盐城市妇幼保健院治疗阳痿早泄服务新闻

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月19日 06:44:30
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Science and technology科学技术Combating addiction抵抗毒瘾Can a vaccine stop drug abuse?有抗毒品的疫苗么?It may be possible to vaccinate people against addictive drugs也许通过接种疫苗帮助人们摆脱毒瘾将成为可能THE idea of vaccinating drug addicts against their affliction is an intriguing one.给瘾君子注射疫苗以帮助他们摆脱痛苦是一个非常有趣得想法。In principle, it should not be too hard.原则上,这并不难。The immune system works, in part, by making antibodies that are specific to particular sorts of hostile molecule.在某种程度上,免疫系统针对某些有害分子产生抗体来实现运作。Such antibodies recognise and attach themselves to these molecules, rendering them harmless.抗体可以识别这些分子并将自己与它们粘附在一起使得它们无害化。Vaccines work by presenting the immune system with novel targets, so that it can learn to react to them if it comes across them again.接种疫苗就是通过向免疫系统提供新的目标,这样当免疫系统下次遇到这些目标时就会知道如何应对。The problem is that the molecules antibodies recognise and react to are the big ones,问题在于抗体能够识别并作出反应的分子都是像蛋白质这样的大分子,such as proteins, that are characteristic of bacteria, viruses and other infectious agents.这些分子是细菌,病毒以及其他传染介质的特性。Small molecules, such as drugs, go unnoticed.而像药品这样的小分子却不会被注意到。But not for much longer, if Kim Janda of the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego has his way.但是如果来自圣地亚哥,斯克里布斯研究所的吉姆·简达的研究工作一帆风顺的话,这种情况将不会持续太久。In a paper just published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, Dr Janda and his colleagues suggest how a vaccine against methamphetamine, a popular street drug, might be made.在刚刚发表在《美国化学协会期刊》上的论文中,简达士指出一种针对甲基苯丙胺的疫苗将出现。If their method works, it would open the possibility of vaccinating people against other drugs, too.如果他们的方法可行,开发针对其他毒品的疫苗将成为可能。The idea of a methamphetamine vaccine is not new.甲基苯丙胺疫苗不算出新。The problem is getting the immune system to pay attention to a molecule that is such a small target.问题是让免疫系统注意到这么小的一个目标。The way that has been tried in the past is to build the vaccine from several components.过去所尝试过的方法是让疫苗的组成成分多样化。First, there is a large carrier protein that forms a platform for the target.首先,需要建立一个大型蛋白质载体以作为目标平台。Then there is the target itself, a set of smaller molecules called haptens that are attached to the carrier.在有了目标之后,再将一系列叫做半抗原的小分子附属在载体上。These may either be the drug in question or some analogue of it that, for one reason or another, is reckoned to have a better chance of training the immune system. 这些半抗原既可以是毒品本身也可以是毒品的类似物质从而更好地引起免疫系统的注意。Finally, there is a chemical cocktail called an adjuvant that helps get the immune system to pay attention to the carrier protein and the haptens.最后,一个叫做辅助剂的化学品混合体可以帮助免疫系统注意到蛋白质载体和这些半抗原。Dr Janda noticed that past experiments on methamphetamine vaccines had all revolved around tweaking either the carrier protein or the adjuvant,简达士注意到过去对于甲基苯丙胺疫苗的试验总是围绕着蛋白质载体或者辅助剂在进行,rather than tinkering with the haptens.而忽略了半抗原。He thought he might be able to change that, on the basis of work he had carried out previously, trying to design a vaccine against nicotine.他认为基于之前为设计一种尼古丁疫苗而开展的研究,他将改变这一状况。In particular, nicotine is a highly flexible molecule.特别是尼古丁的分子存在很高的变化性。That makes it hard for the immune system to recognise.这使得免疫系统难以识别他们。