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New fiction新小说Fatty issue胖子是个大问题A thoughtful new work by an American original.具有独创精神的美国作家带来富有创见的新作Big Brother《老大哥》LIONEL SHRIVER knows the drawbacks of using her own family in her fiction. Famous for the bestselling “We Need to Talk About Kevin”, which won the Orange prize for fiction in 2005, she once lamented that her parents had not yet forgiven her for an unflattering portrait in an earlier book. The rift was unfortunate, even sad, Ms Shriver noted, but that did not mean she would not do it again. “Real-life people are like carcasses thrown to a carnivorous pet,” she observed.兰诺丝薇佛明白,拿自己家人作为小说人物原型问题多多。于2005年获英国柑橘文学奖小说奖的畅销书《凯文怎么了》使丝薇佛声名鹊起,她曾慨叹,因为自己在一部早期作品中对父母描述直白,双亲一直耿耿于怀。丝薇佛表示,与父母产生嫌隙是令人遗憾的,甚至是令人伤心的,但那并不意味着她不会故技重施。她说,“现实中的人物就像抛给食肉动物的畜体,有血有肉。”“Big Brother”, Ms Shrivers 12th novel, may be her most plainly autobiographical. The author has written publicly before about her own big brother, an “obscenely smart” man who ultimately ate himself to death. The experience left her with not a few unresolved questions. What moves someone to eat to grotesque excess? Why is it so hard to deal with food in a healthy way in the overabundant 21st century? And what is the duty of kin when it comes to helping someone bent on self-destruction? These concerns drive her new novel, which considers the fate of a morbidly obese man and his sensible, successful 40-something younger sister. Ms Shriver, who has reviewed fiction for The Economist, has a knack for conveying subtle shifts in family dynamics, but this book feels uniquely personal, and is more poignant for it.《老大哥》是丝薇佛的第12本小说,也可能是她自传痕迹最明显的一部小说。作者在以前公开发表的作品中就曾提到她的老大哥,说他“聪明到让人吃惊”,最后把自己给吃死了。如此经历给丝薇佛留下了不少困惑。是什么动力使一个人暴饮暴食到近乎荒唐的地步?在物产过剩的21世纪,为何健康饮食如此之难?如果要向一个执意自我毁灭的人施以援手,其亲属又肩负哪些责任?对这些问题的关注推动她完成了这部小说,对一个肥胖病患者和他理智、成功、四十来岁的的命运做出了思考。丝薇佛曾为《经济学人》撰写过小说,擅长巧妙传达家人互动时的微妙变化。但这本书似乎更关怀个人,而且更加切中要害。Pandora Halfdanarson, the heroine, leads a staid life in Iowa, where ambitions are as modest as the plains are flat. She has a thriving toy business, a contented marriage and a good relationship with her teenage stepchildren. But these dulling comforts have her craving the “splash of anarchy” that a visit from her cool, jazz-playing brother, Edison, would bring.小说女主人公潘多拉?哈夫达纳森在爱荷华州享受着安稳的生活,那里土地平坦,人们甘于平凡。她的玩具店生意兴隆,婚姻美满,和十几岁的继子女们相处融洽。但波澜不惊的安逸生活让她对“混乱的波澜”心生向往,这份波澜,将由爱迪生—她玩爵士乐的哥哥—带给她。After years of limited contact, however, the sight of him comes as a shock. Her once handsome and sylphlike brother has become a mountain of flesh in a double-wide wheelchair, his jazz-pianist fingers bulging like bratwurst just before the skin splits. “It was rude to stare, and even ruder to cry.” Struggling, Edison hopes to stay with Pandora and her family for a little while. But his presence is outsized and disruptive, his appetites epic, his boastful stories tinged with resentment (“Hey Ive played with some heavy cats, dig?”). Edisons bombast strains Pandoras marriage and disturbs the balance of her life, especially after she hatches a dramatic plan to slim him down in order to save him.兄间多年少有联络,再见面时,被哥哥吓了一跳。她原本相貌英俊、身形窈窕的哥哥如今成了一座瘫在加宽轮椅上的肉山,曾经弹奏爵士钢琴的手指如今鼓胀得像肠衣即将爆裂的德式香肠。“瞪眼直视俨然成了无礼冒犯,泪流满面则更甚。”爱迪生努力想同潘多拉一家人待一段时间。但他身形庞大,到处添乱,胃口惊人,自吹自擂的故事里还捎带着忿恨爱迪生的胡吹乱侃让潘多拉的婚姻关系变得紧张,扰乱了她平静的生活。为了挽救哥哥,潘多拉想出了一个戏剧性的方案来帮他减肥,之后一切更是乱了套。With “Big Brother”, Ms Shriver offers some sage observations on the pleasures of eating, the link between fat and shame and the struggle to lose weight—a “distinctly bourgeois form of suffering”. She suggests that the fundamental problem of food may be that it is “more concept than substance”, an idea of satisfaction if never quite satisfaction itself. The highlight of ingestion is the moment between one bite and the next; actual eating never quite delivers on the tantalising contentment promised between bites.丝薇佛在《老大哥》中提出了一些富有哲理的看法,涉及饮食的乐趣、肥胖和羞耻的关系以及减肥的努力—她称减肥为“典型的中产阶级痛苦”。她认为食物最根本的问题也许在于它“更多的是一个概念,而非物质”,强调的是满足感而非满足本身。摄取食物最令人满足的时刻在咬一口和下一口之间,而两口之间那诱人的满足感并不能通过实际的吃来获得。But this book is not just about bingeing and purging. Ms Shriver writes tenderly about marriage, and also about the potency of blood ties, which are wonderful and horrible for the same reason: there is “no natural limit to what these people can reasonably expect of you”. Her interior monologues are pitch-perfect; her dialogue less so. Yet her main gift as a novelist is a talent for coolly nailing down uncomfortable realities—like the feelings of regret that haunt a sister who asks if she did right by her big brother.但这不只是一本探讨暴饮暴食和心灵净化的书。丝薇佛充满温情地描绘了婚姻,也将血缘亲情的力量娓娓道来,这份力量既美好又可怕,因为“家人以为对你的期待合情合理,而这份期待其实无边无际”。丝薇佛笔下的内心独白精异常,对话稍逊一筹。不过,作为小说家,丝薇佛的天赋在于能够从容地把握令人不安的现实——比如潘多拉不确定自己对哥哥所做的一切是否正确时,那份困扰她的懊悔之情。 /201405/294996Everyone knows that a sharp knife cuts better than a dull one,but do you know why, exactly?众所周知,锋利的刀刃的切割性远胜钝刀,但你知道确切原因吗?The purpose of the cutting edge of a knife is to concentrate the force thats being applied at the handle.