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2017年10月20日 16:38:00 | 作者:知道卫生 | 来源:新华社
We started travelling again, across the mountains, and by daylight came to wild, open moors, covered with purple heather.Because anyone on the hills around us could easily see us when we stood up, we had to walk or run on our hands and feet, like animals It was another hot summer day, and my back achcd badly after a few hours. I wanted a rest and a drink of water, but when we stopped, we saw the redcoats of soldiers on one of the hills, and we had to go on.我们又开始旅行了,翻山越岭,到天亮时来到满是紫色石南的、空旷的荒野。因为我们站起来时周围小山上的人能够很容易地看见我们,我们只能像动物一样手脚并用地爬或者跑。这又是一个炎热的夏日,几个小时后我的背痛得厉害。我需要休息,需要喝点水;但当我们停下来时,我们看见其中的一座小山上有士兵们穿的红制,我们又得走下去。We walked or ran all day and all night. People who talk of tiredness do not know what the word really means, I did not know who I was or where I was going, and I did not care. I thought that every step would be my last, and I hoped that death would come soon.Alan drove me onwards, and I felt that I hated him, but I was too afraid of him to stop and rest.整天整夜我们都在走或者跑。说累的人们其实不理解这个词的真实含义。我不知道我是谁或我往哪儿去,我也不在乎。我想每一步都可能是我能走的最后一步,而且我希望死神能够很快来临。艾伦催着我往前走,我感到我恨他,但是我太害怕他,以致不敢停下来休息。When daylight returned, we were stupid with tiredness,and had become careless. Suddenly, three or four wild-looking men jumped out of the heather, and took us prisoner.I was not afraid, only happy to stop running for a moment. But Alan spoke to them in Gaelic.天又亮时,我们累得都迟钝了,都变得麻本了。忽然,三四个看似粗野的人从石南丛中跳出来,把我们当俘虏抓起来。我不害怕,只高兴能停止跑一会儿。但是艾伦用盖尔语对他们说话。lsquo;These are Cluny Macpherson#39;s men,rsquo; he said quietly to me.lsquo;Ye remember him, the head of the Macpherson clan?They fought well against the English in the Forty-Five.After that, he didn#39;t go to France, like the other clan chiefs.No,he#39;s been hiding here ever since, and the soldiers have never managed to find him. His clansmen bring him what he needs.rsquo;;这些是克兰尼;麦克弗森的人。;他低声对我说,;你记得他,麦克弗森家族的头领吗?在1745年政变中他们英勇抗击英格兰军队。那以后,他像其他部族领袖一样没有去法国。对,那以后他一直躲在这儿,士兵们也从来没有发现他。他家族的人给他提供他所需要的。;We were taken to a cave, well hidden by trees and rocks,and Cluny Macpherson himself came forward to welcome us,like a king in his palace. He seemed to live well in his cave,and he offered us an excellent meal, prepared by his cook. But I was too tired to eat, so I lay down at once and slept. In fact,although I did not know it, I was seriously ill, and could not get up for two days.我们被带到一个被树木和岩石遮掩得很好的山洞,克兰尼;麦克弗森像一个国王在他自己的王国里一样上前欢迎我们。看起来他在洞穴里过得很好,他给我们提供了一顿由他的厨师准备的佳肴。但是我太累了,吃不下,于是我立即躺下来睡觉。事实上,虽然我不知道,但是我是得了重病,两天都不能起床。I woke up once,in a kind of fog, to find Cluny and Alan playing cards, and a second time, to hear Alan asking to borrow my money. I was too sick and sleepy to refuse, and gave him my purse.一次我醒来,如坠雾里,发现克兰尼和艾伦在打牌;又有一次,听见艾伦向我借钱。我病得太厉害,又太困,不能够拒绝,把我的钱包给了他。But when I woke up again, on the third day,I felt much better, although not very strong. I noticed that Alan was looking very ashamed, and I realized at once what had hap pened.但在第三天,当我又醒过来时,我感到好多了,虽然还不太强壮。我注意到艾伦看起来很羞愧,我马上意识到发生了什么。lsquo;David,rsquo; he said miserably,lsquo;I#39;ve lost all our money at cards, yours as well as mine.rsquo;;戴维,;他悲惨地说道,;我玩牌输掉了我们所有的钱,你的和我的。;lsquo;No,no,ye haven#39;t lost it!cried Cluny.lsquo;Of course I#39;ll give your money back. It was just a game. I wouldn#39;t keep your money. Here!rsquo; And he pulled gold coins out of his pocket.;没有,没有,你没有输钱!;克兰尼叫道。;我当然要退你钱。只是玩玩而已。我不会要你的钱。给!;他从口袋里掏出金币。I did not know if it was right to accept the money or not,but we needed it, so I thanked Cluny and put the coins in my purse. But I was very angry with Alan, and as we left Cluny#39;s cave and continued our journey, I refused to speak to him.我不知道接受钱是对还是不对,但我们需要它,于是我谢过克兰尼并把金币放到我钱包里。但是我对艾伦很生气,我们离开克兰尼的山洞继续旅行时我拒绝和他说话。At first Alan tried hard to talk to me. He said that he was sorry, and that he loved me like a brother. He was worried about my health, and offered me a hand when we crossed a river or climbed a hill.But after two or three days,when he realized that I was still angry with him, he too became angry,and laughed at me when I fell, or seemed tired.最初艾伦竭力试着对我说话。他说他很抱歉,说他像兄弟一样地爱我。他很担心我的健康,我们过河或者爬山时他主动伸手要帮我一把。两三天后,当他意识到我仍对他生气时,他也变得生气了,我跌倒或显得疲倦时他嘲笑我。 Article/201203/176089Edward Hopper's Simple Paintings Hold Special Meaning for Americans VOICE ONE:I'm Shirley Griffith.VOICE TWO:And I'm Doug Johnson with People in America in VOA Special English. Today we tell about artist Edward Hopper. He painted normal objects and people in interesting and mysterious ways. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE: Edward Hopper's "Cape Cod Morning" In June of two thousand-six, visitors entered the redesigned Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C. for the first time. When these people walked into the building, they saw two simple, colorful paintings. These paintings showed normal scenes from American life. But they looked mysterious and beautiful. American artist Edward Hopper painted both of these famous pictures. VOICE TWO:Edward Hopper was born in eighteen eighty-two in Nyack, a small town in New York state. From a young age, Edward knew he wanted to be a painter. His parents were not wealthy people. They thought Edward should learn to paint and make prints to advertise for businesses. This kind of painting is called commercial art. Edward listened to his mother and father. In nineteen hundred, he moved to New York City to study commercial art. However, he also studied more serious and artistic kinds of painting. VOICE ONE:One of Hopper's teachers was Robert Henri, a famous American painter in the early twentieth century. Henri was a leader of a group of artists who called themselves the Ashcan School painters. The Ashcan artists liked to paint normal people and objects in realistic ways. Henri once expressed his ideas about painting this way: "Paint what you feel. Paint what you see. Paint what is real to you."Edward Hopper agreed with many of these ideas about art. He told people that Henri was his most important teacher.VOICE TWO:Hopper studied with Henri in New York City for six years. During those years, Hopper dreamed of going to Europe. Many painters there were making pictures in ways no one had ever seen before. Many of them had begun to paint pictures they called "abstract." The artists liked to say these works were about ideas rather than things that existed in the real world. Their paintings did not try to show people and objects that looked like the ones in real life. Most American artists spent time in Europe. Then they returned to the ed States to paint in this new way. VOICE ONE:With help from his parents, Hopper finally traveled to Europe in nineteen-oh-six. He lived in Paris, France for several months. He returned again in nineteen-oh-nine and nineteen-ten. Unlike many other people, however, Hopper was not strongly influenced by the new, abstract styles he found there. "Paris had no great or immediate impact on me," he once said. At the end of these travels, he decided that he liked the realistic methods he had learned from Robert Henri. (MUSIC)VOICE TWO:When Edward Hopper returned from Paris for the last time, he moved into a small apartment in the Greenwich Village area of New York City. He took a job making prints and paintings for businesses. However, the paintings he made outside of his job were not helping him earn money or recognition. He had a show of his work at a gallery in New York. However, most people were not interested in his simple, realistic style. Very few people bought his paintings.VOICE ONE:Things began to improve in nineteen twenty-three. He began a love relationship with an artist named Jo Nivison. Soon they married. His wife sometimes said that Edward tried to control her thoughts and actions too much. However, most people who knew them said they loved each other very much. They stayed married for the rest of their lives. Also, Jo was the model for all of the women in Hopper's paintings.Success in art soon followed this success in love. In nineteen twenty-four, Hopper had the second show of his paintings. This time, he sold many pictures. Finally, at age forty-three, he had enough money to quit his job painting for businesses. He could now paint what he loved. Edward and Jo bought a car and began to travel around the country to find interesting subjects to paint.(MUSIC)VOICE TWO: "The House by the Railroad" Most people say that Hopper's nineteen twenty-five painting "The House by the Railroad" was his first mature painting. This means that it was the first painting that brought together all of his important techniques and ideas. "The House by the Railroad" shows a large, white house. The painting does not show the bottom of the house. It is blocked by railroad tracks. Cutting scenes off in surprising ways was an important part of Hopper's style. He became famous for paintings that are mysterious, that look incomplete or that leave viewers with questions.Shadows make many parts of the home in "The House by the Railroad" look dark. Some of the windows look like they are open, which makes the viewer wonder what is inside the house. However, only dark, empty space can be seen through the windows. Strange shadows, dark spaces, and areas with light were important parts of many Hopper paintings.There are no people in the painting, and no evidence of other houses nearby. Hopper was famous for showing loneliness in his