To overcome this, his team on the nicotine project had to work out how to fix their haptens to the carrier protein in a way that rendered them less capable of twisting and turning, and thus made them easier for the immune system to identify.为了克这一问题,其尼古丁疫苗项目团队必须找到如何将半抗原固定在蛋白质载体上的方法,使得这些分子不那么容易扭曲转动,从而更容易被免疫系统识别。In the new study, Dr Janda and his colleagues report that they have performed a similar trick with methamphetamine haptens.在新的研究中,简达士和他的同事们报告称他们针对甲基苯丙胺采取了相同的处理方法。They used computer models to visualise the haptens in three dimensions and thus work out how the molecules could be rearranged such that they could not spring, twist or turn when being examined by the immune system.他们使用电脑模型来呈现半抗原的3D图像并且解决了如何重新安排分子位置以使得其在被免疫系统检查时不会突然活动,扭曲或者转动。In light of this information they designed six new methamphetamine-like haptens.鉴于这些信息,他们设计了6种新的类似于甲基苯丙胺的半抗原。Once built, they attached the new hapten molecules to carrier proteins, mixed them with adjuvant, injected the results into mice and waited.在半抗原成形后,他们将这些新的半抗原分子附到蛋白质载体上并与辅助剂混合再注射到小鼠身上等待结果。After several weeks they tested the mice to see if the animalsblood contained antibodies to methamphetamine.几周后,他们对小鼠进行检查看这些动物的血液中是否含有甲基苯丙胺的抗体。Of the six new haptens, three successfully provoked the mice to make such antibodies.在这6种新的半抗原中有3种成功在小鼠体内产生了抗体。As a bonus, one of those three also stimulated the production of antibodies against another widely used drug, amphetamine.作为额外收获,其中1种还产生了另一种被广泛使用的毒品—安非他命(苯丙胺)的抗体。That is still a long way from providing a working vaccine, but it is an important step forward.虽然离获得一种真正奏效的疫苗还有很长一段路要走,但是这也算是向前迈出的重要一步。And if human immune systems react in the same way to the new vaccines as murine ones do,如果人类的免疫系统可以像鼠科动物那样对于新疫苗产生同样的反应,the day when a drug addict might be offered vaccination rather than opprobrium will have come a little closer.那么离瘾君子们获得疫苗而不是羞辱的那一天又近了一步。点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201304/234299

Business商业报道Taking its medicine自食其药A drug giant coughs up to settle bribery charges制药巨头被迫解决行贿指控IN AMERICA, it was once common for drug firms to offer doctors perks to encourage them to prescribe their pills.在美国,制药公司用提成来鼓励医生给病人使用他们的药品曾是司空见惯的事情。Regulators now frown on such iffy sales techniques, and drug firms have more or less stopped using them.如今,监管者对于这种可疑的销售手段感到不满,因而制药公司不得不或多或少地停止使用这些销售伎俩。But in emerging markets, it is a different story,但是在新兴市场中,它却是另一番景象。as a settlement on August 7th between Americas Department of Justice and Pfizer, a big American drug firm, made clear.在8月7号,美国司法部门和美国的一家大型制药公司辉瑞之间的事件更清晰地解释了这种现象。In China Pfizer established a club that provided high-prescribing doctors with all kinds of entertainment under the guise of attending conferences.在中国,辉瑞公司建立了一个俱乐部,借助参加会议之名以各种形式款待那些开药量大的医生。In Kazakhstan Pfizer awarded an exclusive distribution deal to a local firm after it was told there was no other way to secure government approval for a Pfizer product.在哈萨克斯坦,辉瑞公司在得知没有其他方式来确保政府同意使用它的产品之后,它把独家销售权授予给了当地的一家公司以便出售其药品。Unfortunately for Pfizer, such acts violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, an American law that criminalises bribery abroad.然而不幸的是,辉瑞的这些行为违反了《反国外行贿法规》,这是美国的一个判定在国外行贿的法律。Doctors in many of the countries in question are state employees, making the gifts bribes to government officials.