刀刃的作用就是将人们用在刀把上的力集中起来。When you push down on the handle of a knife you exert a force.当你按下刀把时,实际上你施加了一种力。The force on the handle and the edge are the same, but the areas in which the force is concentrated are quite different.这种力无论是在刀把还是刀刃上都是等量的,但力的聚集区域不同,所产生的效果则有天壤之别。At the handle your hands force is sp over a wide area, but on the cutting edge it isconcentrated in a very small area, so therefore the pressure on the edge is much greater.在刀把上,力会在一个较广阔的区域传播,但在刀刃上,力会聚集在一个非常小的区域,因此刀刃上的压力会剧增。You can easily see how this works with a piece of modeling clay, a nail with a wide head, and a nail with a small head.只要借助一块橡皮泥、一枚宽头钉和一枚窄头钉,你很容易就能看到这一原理。First hold the nail with the wide head by its shaft and push it head-first into theball of clay.首先将宽头钉的杆竖起,将其头朝下推入橡皮泥球。Then do the same with the small-headed nail.然后对窄头钉做同样动作。The small-headed nail goes into the clay much more easily than the wide-headed nail.窄头钉比宽头钉更容易嵌入橡皮泥。Since thehead of the small nail has less surface area than the big one, the force of your push isconcentrated in a smaller area, exerts more pressure on the clay, and so the nail goes in moreeasily.由于窄头钉的头部面积比宽头钉小,你的推力将集中在一个更小的区域,对橡皮泥产生更大的压力,因此钉子更容易嵌入。The same principle causes pointed high-heeled shoes to sink into a soft surface more easilythan flat shoes.同理,尖高跟鞋比平跟鞋更易陷入表面柔软的物体。By applying this principle to the knife you can see that with a keener edge theres a greaterconcentration of the pressure on the edge, so it takes much less force to make the knife cut.将这一原理运用在刀上,你能看到,在锋利的刀刃上,压力能更好的聚集,因此切割起来更省力。201404/285979

Science and technology科学技术Air travel飞机旅行Please be seated 请就坐A faster way of boarding planes could save time and money一种更快速的登机方法可以节约时间和金钱THE job of the professional astrophysicist is to contemplate the music of the spheres.天体物理学家的工作是凝视太空,欣赏太空中的天体音乐。Given the global nature of modern science,然而,全球化的现代科学,however, todays astrophysicists often spend just as much time confronting the cacophony of the airport.使得今天的天体物理学家也经常花费同样的时间去消除机场方面的不和谐音符。Now, one of them has devised a way to make that experience a little less tedious.现在他们中的一员已经想出了一种方法可以使得登机的过程不再那么乏味。Jason Steffen, from Fermilab, near Chicago, has designed and experimentally tested a faster method of boarding aeroplanes.贾森·史蒂芬,来自于芝加哥附近的费米实验室,已经设计并且实践测试了一种快速登机的方法。By his calculation, it could save airlines hundreds of millions of dollars a year.经过他的测算,这种方法可以为航空公司每年节约数亿美元的开销。Dr Steffen spends his time thinking about such things as extrasolar planets, dark matter and cosmology.史蒂芬士致力于例如太阳系外行星、暗物质、宇宙学等方面的研究。After waiting in a particularly long queue to board a flight, though, he began to harbour an interest in the mechanics of getting people on to planes.但是在经历了一次超长的登机过程后,他对此展示出了兴趣。In 2008 he wrote a computer simulation to test different methods.2008年他写了一个计算机模拟程序来对不同的登机方法进行测试。Using a numerical technique familiar to him from his day job, he was able to find what looked like the best.通过他日常工作中擅长的数值计算方法来查找最佳方案。He has put his answer to the test, and the results have just been submitted for publication to the Journal of Air Transport Management.最终他得到了测试的结论,并且将其投稿到了《空运管理杂志》上。According to Dr Steffen, two things bog down the boarding process.史蒂芬士提出有两大因素容易阻碍登机过程。The first is that passengers are often forced to wait in the aisle while those ahead of them stow their luggage and then get out of the way.第一个是前面的乘客需要安放好他们的行李后才能让开过道,让后面被迫等候的乘客通过;The second is that passengers aly seated in aisle or middle seats often have to get up and move into the aisle to let others take seats nearer the window.第二个是已经就坐在靠过道或者中间位置的乘客需要重新起身站到过道上,让同排靠窗的乘客就坐。Dr Steffens proposal minimises the former type of disturbance and eliminates the latter.史蒂芬士实验的目标是将第一个因素的影响最小化同时消除第二个因素。In the Steffen method, passengers are boarded by seat type while also ensuring that neighbours in the boarding queue are seated in alternating rows.史蒂芬的方法是将乘客按照座位类型分类,同时确认前后的乘客都是按照座位的不同排次交替排队的。First, the window seats for every other row on one side of the plane are boarded.首先让飞机侧靠窗的隔排乘客率先登机,Next, alternate rows of window seats on the opposite side are boarded.接着再换另一侧靠窗的隔排乘客登机。Then, the window seats in the skipped rows are filled in on each side.接下去让两边被跳过的排序乘客先后就坐,这样就靠窗的位子就坐满了。The procedure then repeats with the middle seats and the aisles.然后重复同样的方法来使得中间位子和靠过道的位子相继就坐。By boarding alternate rows in this way, passengers are spaced far enough apart along the aisle to stow their luggage in parallel, all at the same time.用这种方法让交叉排序的乘客登机,使得他们可以同时在过道上有足够的空间来将他们的行李安放到行李架上,Because passengers in the same seat types board together, they do not have to step over each other to swap seats.而且因为每次登机时的乘客都是同一个座位分类,因此他们不需要从座位上起身给别人让行。To test the idea, Dr Steffen conducted a test using passengers and a mock Boeing 757 fuselage.为了测试这个想法,史蒂芬士用一个模拟的波音757机身和一些乘客做了个实验。The fuselage had a single aisle and 12 rows.这个模拟机身有一条过道和12排。Seventy-two passengers boarded, towing their bags and roll-aboard suitcases.实验中72名乘客登机,并安放他们的包裹和行李箱。