art. People often said that, even when there were many people in his paintings, each person seems to be alone in his or her own world.VOICE ONE:During the great economic depression of the nineteen thirties, many people saw Hopper's lonely, mysterious paintings of everyday subjects. They liked the pictures because they seemed to show life honestly, without trying to make it happier or prettier than it really was. As a result, Hopper continued to sell many paintings during those years, even though most Americans were very poor. VOICE TWO: "Nighthawks" In nineteen forty-two, Hopper painted his most famous work, "Nighthawks." The painting shows four people in an eating-place called a diner late at night. They look sad, tired, and lonely. Two of them look like they are in a love relationship. But they do not appear to be talking to each other. The dark night that surrounds them is mysterious and tense. There is no door in the painting, which makes the subjects seem like they might be trapped.Hopper painted "Nighthawks" soon after the Japanese bomb attack against the ed States at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Many people thought the painting showed the fear and unhappiness that most Americans were feeling after the attack. The painting became very famous. Today, most Americans still recognize it. The painting now hangs in a famous museum in Chicago, Illinois.VOICE ONE: "Nighthawks" was not Edward Hopper's only great success. In nineteen fifty, he finished a painting called "Cape Cod Morning." It shows a brightly colored house in the country. In the middle of the painting, a woman leans on a table and looks out a window. She looks very sad. However, nothing in the painting gives any idea about why she would be sad. Today this painting hangs in a special place in the Smithsonian Museum of American Art in Washington. It is one the paintings we noted at the beginning of this program.(MUSIC)VOICE TWO:Edward Hopper began to struggle with his art during the nineteen fifties and sixties. He had trouble finding interesting subjects. When he did find good things to paint, he struggled to paint them well.At the same time, the artistic community became less interested in realistic paintings. In the nineteen fifties, the Abstract Expressionist style became very popular. These artists refused to have subjects to paint. They wanted to "paint about painting" and "paint about ideas." They thought Hopper's style was no longer modern or important. As a result, the paintings he did complete met less success than during the earlier years.Edward Hopper died in nineteen sixty-seven. His wife Jo died less than a year later.Many years after his death, Hopper's work is still popular in this country and outside America. In two thousand four, the famous Tate Art Gallery in London had a show of his paintings. This show brought the second-largest number of visitors of any show in the history of the museum. Today, people say Edward Hopper was one of the best American artists of the twentieth century. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:This program was written by Sarah Randle and produced by Mario Ritter. I'm Shirley Griffith.VOICE TWO:And I'm Doug Johnson. You can , listen to and download this program at our Web site, voaspecialenglish. com. Join us again next week for People in America in VOA Special English. Article/200803/31361Eleanor Roosevelt Was the Most Influential Wife of Any American President(MUSIC) VOICE ONE: I’m Steve Ember. VOICE TWO: And I’m Shirley Griffith with People in America in VOA Special English. Today, we tell about the woman who was the most influential wife of any American president, Eleanor Roosevelt. (MUSIC) VOICE ONE: Eleanor Roosevelt was the wife of America's thirty-second president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. She helped her husband in many ways during his long political life. She also became one of the most influential people in America. She fought for equal rights for all people -- workers, women, poor people, black people. And she sought peace among nations. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born in New York City in Eighteen eighty-four. Eleanor's family had great wealth and influence. But Eleanor did not have a happy childhood. Her mother was sick and nervous. Her father did not work. He drank too much alcohol. He was not like his older brother, Theodore Roosevelt, who was later elected president. When Eleanor was eight years old, her mother died. Two years later, her father died. Eleanor's grandmother raised the Roosevelt children. Eleanor remembered that as a child, her greatest happiness came from helping others. VOICE TWO: In the early nineteen hundreds, many people were concerned about the problems of poor people who came to America in search of a better life. Eleanor Roosevelt could not understand how people lived in such poor conditions while she and others had so much wealth. After she finished school, Eleanor began teaching children to in one of the poorest areas of New York City, called "Hell's Kitchen." She investigated factories where workers were said to be badly treated. She saw little children of four and five-years-old working until they dropped to the floor. She became involved with other women who shared the same ideas about improving social conditions. Franklin Roosevelt began visiting Eleanor. Franklin belonged to another part of the Roosevelt family. Franklin and Eleanor were married in nineteen-oh-five. In the next eleven years, they had six children. VOICE ONE: Franklin Roosevelt began his life in politics in New York. He was elected to be a state legislator. Later, President Woodrow Wilson appointed him to be assistant secretary of the Navy. The Roosevelts moved to Washington in nineteen thirteen. It was there, after thirteen years of marriage, that Eleanor Roosevelt went through one of the hardest periods of her life. She discovered that her husband had fallen in love with another woman. She wanted to end the marriage. But her husband urged her to remain his wife. She did. Yet her relationship with her husband changed. She decided she would no longer play the part of a politician's wife. Instead, she began to build a life with interests of her own. In nineteen twenty-one, Franklin Roosevelt was struck by the terrible disease polio. He would never walk again without help. His political life seemed over, but his wife helped him return to politics. He was elected governor of New York two times. VOICE TWO: Eleanor Roosevelt learned about politics and became involved in issues and groups that interested her. In nineteen twenty-two, she became part of the Women's Trade Union League. She also joined the debate about ways to stop war. In those years after World War One, she argued that America must be involved in the world to prevent another war. "Peace is the question of the hour," she once told a group of women. "Women must work for peace to keep from losing their loved ones." The question of war and peace was forgotten as the ed States entered a severe economic depression in nineteen twenty-nine. Prices suddenly dropped on the New York stock market. Banks lost their money. People lost their jobs. (MUSIC) VOICE ONE: Franklin Roosevelt was elected president in nineteen thirty-two. He promised to end the Depression and put Americans back to work. Missus Roosevelt helped her husband by sping information about his new economic program. It was called the New Deal. She traveled around the country giving speeches and visiting areas that needed economic aid. Missus Roosevelt was different from the wives of earlier presidents. She was the first to become active in political and social issues. While her husband was president, Missus Roosevelt held more than three hundred news conferences for female reporters. She wrote a daily newspaper commentary. She wrote for many magazines. These activities helped sp her ideas to all Americans and showed that women had important things to say. VOICE TWO: One issue Missus Roosevelt became involved in was equal rights for black Americans. She met publicly with black leaders to hear their problems. Few American politicians did this during the nineteen thirties and nineteen forties. One incident involving Missus Roosevelt became international news. In nineteen thirty-nine, an American singer, Marian Anderson, planned a performance at Constitution Hall in Washington. But a conservative women's group refused to permit her to sing there because she was black. VOICE ONE: Missus Roosevelt was a member of that organization, the Daughters of the American Revolution. She publicly resigned her membership to protest the action of the group. An opinion study showed that most Americans thought she was right. Eleanor Roosevelt helped the performance to be held outdoors, around the Lincoln Memorial. More than seventy thousand people heard Marian Anderson sing. Missus Roosevelt was always considered one of its strongest supporters of the civil rights movement. (MUSIC) VOICE TWO: The ed States was forced to enter World War Two when Japanese forces attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in nineteen forty-one. Missus Roosevelt made many speeches over the radio praising the soldiers she saw on her travels. She called on people to urge their government to work for peace after the war was over. Franklin