在上述所谈及的很多国家中,医生属于政府机关工作人员,而辉瑞公司正在向这些政府官员进行送礼行贿。This week Pfizer agreed to pay a fine to settle corruption charges and to disgorge related illegally earned profits to the Securities and Exchange Commission.这周,辉瑞公司同意通过交付罚款来解决腐败指控并且向券交易委员会交出相关的违法赚得的利润。The settlement, which will cost it m or so, covers similar offences committed by Wyeth, another drug firm, before it was acquired by Pfizer in .为了解决此事件,辉瑞公司将会花费约六千万美元,这其中包括惠氏公司贿赂行为的罚款。惠氏公司于年被辉瑞公司收购,此前它曾涉嫌海外贿赂。Johnson amp; Johnson, another big drugmaker, paid m last year to settle civil and criminal bribery charges.另一个制药大亨强生公司,在去年花费七千万美元来解决民事和刑事上的行贿指控。On August 6th Teva, an Israeli firm that is the worlds largest generic drugmaker, said it was co-operating with SEC investigators.在8月6日,以色列这家世界上最大的仿制制药商梯瓦制药公司说它正在配合美国交会的调查者工作。Indeed, eight of the worlds ten biggest drug firms have warned of potential costs related to charges of corruption in markets abroad, according to Reuters.事实上,据路透社称,世界上十大制药公司中的八家都忧虑地称有可能会因国外市场中的腐败指控而花掉大笔的钱。So Pfizers behaviour seems to have been normal for the industry, not an aberration.因此在这个产业中,辉瑞公司的行为似乎是正常的,并非一个例外。Citing the settlement, regulators will crow that the FCPA is being enforced more vigorously than at any time since it became law in 1977.监管者借助这次的案例来告知制药商们一个信息,那就是自《反国外贿赂法规》1977年成为法律以来,They will also hope that it is evidence that their new carrot-and-stick approach is starting to work.相较于以往的任何时候,它在当今被赋予了更大的惩罚力度。Most successful prosecutions in the past have been the result of whistle-blowing or a lucky break;他们同样寄希望于这个软硬兼施的方法能成为行之有效的据。regulators have long suspected that many companies have publicly supported the law while privately turning a blind eye to dodgy activities abroad, doubtless assuming that they would never be caught.在过去,大多数成功的起诉都被认为是告密或者巧合的结果,因而监管者一直怀疑很多公司表面上在遵纪守法而背地里却在国外做一些狡猾的买卖,多半在自认为不会露出马脚。The new approach is designed to encourage companies to police themselves, by punishing them only lightly when they turn themselves in.这个新方法旨在鼓励公司进行自我监督,而只有他们坦白自首时才会从轻发落。The relatively small fine imposed on Pfizer was the Justice Departments way of showing that firms that co-operate will be treated leniently, says Ben Heineman of Harvards Kennedy School of Government.哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院的Ben Heineman称,辉瑞公司相对较小的罚款金额表明了司法部门会酌情处理那些与它们配合的公司。Pfizer has gone out of its way to placate prosecutors:辉瑞公司已经一改以往的行事方式来配合检察官们:it has been co-operating on the case since 2004, helping to identify illegal practices throughout its industry.从2004年开始,它一直配合调查此案,帮助检察官们明其在行业中的违法行为。It also oversaw the process that uncovered the misbehaviour at Wyeth.它还监督了揭露惠氏药厂不正当行为的审理过程。The regulators have accepted Pfizers claim that the offences were committed by local staff acting without the knowledge of head office in America.监管者已经接受了辉瑞公司的说法,即声称本土员工的犯罪行为是在美国总部公司不知情的情况下进行的。This follows Aprils decision by the SEC to charge a senior executive at Morgan Stanley, a bank, with corrupt activity in Shanghai,在它之前是四月份美国监会指控根史坦利投资公司,这家的一名高级主管在上海进行腐败活动的行为,but not to impose legal penalties on the bank, which tipped off regulators about its rogue employee.但美国监会决定不对这家进行法律制裁,因为这家向监管者上报了其违纪人员的情况。A few more examples of such regulatory forbearance and perhaps business will get the message.此类监管宽容的例子还有很多,相信这些案例会给商业界一些启示。 /201308/251428

  