In addition to the Steffen method, the team tried boarding in a strict back-to-front order, block boardingand boarding in random order.除了史蒂芬的方法外,实验团队还尝试了另外两种登机方法,有严格按照后排先上按区块顺序登机的分块登机法和随机登机法。Standard block boarding turned out to be the slowest way to do things, taking almost seven minutes to fill the 12 rows.标准的分区登机方法被实是速度最慢的。坐满12排几乎需要7分钟的时间。Dr Steffens system took half that time.而史蒂芬士的方法只需要其一半左右的时间。Indeed, it was the fastest performing of the methods tested.事实上,它是被测试的几个方法中速度最快的了。With full-sized planes, the benefit should increase, as more people can stow their luggage simultaneously along the longer aisles.如果全尺寸的飞机使用这个方法,那受益会更多,因为会有更多的乘客在更长的通道上同时安放他们的行李。Although Dr Steffen admits that the airline industry has shown no interest in his method so far, he points out that, in principle, there should be no barriers to its adoption.尽管史蒂芬士承认,还没有航空公司对他的方法表现出兴趣,但他指出,这个方法实施起来是没有障碍的。Though directing airline passengers on to a plane is a little like herding cats some airlines, such as Southwest, aly try to get their passengers to line up in a certain order before boarding.尽管有些廉价的航空公司例如美国西南航空,乘客们经常会一窝蜂的登机,但是也已经在尝试让他们的乘客们在登机前按照某种次序排队。If travellers believed that complying with the new arrangements really would make their lives easier, they would probably do so.一旦乘客们确信遵照这种方法可以使他们活得更轻松,他们是会愿意这么做的。And by Dr Steffens calculations, airlines have a pretty strong incentive to persuade them.而且经过史蒂芬士的计算,航空公司有足够吸引力的理由说他们。Previous work has shown that every minute a plane spends at the terminal costs .有数据表明飞机在停机位每分钟的开销是30美元,Assuming the average carrier runs 1,500 flights a day, saving as little as six minutes per flight would add up to 0m a year.假设平均每个机场每天起飞1500架次飞机,每架次可以节约6分钟的话,那每年至少可以节约一亿美元。For hard-pressed airlines running on razor-thin margins, that really would be astronomical.对于处于重压之下且薄利的航空公司来讲,这无疑是个天文数字。 /201305/241374

Business this week本周经济要闻General Electric won its battle to buy Alstoms energy businesses, but only after it substantially altered its bid and gave a commitment to keep Alstoms base and workforce in France. The French government is taking a 20% stake in Alstom as part of the rejigged 17 billion acquisition, GEs biggest. GEs initial proposal was accepted by Alstoms board but rejected by Fran?ois Hollandes government as a threat to the national interest. A potential spoiler offer for Alstom had also emerged from Siemens and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.通用电气赢得了争购阿尔斯通能源业务的战斗,但前提是通用电气需大大改变其报价,并承诺保留阿尔斯通在法国的基地和就业岗位。作为重新调整的高达170亿美元并购案的一部分,法国政府占有阿尔斯通20%的股份,而通用电气是其最大股东。阿尔斯通公司董事会接受了通用电气的初始投标,但弗朗索瓦·奥朗德政府以威胁国家利益为由反对该项交易。西门子公司和三菱重工则是潜在的阿尔斯通收购案搅局者。Demolition job自毁工作Dubais stockmarket fell by almost 7% on June 24th, extending a six-week slump. Property companies account for 31% of the index and investors are nervous about the management and direction of Dubais biggest construction firm, Arabtec, which built the Burj Khalifa skyscraper. Arabtecs share price has plunged this month, though it was lifted on June 25th by reassurances that its restructuring would cut costs, prompting a rally in the stockmarket.迪拜股市在6月24日重挫7%,延续长达了6周的不景气。房地产公司占该指数31%,投资者们担心迪拜最大建筑公司,阿拉伯特科的管理和方向问题。该公司建造了哈里发塔天大楼。本月阿拉伯特科公司股票暴跌,虽然该公司股价曾因其再三保公司改组以降低成本而在6月25号上升,促使其股市反弹。Etihad, a global airline based in Abu Dhabi, came to the rescue of Alitalia, Italys loss-making national carrier, which was facing bankruptcy, by agreeing to buy a 49% holding. The deal is Etihads eighth stake in a foreign airline.总部位于阿布扎比的阿提哈德航空公司,来拯救亏损的意大利国有航空公司,后者正面临破产。阿提哈德公司同意购买49%股份。该项交易是提哈德公司第八次入股外国航空公司。New York states attorney-general brought charges against Barclays for allegedly lying to investors about its safeguards to protect them from “predatory high-frequency traders” in the banks dark-pool investments. These allow portfolio managers to shift sizeable positions in shares anonymously. New York has warned of a clampdown on high-speed trading.纽约州总检察官指控巴克莱涉嫌在安全措施上欺骗投资者,这些安全措施是为了保护投资者避免“掠夺性高频投资者”在暗池投资方面的侵害。这些运行股票经理以匿名方式在股票中转变相当大的位置。纽约已经警告要取缔高速交易。Americas economy shrank by 2.9% at an annual rate in the first three months of the year, according to a final official estimate, the biggest contraction in GDP since the first quarter of . A notably harsh winter is said to have depressed spending and investment, but exports also suffered.根据最终的官方统计,按年利率计算,美国经济萎缩了2.9%。这是自年一季度以来最大的GDP萎缩。据称,这个显著严酷的冬天抑制了出和投资,出口也受其影响。Turkeys central bank cut its main interest rate by three-quarters of a percentage point, to 8.75%. This followed a half-point cut last month that was described as “a joke” by the prime minister, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who has put pressure on the bank to do more to boost economic growth.土耳其中央下调主要利率0.75%,至8.75%。紧随着上个月被总理雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安称之为“一个笑话”的降息0.5%。总理埃尔多安向施压,要求其采取措施促进经济增长。