Roosevelt died in nineteen forty-five, soon after he was elected to a fourth term as president. When his wife heard the news she said, "I am more sorry for the people of this country than I am for myself." VOICE ONE: Harry Truman became president after Franklin Roosevelt died. World War Two ended a few months later. The leaders of the world recognized the need for peace So they joined together to form the ed Nations. President Truman appointed Missus Roosevelt as a delegate to the first meeting of the UN. A newspaper wrote at the time: "Missus Roosevelt, better than any other person, can best represent the little people of America, or even the world." Later, Missus Roosevelt was elected chairman of the UN Human Rights Commission. She helped write a resolution called the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. That declaration became an accepted part of international law. VOICE TWO: Missus Roosevelt spent the last years of her life visiting foreign countries. She became America's unofficial ambassador. She returned home troubled by what she saw. She recognized that the needs of the developing world were great. She called on Americans to help the people in developing countries. A few years before she died, Eleanor Roosevelt spoke about what she believed in life. This is what she said:ELEANOR ROOSEVELT: “This life always seems to me to be a continuing process of education and development. What we are preparing for, none of us can be sure. But, that we must do our best while we are here and develop all our capacities is absolutely certain. We face whatever we have to face in this life. And if we do it bravely and sincerely, we’re probably accomplishing that growth which we were put here to accomplish.” VOICE ONE: Eleanor Roosevelt gave the best she had all through her life. People around the world recognized their loss when she died in nineteen sixty-two. (MUSIC) VOICE TWO: This program was written by Shelley Gollust. It was produced by Lawan Davis. I'm Shirley Griffith. VOICE ONE: And I'm Steve Ember. Join us again next week for People in America in VOA Special English. Article/200803/29209

Until recently daydreaming was generally considered either a waste of time or a symptom of neurotic tendencies, and habitual daydreaming was regarded as evidence of maladjustment or an escape from life's realities and responsibilities. It was believed that habitual daydreaming would eventually distance people from society and reduce their effectiveness in coping with real problems. At its best, daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.As with anything carried to excess, daydreaming can be harmful. There are always those who would substitute fantasy lives for the rewards of real activity. But such extremes are relatively race, and there is a growing body of evidence to support the fact that most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it. We are now beginning to learn how valuable it really is and that when individuals are completely prevented form daydreaming, their emotional balance can be disturbed. Not only are they less able to deal with the pressures of day-to-day existence, but also their self-control and self-direction become endangered.Recent research indicates that daydreaming is part of daily life and that a certain amount each day is essential for maintaining equilibrium. Daydreaming, science has discovered, is an effective relaxation technique. But its beneficial effects go beyond this. Experiments show that daydreaming significantly contributes to intellectual growth, powers of concentration, and the ability to interact and communicate with others.In an experiment with schoolchildren in New York, Dr. Joan Freberg observed improved concentration: "There was less running around, more happy feelings, more talking and playing in the group, and more attention paid to detail."In another experiment at Yale University. Dr. Jerome Singer found that daydreaming resulted in improved self-control and enhanced creative thinking ability. Daydreaming, Singer pointed out, is one way individuals can improve upon reality. It is, he concluded, a powerful spur to achievement.But the value of daydreaming does not stop here. It has been found that it improves a person's ability to be better adapted to practical, immediate concerns, to solve everyday problems, and to come up more ily with new ideas. Contrary to popular belief, constant and conscious effort at solving a problem is, in reality, one of the most inefficient ways of coping with it. While conscious initial effort is always necessary, effective solutions to especially severe problems frequently occur when conscious attempts to solve them have been put off. Inability to relax, to let go of a problem, often prevents its solution.Historically, scientists and inventors are one group that seems to take full advantage of relaxed moments. Their biographies reveal that their best ideas seem to have occurred when they were relaxing and daydreaming. It is ell known, for example, that Newton solved many of his toughest problems when his attention was waylaid by private musings. Thomas Alva Edison also knew the value of "half waking" states. Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt with, he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood mind.Painters, writers, and composers also have drawn heavily on their sensitivity to inner fantasies. Debussy used to gaze at the River Seine and the golden reflections of the setting sun to establish an atmosphere for creativity. Brahms found that ideas came effortless only when he approached a state of deep daydreaming. And Cesar Frank is said to have walked around with a dreamlike gaze while composing, seemingly totally unaware of his surroundings.Many successful people actually daydreamed their successes and achievements long before they realized them. Henry J. Kaiser maintained that "you can imagine your future," and he believed that a great part of his business success was due to positive use of daydreams. Harry S. Truman said that he used daydreaming for rest. Conrad Hilton dreamed of operating a hotel when he was a boy. He recalled that all his accomplishments were first realized in his imagination."Great living starts with a picture, held in some person's imagination, of what he would like someday to do or be. Florence Nightingale dreamed of being a nurse. Edison pictured himself an inventor; all such characters escaped the mere push of circumstance by imagining a future so vividly that they headed for it." These are the words of the well-known thinker Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick, and they show that people can literally daydream themselves to success. Fosdick, aware of the wonderful power of positive daydreaming, offered this advice: "Hold a picture of yourself long and steadily enough in your mind's eye, and you will be drawn toward it. Picture yourself vividly as defeated and that alone will make victory impossible. Picture yourself as winning and that will contribute remarkably to success. Do not picture yourself as anything, and you will drift like an abandoned ship at sea."To get the results, you should picture yourself - as vividly as possible - as you want to be. The important thing to remember is to picture these desired objectives as if you had aly attained them. Go over several times the details of these pictures. This will deeply impress them on your memory, and these memory traces will soon start influencing your everyday behavior toward the attainment of the goal.While exercising your imagination, you should be alone and completely undisturbed. Some individuals seem to have the ability to tune into their private selves in the midst of the noisiest crowds or company. But most of us, especially when the experience is new, require an environment free from outside distraction.A life lived without fantasy and daydreaming is a seriously impoverished one. Each of us should put aside a few minutes daily, taking short 10- or 15-minute vacations. Daydreaming is highly beneficial to your physical and mental well-being, and you will find that this modest, inexpensive investment in time will add up to a more creative and imaginative, a more satisfied, and a more self-fulfilled you. It offers us a fuller sense of being intensely alive from moment to moment, and this, of course, contributes greatly to the excitement and joy of living. Article/200803/28123

How Did You Start the Flood? 你是怎么引起洪水的? A doctor vacationing on the Riviera met a lawyer friend and asked him what he was doing there. The lawyer replied, " I'm here because my house burned down, and the insurance company paid for everything. What are you doing here?" "That's quite a coincidence," said the doctor "I'm here because my house were destroyed by a flood, and my insurance company also paid for everything." The lawyer looked puzzled. "Gee," he asked, "how did you start the flood?"医生在里维埃拉度假时遇到他的一位律师朋友,医生问他怎么会到这里来。律师回答:“我到这里是因为我的房子被火烧了,保险公司赔偿了我所有的损失。” “真巧,”医生说,“我是因为房子被洪水冲垮了,保险公司也赔偿了我所有的损失。”律师看起来有些困惑,他问“哎呀!你是怎么引起洪水的?” Article/200804/35884