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  In the summer of 1938, an eminent, elderly Jew recently arrived in London from Vienna was interviewed by the B.在1938年的夏天,一位自维也纳远道而来杰出的,年长的犹太人最近抵达伦敦接受了B的采访。I discovered some important, new facts, about unconscious psychic in life.我发现关于无意识精神生活中一些重要的,新的事实。People did not believe in my facts and thought my theories unsavoury.但人们不相信我的事实和思想理论。My name? Sigmund Freud.你问我的名字?西格蒙德弗洛伊德。Dying of a cancer that had eaten away half of his jaw, driven from the Vienna by the Nazis at the age of 82.就快死于癌症,只剩下一半牙齿的他,在82岁时被驱逐出纳粹控制的维也纳。His daughter Anna, nterrogated by the Gestapo his lifes work demonized Jewish science.他的女儿安娜被盖世太保质问自己的父亲一生关于妖魔化犹太人科学的工作。But Sigmund Freud was now safe in England, lovely, free, magnanimous England as he called it.但西格蒙德弗洛伊德在英国现在是安全的,他称之为可爱,自由,宽宏大量的英格兰。And he could return to the questions that had haunted him for years.而且他可以再度研究困扰他多年的问题。When did the distinct identity of Jews come from?犹太人截然不同的身份从何而来?And how in spite of everything, had it managed to survive.尽管发生了这一切,但他都要设法生存。Among Freuds collection of ancient figurines and sculptures from religions and cultures long dead was an artifact that told a different story, about endurance and survival.纵观弗洛伊德收集的来自宗教和文化的古老的雕像和雕塑中,有一件物品讲述着关于忍耐和生存的不同的故事。 201403/279440The World Bank世界Right cause, wrong battle正确的起因,错误的斗争Why the World Banks focus on gay rights is misguided为何世界对同性恋权利的关注是误入歧途的JIM KIM, the president of the World Bank, wants it to promote gay rights. He has declared the “fight to eliminate all institutionalised discrimination” to be an “urgent task”. He recently put on hold a m loan to Ugandas health sector after its government introduced one of Africas most draconian anti-gay laws. He has ordered an overhaul of the banks lending policies to make sure that no loan assists discrimination. At this weeks Spring Meetings in Washington, DC, he is convening discussions with gay activists on how best to do so.世界总裁Jim Kim想要提高同性恋的权利。他曾宣称“消除所有制度化歧视的斗争”是一项“紧急的任务。”近日,本该流向乌干达健康部门的一项九千万美元的世行贷款由于乌干达政府引入一项反同性恋法而被Jim Kim搁置,该法律称得上是非洲最苛刻的反同性恋法之一。Jim Kim已经下令对世行所有的贷款政策进行检查,以确保没有持歧视的贷款出现。在本周于华盛顿召开的春季会议上,他召开了一场讨论,与同性恋积极分子商讨最行之有效的方法。As an early proponent of gay marriage, this newspaper shares Mr Kims sentiments. Bigotry is abhorrent and laws that entrench it should be condemned. Ugandas new law, which allows a maximum sentence of life imprisonment for anyone convicted of homosexuality and requires citizens to report anyone suspected of being gay, is particularly awful. Nonetheless, Mr Kims initiative is misguided. The World Bank is a technocratic development organisation, not a place for political advocacy. Setting up gay rights as a test of its lending decisions is likely to make the bank less effective at what Mr Kim himself has emphasised is its core job: tackling extreme poverty.作为一个早期的同性恋婚姻持方,《经济学人》与Kim先生感情一致。世界不允许偏见,维系偏见的法律也应当受到谴责。乌干达的新法不仅允许对同性恋实行终身监禁这一最高刑罚,还要求市民对任何可能的同性恋进行举报,这是尤其可怕的。然而,Kim先生发起的行动还是被误导了。世行是一个技术主导的发展组织而不是用作政治倡议的。设置同性恋权利作为其贷款政策的检测关卡可能会使得世行在消除极端贫困问题的效率上大打折扣,Kim先生曾经强调这是世行的核心任务。