There was some scratching of heads in the City after Mark Carney, the governor of the Bank of England, sought to dampen expectations of an interest-rate rise by pointing out the weak spots in the growing British economy. Mr Carney had earlier given a strong signal that the central bank would raise rates this year for the first time since . Markets are still betting on that happening, though a senior Conservative MP has remarked that Mr Carney likes to give “quite a lot of guidance, not all of it seeming to point in the same direction”.在国央行行长马克·卡尼试图通过指出正不断增长的英国经济的弱点来寻求抑制提升利率期望后,伦敦就有点摸不着头脑了。较早前,卡尼先生发出强烈信号,即自年以来,中央将在今年首次提高利率。市场仍在这件事上押宝,虽然一位资深保守党议员,卡尼先生喜欢给“许许多多的指示,看起来并不是所有的指示都朝一个方向”。Meanwhile, the banks Financial Policy Commitee introduced new guidelines to curb excessive mortgage lending in Britains housing market. It said household debt did not pose an immediate threat to economic stability, but it was taking action to stop it from rising much further.与此同时,的金融政策委员会出台了新指导措施,以遏制英国房地产市场过度的按揭贷款。它说,家庭债务并没有立即威胁经济稳定,但金融政策委员会正采取措施,以防止其进一步恶化。Inversion method反演方法Shire, a British drug company, rejected a ?27 billion bid from AbbVie, an American rival, in the latest instance of an unsolicited takeover approach from a cash-rich American company seeking to establish business in a country with a lower corporate-tax rate. Shire itself is domiciled in Ireland.一家英国制药公司,夏尔,拒绝了美国竞争对手艾伯维公司高达270亿英镑的投标。这是这家资金充裕的美国公司寻求在企业税率较低国家建立商业的最新的不请自来的并购方式。夏尔公司总部位于爱尔兰。A crippling five-month strike by platinum miners in South Africa was declared to be over when the biggest union signed a wage deal with the mining companies. It was the most expensive strike to hit South Africa, resulting in a combined 2 billion in lost revenues for the biggest firms.在南非,当最大的工会和矿业公司签订工资协议后,由铂矿工发起的长达五个月的严重罢工宣布结束。这是发生在南非最昂贵的罢工,导致了最大的公司总计20亿美元的收入损失。The war of words continued between Dov Charney, the ousted boss of American Apparel, and the board that sacked him. Mr Charney has faced allegations from female employees of inappropriate conduct. The company has also run up a pile of debt and sales have slackened. But Mr Charney has pledged to fight his dismissal, accusing the board of being “hateful”. He owns 27% of the company.被赶下台的美国饰老板多夫·查尼和赶他下台的董事会之间的口水战在继续上演。查尼先生面临女性员工指控其不当行为。该公司还积欠着一堆债务并且销售放缓。但是查尼先生发誓为免职维权,指责董事会行为“可恶”。他拥有该公司股权的27%。In a victory for television and cable networks, Americas Supreme Court ruled that a streaming service run by Aereo that uses tiny antennae to divert TV programmes to computers and phones violates copyright laws.在这次传统电视和有限网络的胜利中,美国最高法院裁定由天空公司运营的使用微型天线转变电视节目到电脑和手机的流媒体务违反了版权法。The Yo rider哟,新骑手Yo, a messaging app through which people can send only a one-word text—“Yo”—was downloaded 1m times in just a few days on the back of publicity about it being hacked. Investors have reportedly stumped up 1m in startup funding for the business.哟,一个消息应用程序,通过它人们可以传递仅有一个字的信息—“哟”—紧随着被曝遭黑客攻击后的几天内,下载了一百万次。据说,投资者为该项生意拿出1百万美元起始资金。 201407/309899The real Jane Austen一个真实的简奥斯汀As vital as her stories生气勃勃,人如其著She still fascinates 200 years after the publication of ;Pride and Prejudice;《傲慢与偏见》问世两百年后,她依然神秘撩人The Real Jane Austen: A Life in Small Things. By Paula Byrne.《真实的简奥斯汀:细微之物,足见平生》 宝拉伯恩著“A LIFE of usefulness, literature, and religion, was not by any means a life of event,” wrote Henry Austen of his spinster sister Jane. This image of the sequestered author persisted for years. But contemporary scholars have reappraised “dear Aunt Jane” as an independent and worldly-wise woman who wielded a sardonic pen. She continues to fascinate, 200 years after the publication of “Pride and Prejudice”. This is the charm of a new biography from Paula Byrne, a British author, who breathes yet more life into Austen and her works by considering the objects that populated her days.“她的一生虽裨益他人,与文学与宗教为伴,却并无白云苍,大起大伏。”简的哥哥亨利曾这样写道。多年以来,简的形象一直是终生未嫁,隐僻幽居。然而,当代学者开始重新审视这名“亲爱的奥斯汀姑姑”,把她看作一个深谙尘世智慧的独立女性,舞动着手中的讥讽之笔。《傲慢与偏见》问世两百年后,她依然神秘撩人——这份魅力同样延续到英国作家宝拉伯恩为奥斯汀所著的传记之中。在宝拉笔下,那个时代的流行物件,是通向奥斯汀生平及著作神秘之门的钥匙,展示出一个更加生气勃勃的简。Each chapter is organised around a single thing. Some are Austens possessions, such as a topaz cross she received from her brother. Others are simply from the period, such as a barouche (an upmarket carriage), which helps to illustrate how well-travelled she was and how transport indicates status in her novels. In “Northanger Abbey” Catherine Morland finds a trip in Henry Tilneys curricle erotic, whereas she is nonplussed by John Thorpes gig. Broadly chronological, this thematic approach offers a revealing picture of Austen and a lively social history.这本传记的每一章都围绕着一个单独的物件展开。有些是奥斯汀的私人收藏,例如她从哥哥那儿得到的一个托帕石十字架。其余的则是那个时代的流行品,例如四轮马车(一驾上等马车),足现她游历之广以及在她的作品中,交通工具对于身份的烘托。在《诺桑觉寺》里,凯瑟琳.莫兰觉得享利.蒂尔尼的二轮马车新奇诱人,面对约翰.索普的马车时却不知所措。这种主题式的记传方式,按时序徐徐展开一幅奥斯汀生平及其活跃的社会活动的长卷。Austens formative years are the most interesting. Three vellum notebooks contain her “Juvenilia”—the stories and poems she wrote as a teenager. Her “greatest gifts are here in embryo”, writes Ms Byrne, clearly relishing Austens satire and lack of restraint. The young author lampooned famous figures and offered parodies of sentimental novels. But she reserved her choicest words of wit for her sister Cassandra. When they were not living together they corresponded frequently, and Austen often tried out different voices—“gossipy, jokey, affectionate”—to make her laugh.