Written by Jill Moss (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:I‘m Barbara Klein. VOICE TWO:And I’m Steve Ember with People in America in VOA Special English. Today we tell about a writer who helped influence modern culture. Her name was Susan Sontag.(MUSIC)VOICE ONE:Susan Sontag was considered one of the most influential liberal thinkers in the ed States during the twentieth century. She wrote seventeen books. They have been translated into thirty languages. They include novels, short stories, essays and film scripts. She was also a filmmaker, playwright and theater director. And she was a human rights and anti-war activist. She was said to own fifteen thousand books in her personal library in her home. She was born Susan Rosenblatt in New York City in nineteen thirty-three. Her father, Jack Rosenblatt, was a trader in China. Susan’s mother spent most of her time in China with her husband. Family members raised Susan and her younger sister, Judith, when they were very young. When Susan was five, her father died of tuberculosis. Her mother returned from China and moved the girls to Tucson, Arizona. There, Missus Rosenblatt met Nathan Sontag. The couple married and the family moved to Los Angeles, California. VOICE TWO:Susan Sontag was an extremely intelligent child. She could by age three. She finished high school at the age of fifteen. Two years later, Susan completed her college education at the University of Chicago in Illinois. While at the university, she attended a class taught by Philip Rieff. He was a twenty-eight year old expert on human society and social relationships. The two were married in nineteen fifty, ten days after they first met. Susan was seventeen years old. The couple moved to Boston, Massachusetts. In nineteen fifty-two, they had a son, David. He grew up to become a writer and the editor of his mother’s works. VOICE ONE:Susan Sontag completed two master’s degrees from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The first was in English; the second was in philosophy. She also began a doctorate program in religion at Oxford University in England. However, she never completed that program. Susan and Philip ended their marriage in nineteen fifty-eight. Several months later, Susan moved with her son to New York City. She held several jobs teaching at universities and writing. VOICE TWO:Susan Sontag began her professional life writing creative literature. She published her first book in nineteen sixty-three. It was an experimental novel called “The Benefactor.” It examined dreams and how people think. Four years later, she published her second novel, called “Death Kit.” The story included sharp criticism of the ed States involvement in the Vietnam War.Sontag wrote several books of creative literature. Yet, she became famous for her critical essays that examined different kinds of social and artistic issues. She wrote serious studies about popular art forms. She wrote essays about books, movies and photography. She also wrote essays about sickness. VOICE ONE:In nineteen sixty-four, she wrote an essay called “Notes on Camp.” It was an immediate success that made her famous. Camp is a form of art or popular culture that is humorous because it is purposely bad, false or common. In the essay, Sontag argued that a piece of art may be bad yet considered good if it creates emotional feelings in the person looking at it. The essay also included the idea about popular culture that something can be “so bad it is good.” “Notes on Camp” is still widely today. Article/200803/30119

Six coal miners in Utah were trapped 1,500 feet underground when the support beams collapsed. Digging was immediately started in an effort to rescue the six. Five volunteer miners risked their lives to descend down to the location of the cave-in. A day later, another cave-in occurred, killing three of the five would-be rescuers. All five were pulled out of the mine.The government banned any further attempts at rescue by men. Instead, machines would be used to burrow into the ground. Listening devices would be able to detect any human activity, and probes would be able to detect the amount of oxygen present. Even though most people figured that the original six had died almost immediately, five more holes were dug during the next two weeks in an effort to find, and deliver food and water to, survivors. This effort was made more difficult because searchers did not know the exact location of the original cave-in.After the fourth, fifth, and sixth digs had produced no positive results, the owner of the mine said that was it. Enough was enough. He had done all he could do, and after two weeks of no food and water, it was impossible that anyone could still be alive. The families of the six miners were outraged, telling the media that the owner had given only lip service to rescue attempts. They planned to sue. Article/201104/132598

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