The banks technocratic approach is a big part of its DNA. Its founding documents prohibit “political activity”, however unpleasant a regime might be. Only “economic considerations” should be relevant to lending decisions. That does not, by itself, preclude it from opposing nasty laws. You can draw a link from fighting bigotry to alleviating poverty. Unfair treatment of groups of people, whether on the basis of gender, race or sexuality, leads to their social exclusion, which in turn is likely to harm economic growth and make it harder to alleviate poverty. By this logic the bank has, rightly, long been pushing for the education of girls. The fight against other forms of discrimination can be justified on the same economic grounds.世行的技术解决论在该组织的特色中扮演了一个重要的角色。它的创建文献就写明禁止“政治活动”,无论哪个国家有多么不高兴。只有“经济上的考量”应当与贷款决策有关。这本身并不排斥它反对一些龌龊的法律。从反抗偏见到减轻贫困,人人都能看到之间的联系。群体性的不公平待遇,不管是基于性别、种族还是性征,都会导致社会的排斥,这反过来又可能损害经济增长,使得减轻贫困的道路愈加艰难。正是由于这一逻辑关系,世行长期以来正确地推动了女孩教育。对其他形式歧视的抗争也基于同样的经济原理而合乎情理。A rainbow of reasons原因一箩筐But even if it can be justified in principle, Mr Kims focus on gay rights is likely to be counterproductive in practice, for three reasons. First, it seems capricious. Uganda is hardly the only country with anti-gay laws on the books; nor is it the only one to have recently toughened its anti-gay stance. Almost 80 of the banks member countries, including most in Africa, have legislation that discriminates against gays. In many places the laws are ignored, but several places, notably Ethiopia and Nigeria, have recently introduced stiffer anti-gay statutes. Ugandas behaviour is odious. But it is not alone.但是,就算大体上合乎情理,Kim先生对同性恋权利的关注还是有可能在实践中事与愿违。这出于三个原因。第一,问题反复无常。乌干达不是唯一将反同性恋法合法化的国家,也不是近期唯一强调反同性恋立场的国家。包括非洲多数国家在内的近80个世行的成员国都有歧视同性恋的法律。这些法律在很多地方被忽视,但是在有些地方尤其是埃塞俄比亚和尼日尼亚,最近都出台了更严苛的反同性恋法令。乌干达的做法令人不齿,但它不是唯一有如此行为的国家。Second, the stress on gay rights itself seems arbitrary. Of the many forms of bigotry the bank could battle, it is not clear that anti-gay laws are the most harmful to the poor. The bank lends to plenty of places that discriminate against women under Islamic law. It also lends to countries with laws that discriminate against minorities. The economic impact of these forms of bigotry is far bigger. But if Mr Kim tries to tackle all institutionalised discrimination by withholding lending, he will soon have no customers left.第二,强调同性恋权利本身看来就很武断。在多种形式的世行可以选择对抗的偏见中,并不清楚反同性恋法对穷人造成的伤害就是最大的。世行为很多在伊斯兰法律下歧视女性的地域提供贷款,它也为存在歧视少数民族法律的国家贷款。这些形式的偏见造成的经济危害更大。然而Kim现实试图通过扣贷款的方式来解决一切制度歧视,他很快就会发现他的客户都所剩无几了。Third, his approach is likely to backfire. In the short term, it weakens the campaign to lessen poverty. Ugandas loan, designed to support maternal-care clinics, was the equivalent of 20% of its health budget. And it still has a high child-mortality rate. Politically, the pressure from Mr Kim, though winning plaudits in Washington, is having perverse results, where it matters most. Ugandas government declares itself to be standing up against the arrogant imposition of “Western values”. The more the World Bank adds such conditions to its lending, the more African countries will be inclined to seek money elsewhere, not least from the no-questions-asked Chinese.第三,他的策略可能适得其反。短期来说,它将削弱消除贫困的行动。乌干达的贷款是用来援助当地产科诊所的,它相当于该国卫生预算的20%。现在,乌干达的儿童死亡率还是高居不下。从政治上来说,Kim先生面临的压力正在引发反常的结果。尽管他在华盛顿会议这一举足轻重的场合还是赢得了一片喝。