奥斯汀写作的成型期最耐人寻味。有三本羊皮纸笔记记录了她的“少女之作”——她在青少年时期写的故事与诗歌。宝拉很享受此时奥斯汀式的讥讽语调和无拘无束,她写道,她“无与伦比的天赋在此酝酿成型”。此时年轻的奥斯汀嘲讽当时鼎鼎有名的人物,戏仿那些多愁善感的小说。但是她最具智慧锋芒的字字珠玑却是散落在与其姊卡桑德拉的信件中。两人不住在一处时便频繁通信,而奥斯汀常常尝试不同的腔调——漫谈式的,玩笑式的,或是浪漫式的——来逗她发笑。During this time the movements of family followed the flows of inheritance; a vexatious matter that drives Austens narratives. Old maids and mothers were often housed by rich cousins; a child might be made heir to childless relatives. An East Indian shawl introduces Aunt Phila—who at 21 sailed to Bengal in order to find a husband—and her daughter, Eliza. A romantic figure, and presumably illegitimate, Eliza first married a man who fell under the guillotine in the French Revolution, and later married Austens brother Henry. This coquettish cousin is fictionalised as Mary Crawford in “Mansfield Park”. Austen also drew on Henrys militia experience for her depiction of flirtatious redcoats in “Pride and Prejudice”. Her midshipman brothers helped inform references to the navy.在这段时期,因为继承的缘故,她不得不经常搬迁—这类烦心事反倒丰富了她的叙述内容。老姑娘和母亲总是寄居在有钱的侄子家中;孩子会成为膝下无子的亲戚的继承人。一条来自东印度的披肩引出了费拉阿姨—她在二十一岁时乘船到孟加拉寻找结婚对象——和她的女儿伊莱莎的故事。伊莱莎是个天性浪漫的私生女,她的先夫死于法国大革命的断头台上;后来她嫁给了奥斯汀的哥哥亨利。这个轻佻娇纵的嫂子后来成了她在《曼斯菲尔德庄园》里玛丽.克劳福德的原型。亨利本人的军旅生涯也为她在《傲慢与偏见》中浮夸的“红制”军人形象提供了素材。而她作做海军的兄弟们则提供了海军生活的第一手材料。The books liveliest passages are about city life and romance. Austen frequently visited London and lived in Bath for years. She was probably not a beauty—only one authenticated portrait exists (although Ms Byrne makes a strong case for another with uncertain provenance). But her wit and intelligence lured many a suitor. None of them stuck, but many are recalled with mirth in her letters. Austen was no prude. Her novels feature illicit liaisons and she gives Mary Crawford a sexually loaded naval joke about “Rears and Vices”. But she had high standards and a mortal fear of childbirth. She was all too aware of the way women either died during labour or “grew old by confinements and nursing”.这本传记最轻快活泼的篇章描述了城市生活和浪漫故事。奥斯汀频繁造访伦敦并在巴斯寓居多年。她可能算不得一个美人—她的画像中只有一幅真迹存世(尽管宝拉坚信另一幅来历不明的画像也是真迹),但是她的机锋和智慧却吸引了许多追求者。无人获其芳心,成就美眷;然而在她的信件中,关于他们的回忆大多充满欢乐。奥斯汀并非严肃拘谨之人,她的小说写到过男女私通;玛丽.克劳福德就曾开过一个下流的海军玩笑“臀部与罪恶”。不过她的确道德自律,且畏惧生产。她十分明白:有些女性会死于生产,或是在不断怀和持续哺乳中年华逝去。Ms Byrne has an obvious affection for her subject. This book may offer few revelations, but it paints a fresh and vivid picture of an inimitable woman.显而易见,宝拉对其传记对象—简奥斯汀—充满喜爱之情。这本书可能并无多少“惊人内幕”,但它无疑描绘出了这名独一无二的女性—血肉丰满,栩栩如生。 /201406/304652

One of the really interesting things about the nicotine in cigarettes is that it works in two ways.香烟中尼古丁的其中一个非常有趣的特质是,它以两种完全不同的方式工作。When you take a long drag, it acts as a tranquilizer, but when you inhale in short puffs, it acts as a stimulant. And one of the side-effects of stimulants is that they suppress the appetite.如果你长期吸烟,那么它会起到镇定剂的作用,但如果你只吸几口,它则会成为兴奋剂。而兴奋剂的其中一个副作用则是抑制食欲。One of the most successful ad campaigns for cigarettes encouraged women to smoke instead of eat. And the fact is that cigarette smokers do weigh less on average than nonsmokers. Research shows that quitting smoking can make you gain between five and twelve pounds.其中一个最成功的香烟广告活动就是鼓励女士们用吸烟代替吃饭。实际上,吸烟者通常的确比不抽烟的人体重要轻。调查发现,戒烟会导致体重增加五到十二磅。Physicians recommend moderate exercise like walking for thirty minutes, three times a week. Not only does exercise help control weight gain, it also helps ease the stressful feelings associated with quitting.医生建议进行适当的锻炼,比如每周三次进行步行,每次步行三十分钟。运动不仅可以控制体重,而且能放松因戒烟导致的紧张情绪。You can also try to limit alcohol and cut down on foods high in fat, but keep in mind that most experts think that it isn’t a good idea to go on a strict diet and try to quit smoking at the same time. You should focus on one health challenge at a time.你也可以控制饮酒并减少高脂肪食物摄入,但请谨记,大多数专家不建议在戒烟的同时进行节食。你应该一次锁定一个健康目标。 /201309/256203

Science and technology科学技术Post-traumatic stress disorder创伤后精神紧张性障碍Battle y?士兵,你准备好了吗?It may be possible to vaccinate soldiers against the trauma of war为士兵接种抗战争创伤疫苗成为可能WITH its deafening explosions, searing fires, dismembered corpses and stench of death, war pushes everyone it touches to the brink.爆炸声震耳欲聋,通红的火舌四处蔓延,残肢断臂尸横遍野,臭气熏天,战场上,每个人都濒临崩溃的边缘。Most recover naturally.一些人会慢慢恢复,Some, though, suffer psychological injuries that do not heal.然而有的人一辈子都在受精神创伤的折磨。The names of these injuries have changed.这些创伤几经更名,Once they were known as shell-shock; then as battle fatigue; then as combat stress reaction.起初称作炮弹休克,紧接着是战斗疲劳症,而后又变为战斗应激反应。Now, the preferred term is post-traumatic stress disorder.如今流行的说法是创伤后精神紧张性障碍。But whatever they are called, they are worryingly common.令人担忧的是,尽管名称更易频繁,是指内容却大同小异。About 17% of American troops returning from Iraq and 11% of those coming back from Afghanistan suffer from them.从伊拉克和阿富汗回国的美国士兵中,各有17%和11%罹患此症。