其不幸的事故,而非管理不善(除非我们发现失踪客机的新信息)。Yet its business is suffering. Bookings are down. “In this part of the world in Asia people are more superstitious so this works against them,” an industry executive told the Financial Times. It is not just in Asia; many others will hesitate before booking one of its flights.然而马航的业务正在蒙受损失。机票预订减少了。“亚洲人更加迷信,所以这会对他们产生不好的影响,”一位行业主管告诉《金融时报》的记者。不只是在亚洲,其他地方的人在预订马航航班时也会犹豫不决。So should Malaysia Airlines change its name? One person I expected to answer “definitely” was Paul Argenti, professor at Dartmouth’s Tuck business school who, over a decade ago, studied 40 years of name changes and found that the company benefited in every case.那么马航是否应该改名?我认为有个人应该会回答“当然”,那就是达特茅斯大学(Dartmouth)塔克商学院(Tuck business school)的保尔#8226;阿根提(Paul Argenti)教授。十多年前,阿根提教授研究了40年以来公司改名的案例,发现每个案例中改名的公司都从中受益了。He told me he expected to find the same results today. The reason was that a name change usually went along with a new strategy.他告诉我,他认为现在也会是同样的结果。因为改名的同时,公司通常也会采取一种新的发展战略。Malaysia Airlines needs one of those, and did even before its twin tragedies. The company has made net losses for the past three years. As with many large carriers, its long-haul operations are doing reasonably well, but its short-haul business is suffering because of competition from low-cost carriers such as AirAsia.马航需要一项新策略,甚至早在两起悲剧发生之前就需要新策略了。在过去的三年中,马航连年净亏损。与其他许多大型航空公司一样,马航的长线航班业绩相当良好,然而短线航班业务则因遭受来自亚洲航空(AirAsia)等廉价航空公司的竞争而表现不佳。But Prof Argenti told me that he thought that, even with a new strategy, Malaysia Airlines was the one company he had come across that should not change its name. There would be no point. Its disasters were just too big.可是阿根提教授却告诉我,他认为,即使采取新策略,马航也是目前为止他遇到的唯一一个不应该改名的公司。因为改名毫无意义。马航遭遇的灾难太严重了。What about Valujet, the US airline that, after a 1996 crash in the Florida Everglades, re-emerged, successfully, as AirTran? That was a US incident, Prof Argenti said. “This is a global story that everyone is following.”那么美国瓦卢杰航空公司(Valujet)的例子呢?1996年在佛罗里达大沼泽地发生坠机事故后,这家公司更名为穿越航空(AirTran),成功再次崛起。阿根提教授说,那是一起美国的事故。“马航事件则是每个人都在关注的全球性事件。”He is right. Whatever Malaysia Airlines becomes, people will remember what it was. It needs to fix its business and win back fliers’ trust. A name change won’t help.他是对的。不管马航改叫什么,人们都会记得它曾经叫着什么。马航需要重整业务,赢回乘客的信任。改名起不了什么作用。 /201408/318653三山区人民医院男科医生芜湖治疗早泄最最好医院



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