The most common treatment is known as exposure-based therapy.暴露疗法是治疗PTSD最常用的方法。This asks those afflicted to imagine the sights and sounds that traumatised them, and helps them confront those memories.医生会要求患者复原那些使其精神受创的画面和声音,然后再将它们从记忆中一一删除。It often works. But not always.虽然此法卓有成效,但却不是万灵药。And it would undoubtedly be better if troops did not develop the condition in the first place.毫无疑问,最重要的还是能将致病诱因消除。With this in mind, a team of engineers, computer scientists and psychologists led by Skip Rizzo at the University of Southern California propose a form of psychological vaccination.鉴于此,由南加州大学斯卡普·里兹士组织带领的,包括工程师、计算机科学家和心理学家在内的科研小队提出了注射心理疫苗的构想。By presenting soldiers with the horrors of war before they set off to fight, Dr Rizzo hopes to inure squaddies to anything they might witness on the field of battle.通过向出征前的士兵展示可能发生的恐怖战争场景,里兹士希望他们能适应真实的战地环境。The idea of doing this developed from Dr Rizzos work using virtual reality to help with exposure-based therapy.里兹士的这个想法来源于虚拟现实与暴露疗法的相互结合。Such VR enables the sights, sounds, vibrations and even smells of the battlefield to be recreated in the safety of a clinic, and trials suggest it can help those who do not respond to standard exposure-based therapy.虚拟现实能够在安全的诊所里复原出战场的画面、声音、颤动,甚至是气味,相关试验还表明虚拟现实对未接受暴露疗法的患者同样有效。The success of such simulation led Dr Rizzo to wonder if a similar regime, experienced before actual battle, might prepare troops mentally in the way that traditional training prepares them physically.模拟现实治疗法大获成功,使其设想类似方法能否运用在出征前的士兵身上,这样一来,除了军队提供的体能训练之外,他们的心理也做好了应对战争的准备。His preliminary results suggest it might.初步研结果似乎实了士的设想。The virtual training course Dr Rizzo and his team have developed leads soldiers through a tour of duty that includes seeing and handling human remains, experiencing the death of virtual comrades to whom they have become emotionally close, and watching helplessly as a child dies.在接受虚拟训练的役期间,里兹士的团队将引导士兵接触并学会处理死尸的方法,士兵还将体会到虚拟情境下亲密战友的牺牲,以及对儿童面临死亡的爱莫能助。Unlike a real battlefield, though, a virtual one can be frozen, and events occurring there discussed at leisure.虚拟战场的独特之处在于它可以随叫随停,学员也可以在体验之余参与讨论。When that happens, a virtual mentor emerges from the midst of the chaos to guide the user through stress-reduction tactics he can deploy.每当士兵情绪波动,不能自已的时候,画面上就会出现一位虚拟导师向他们传授适用的减压技巧,These may be as simple as breathing deeply, or as sophisticated as objectively recognising normal reactions to stress, and thus realising that your own reactions are normal too.既有深呼吸这样简便易行的方法,也有一些较为复杂的应对措施,例如让士兵认识到抗压反应的合理性,这样他们就不会再对自己的抗压反应遮遮掩掩。To monitor what is going on Dr Rizzos colleague Galen Buckwalter tracks physiological markers of stress, such as the reactions of participants pupils to what their eyes are seeing, their electrocardiograms and their galvanic skin responses.里兹的同事伽林·布克沃特士负责对士兵压力状态下的生理指标进行跟踪监测。其中包括受试者观看图像时的瞳孔反应,心电图特征以及体表电流状况。Dr Buckwalter hopes that as his charges become more psychologically prepared for battle, these markers will change in recognisable ways.布克沃特士希望出征士兵的各项指标能随着日益强健的心理承受力而变得更加易于辨识。This will allow officers to identify who is, and is not, y for combat.这样,军官们就可以对每个士兵的备战情况了然于胸。That would be an obvious boon.心理疫苗的好处显而易见,But it could also create problems, for it is a long-standing belief of most armed forces that, with proper training, anyone can become a warrior.但问题也随之产生,因为长久以来,很多军队都坚信只要训练得当,每个人都可以成为合格的士兵。Dr Buckwalters work would undermine this philosophy if it showed that no amount of training was ever going to change some peoples markers.如果布克沃特士的实验能够明训练与指标并无直接联系,这样的也就随之不攻自破了。If that were the case, should such soldiers then be excused active duty?如果事实果真如此,是不是有些士兵就不能继续役了?As things stand, those with physical limitations who apply to serve in America are still recruited, but are given only work that they are physically capable of doing.现实的情况是,美国军队对那些身体有缺陷的现役士兵依旧敞开大门,但只让他们做一些力所能及的事情。Should applicants with psychological limitations be treated similarly?对心理有障碍的士兵是否应该采取类似的措施呢?Perhaps they should.或许是肯定的。For if it does prove possible to sort those who are likely to become inured to wars horrors from those who will not, one result would be a more effective fighting force.如果挑选的士兵更能适应恐惧的战争,不仅能大大提高部队的战斗力,A second would be the consequential elimination of one of those horrors—the psychological wounds that are often regarded by soldiers who suffer them as worse than physical ones.还能降低心理遭受心理创伤的概率,因为在受过创伤的士兵眼里,心灵的折磨远远超过身体上的苦痛。 /201312/270428Science and technology科学技术Solar power from space太空太阳能Beam it down, Scotty老兄,传下来吧Harvesting solar power in space, for use on Earth, comes a step closer to reality在太空获取太阳能以供地球之用:梦想距现实又近了一步THE idea of collecting solar energy in space and beaming it to Earth has been around for at least 70 years.在太空获取太阳能并传送回地球这一创意存在了至少有70年了。In “Reason”, a short story by Isaac Asimov that was published in 1941, a space station transmits energy collected from the sun to various planets using microwave beams.由艾萨克·阿西莫夫创作、1941年发表的短篇故事《推理》,描述了一个太空站将获取的太阳能以微波束的方式传送至多个星球的场景。The advantage of intercepting sunlight in space, instead of letting it find its own way through the atmosphere, is that so much gets absorbed by the air.相比于让阳光穿过大气层后再获取太阳能,在太空中截取太阳能的一大优点就是大气吸收的能量很少。By converting it to the right frequency first a space-based collector could, enthusiasts claim, yield on average five times as much power as one located on the ground.热衷者声称,首先通过调节阳光至适当频率,在太空中的太阳能收集器可以吸收五倍于地面收集器的能源。The disadvantage is cost.缺点在于成本高。Launching and maintaining suitable satellites would be ludicrously expensive.适用卫星的发射和维护成本会高得惊人。But perhaps not, if the satellites were small and the customers specialised.但也许不会—如果卫星足够小、且是为专门客户务。Military expeditions, rescuers in disaster zones, remote desalination plants and scientific-research bases might be willing to pay for such power from the sky.军事远征队、灾区救援人员、偏远的脱盐工厂和科研基地也许会愿意为太空太阳能买单。And a research group based at the University of Surrey, in England, hopes that in a few years it will be possible to offer it to them.英国萨里大学的一个研究小组希望在未来几年内可以提供太空太阳能。Heavenly power天国能源This summer, Stephen Sweeney and his colleagues will test a laser that would do the job which Asimov assigned to microwaves.今年夏天,斯蒂芬·斯维尼和同事将测试一个激光器,该激光器用来完成阿西莫夫为微波“指派”的任务。Certainly, microwaves would work: a test carried out in 2008 transmitted useful amounts of microwave energy between two Hawaiian islands 148km apart, so penetrating the 100km of the atmosphere would be a doddle.当然,微波可以发挥作用:2008年进行的一项测试为相距148公里的夏威夷两岛传送了大量的微波能,所以穿越100公里的大气层应该易如反掌。But microwaves sp out as they propagate.但微波在传送过程中会扩散。A collector on Earth that was picking up power from a geostationary satellite orbiting at an altitude of 35,800km would need to be sp over hundreds of square metres.接收35,800公里外的地球同步卫星传送的能源所需的地面收集器需覆盖数百平方米。Using a laser means the collector need be only tens of square metres in area.而使用激光器则意味着收集器面积仅需达到几十平米。Dr Sweeneys team, working in collaboration with Astrium,斯维尼士的团队正与卫星和太空公司Astrium合作。a satellite-and-space company that is part of EADS, a European aerospace group, will test the system in a large aircraft hangar in Germany.Astrium隶属于欧洲一航天集团欧洲宇航防务集团。斯维尼士的团队将在德国一座大型飞机库测试该系统。The beam itself will be produced by a device called a fibre laser.光束将由光纤激光器发出。This generates the coherent light of a laser beam in the core of a long, thin optical fibre.该激光器利用细长的光纤核心汇聚激光束。That means the beam produced is of higher quality than other lasers, is extremely straight and can thus be focused onto a small area.这意味着产生的光束比其他激光器发射的光束质量更高,最直接,也因此可以汇聚到更小的区域内。Another bonus is that such lasers are becoming more efficient and ever more powerful.另外一个益处就是此类激光器效率正逐步提高、力量更大。In the case of Dr Sweeneys fibre laser, the beam will have a wavelength of 1.5 microns, making it part of the infra-red spectrum. This wavelength corresponds to one of the best windows in the atmosphere.斯维尼士采用的光纤激光器发射的光束波长将达到1.5微米,从而使其达到红外线的光谱范围。该波长正处于大气最佳窗口之一。The beam will be aimed at a collector on the other side of the hangar, rather than several kilometres away.光束将瞄准飞机库另一侧的—而不是数公里之外的——收集器。The idea is to test the effects on the atmospheric window of various pollutants, and also of water vapour, by releasing them into the building.通过释放各种污染物以及水蒸气至机库中,该创意旨在测试这些物质对大气窗口的影响。Assuming all goes well, the next step will be to test the system in space.如果一切都进行顺利,下一步将是在太空中测试该系统。That could happen about five years from now, perhaps using a laser on the International Space Station to transmit solar power collected by its panels to Earth.这可能要在五年之后实现,或许会利用国际空间站上的激光器将空间站电池板收集的太阳能传送回地球。Such an experimental system would deliver but a kilowatt of power, as a test.作为测试,该试验系统将只传送一千瓦的能量。In 10-15 years Astrium hopes it will be possible to deploy a complete, small-scale orbiting power station producing significantly more than that from its own solar cells.Astrium 希望在未来10到15年的时间内能够建立一个完整的、小规模的、沿轨道运行的太阳能站,利用自身的太阳能电池发出大量电能。Other researchers, in America and Japan, are also looking at using lasers rather than microwaves to transmit power through the atmosphere.美日其他研究者也在考虑弃微波、用激光器,穿过大气层将能量传送回地球。NASA, Americas space agency, has started using them to beam energy to remotely controlled drones.美国航天机构国家航空航天局已开始采用激光器传送能源至遥控飞机。Each stage of converting and transmitting power results in a loss of efficiency, but with technological improvements these losses are being reduced.能量转化、传送的每一个环节都会有一定的功耗,但随着技术的改进,损耗正在降低。Some of the latest solar cells, for instance, can covert sunlight into electricity with an efficiency of more than 40%. In the 1980s, 20% was thought good.例如,部分最新型的太阳能电池将阳光转换成电能的功率超过了40%。而在上世纪80年代,20%的功率就很高了。Whether the Astrium system will remain a specialised novelty or will be the forerunner of something more like the cosmic power stations of Asimovs imagination is anybodys guess.Astrium 系统将是一个专业用途的创新,还是某个更接近阿西莫夫想象中的太空太阳能电站的先导?一切都还是未知数。But if it comes to pass at all, it will be an intriguing example, like the geostationary communications satellites dreamed up by Asimovs contemporary, Arthur C. Clarke, of the musings of a science-fiction author becoming science fact.但倘若系统通过测试,它定将激起人们的兴趣,正如与阿西莫夫同一时代的科幻小说作家亚瑟·C·克拉克所梦想的地球同步通讯卫星一样——梦想最终成为了现实。 /201304/236714Business商业报道Starbucks v Kraft星巴克对决卡夫A double shot of discord不合引发连环炮The kings of coffee brawl with the monarchs of macaroni咖啡之王对决通心粉之霸STARBUCKS once seemed so unstoppable that the Onion, a satirical paper, joked about a new Starbucks opening in the restroom of an existing Starbucks.星巴克曾经势不可挡,以至于以嘲讽著称的onion报开玩笑称星巴克的新店会开在老店的厕所内。Yet by January 2008, when Howard Schultz, the coffee chains most effective boss, returned as chief executive,但是在2008年前,直至最为卓著的领导人Howard Schultz返回公司担任董事长。it was rapidly declining.他的业绩款速下降。Mr Schultz closed stores, shed staff, slimmed the supply chain and arrested Starbuckss slide.Schultz先生关闭门店,裁减雇员,简化供应链。In fiscal 2010 the firms operating margins rebounded to 13.8%, the highest in its 40-year history.力挽了星巴克的颓势。2010财政年度,星巴克的运营利润率反弹至13.8%,为星巴克40年历史的最高。One of the problems Mr Schultz found, after a review of the business, was in the way Starbucks-brand coffee was sold in supermarkets.重新审视业务之后,Schultz发现其中一个问题-星巴克品牌在超市里售卖。The so-called consumer-packaged goods business is handled by Kraft, Americas biggest food company, which is best known for having mastered the art of mixing macaroni with cheese.号称快消品业务是由美国最大的食品公司卡夫经营的,卡夫由于其搅拌芝士通心粉而被人熟知。Following an agreement in 1998, Kraft sells, markets and distributes bags of Starbucks coffee.按照1998年达成的协议,卡夫分销袋装星巴克咖啡。Mr Schultz told Kraft he was dissatisfied.Schultz先生告知卡夫他对此感到不满意。Kraft acknowledged the complaint, but, according to Starbucks, failed to act because it was focused on the takeover of Cadbury, a maker of superior British sweets such as Creme Eggs.卡夫实了Schultz的抱怨,但是按照星巴克的说法,他之所以不采取行动是由于卡夫把业务重心放在收购吉百利上面,吉百利是英国优质糖果制造商,其代表商品有糖心巧克力。By the spring of last year, both sides realised that their partnership was broken.去年春天,双方都意识到他们的合作关系已经破裂。Starbucks says it offered Kraft 0m to give back the CPG business.星巴克声称他将出价5亿美元买回其快消业余。As part of the proposed deal, it still wanted to supply capsules for Tassimo, Krafts single-portion coffee machines.作为意向交易的一部分,星巴克依然使用卡夫的全自动Tassimo咖啡机。Kraft initially agreed to the buy-out offer, but then changed its mind and demanded another 0m, according to Starbucks.星巴克声称:卡夫同意了此项收购,但是接着就改变了主意并要求追加2亿。Kraft disputes this account.卡夫对否认了此种说法。It claims that Starbucks offered 0m to buy out the business in August.卡夫声称星巴在八月克出价7.5亿美元来买下了业务,It adds that it rejected the offer.卡夫补充到其拒绝了此项收购,A fair price would be .5 billion, Kraft says.合适的价格应该为15亿美元。In October Starbucks told Kraft that it was in material breach of their agreement.十月,星巴克告知卡夫他严重违约。Unless the matter was resolved within 30 days, Starbucks said, all their agreements would end by March 1st and Kraft would get nothing.除非30日内得到解决,否则所有协议最迟将于3月1日作废届时卡夫将一无所获。The alleged breaches include Krafts failure to involve Starbucks in sales planning, to provide detailed budgets and to obtain approval for advertising.所谓的违约包括卡夫未能将星巴克纳入到其销售计划中,未能提供详尽的经费以及未能获得广告推广的批准。Starbucks says Kraft also violated an exclusivity deal by promoting its own premium coffee.星巴克说卡夫还通过推广自己的优质咖啡而违反了了排他协议。Kraft says all these alleged breaches are baseless.卡夫方面宣称这些所谓的违约时无依据的,It says Starbucks brewed them up to give itself a pretext for grabbing back the best part of its business without paying for it.星巴克制造了这些说辞来作为重夺优质市场而不花一分钱的借口,星巴克的咖啡店业务进展缓慢。On November 29th Kraft initiated an arbitration proceeding to challenge this move.Schul提起开始仲裁希望改变这种情况。Ignoring the arbitration, Starbucks said a couple of days later that from March onwards it would distribute its packaged coffee through Acosta, a marketing firm.星巴克方面宣称将不理会仲裁并于数十天后的3月开始通过行销机构Acosta来销售包装咖啡。On December 6th Kraft sought a preliminary injunction against Starbucks in a District Court of New York, for allegedly violating the terms of their agreement.据宣称12月6日卡夫以违反协议条款为理由向纽约地区地区法院申请一项初步禁令,The hearing of the injunction is tentatively scheduled for January 27th.听会将暂定于于1月27日举行。Kraft says that it played a central role in the success of Starbuckss packaged-coffee business, which grew tenfold during the course of their partnership.卡夫方面称其在星巴克的包装咖啡业务从双方开始合作到现今增长十倍上发挥着核心作用。Starbucks retorts that it could have grown faster if someone else had handled it.星巴克方面则反驳若是其他人经营业务本该增长的更快Even so, it will be tricky to prove material breaches of the agreement, so Starbucks will probably have to pay to end it.即便这样,明重大违约行为将变得非常棘手,星巴克极有可能以收购了事。Kraft stands to lose not only a lucrative business but also some “category captaincies”.卡夫不仅失去了获利颇丰的业务而且部分领军地位。Each large American retailer elects a product-category captain who is closely involved in how its sales are managed.每个美国大型零售商都会选择一家积极处理与之相关业务的领军企业。Kraft is category captain in more than 60% of the supermarkets in which it distributes coffee.卡夫占据了超市咖啡分销市场60%以上的份额,Acosta will soon be vying for this profitable honour.Acosta也将紧盯这快大肥肉。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201304/234305

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