乌干达政府声明反对粗鲁傲慢的“西方价值观”的输入。世行对该国的贷款施加的条件越多,有意从其他渠道寻求资金的非洲国家就会越多,它们尤其可能从不问问题的中国寻求帮助。The uncomfortable truth is that an economic institution like the bank has to pick its battles. There is a limit to how many conditions outsiders can attach to their aid. Its aim is to encourage economic development. Most of the evidence is that the bank is most effective when client countries see it as an economic partner, rather than a boss imposing a Western agenda.像世界这样的经济机构必须选择好战斗方向,这一事实令人不快。外界在援助同时附加的条件是有限度的。世行的目标是推动经济发展。多数据表明,会员国将世行看作经济伙伴而不是强加西方思想的老大才会让世行更加有效率。Ironically, at one level, Mr Kim seems to realise that. He is sponsoring a big management reform designed to make the bank better at finding the most promising solutions from around the world to help countries develop faster. Launching a battle for gay rights may salve consciences, but will make it harder to achieve that goal.很讽刺的是,从一种层面上,Kim先生似乎意识到了这一点:他正在发起一个大型的管理改革,用来使世行在寻找全球范围内帮助国家更快速发展的最有希望的解决方案上做得更好。发起针对同性恋权利的斗争可能会安抚人心,但会使得上述目标的实现变得更加艰难。 201405/297252

  the river slowly winds its way around the bank, known as Echo Corner.河水慢慢在河岸蜿蜒,因此这里被称为回声角。Right, lets test out the name of Echo Corner.是的,我们看看回声角是不是名不虚传。HELLO! Not bad!你好!不坏啊!Echo Corner is where the Angrabies Gorge starts in earnest.回声角是安格拉贝斯峡谷的开始处。Upstream towards the Falls, valley tightens on the cliffs rise up,在瀑布上游, 悬崖上的山谷开始变得陡峭,so this might be the last chance to see the Orange River in such a peace state.所以这可能是最后一次机会在这样一个和平的国家看到橙色的河。201311/263041

  If you follow football, hockey, soccer, or boxing, then you know that athletes in these and other contact sports are at constant risk for a concussion. Every season several football players miss a number of games after absorbing vicious blows to the head.如果你喜欢橄榄球、橄榄球、足球或是拳击运动,那么你就会很清楚这些以及其他接触性运动中的运动员常处于脑震荡的危险境地。每个赛季都有数名橄榄球运动员由于头部遭受剧烈冲击而缺席接下来的一系列赛事。A concussion is a blow to the head that can result in temporary confusion, amnesia, nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness.脑震荡是头部受到撞击而导致的,可能造成暂时性思维混乱,失忆,呕吐,眩晕,视觉模糊以及失去意识。Although a single concussion does not appear to result in structural brain damage or swelling of the brain, repeated concussions can cause both.尽管一次脑震荡不会导致大脑结构性损伤或导致脑水肿,但是数次脑震荡可能引起上述两种情况同时出现。Concussions are caused in one of two ways: either by the head hitting a hard surface, or by the head spinning suddenly. Take, for example, a common incident during a football game. The quarterback is hit, falls backwards, and bangs his head on the turf.造成脑震荡的原因不外乎是这两种中的一种:头部撞到硬物,或者头部突然旋转。以橄榄球赛比较普遍的事件为例,四分卫触地得分,朝后方倒下,其头部就会猛烈撞击到草坪上。Although his skull stops suddenly upon impact, his brain, floating in cerebral fluid, keeps moving and hits the skull. Similarly, when a boxer gets hit in the head with a right hook, his head twists violently. The skull stops moving, but the brain keeps shaking for a few moments and may brush the skull.尽管他的头骨在受到冲击时瞬间会保持不动,但是他大脑内的脑脊液仍然在晃动并不断撞击头骨。同样的,当一名拳击手头部受到一记右勾拳时,他的脑袋瞬间剧烈扭转。头骨停止移动,但是脑浆却还会震动一会儿,并有可能擦到头骨。The result is a chemical imbalance in the brain. All the neurotransmitters in the damaged area fire simultaneously, causing an overload of chemicals that impair receptors involved in learning and memory. The flood of chemicals also constricts arteries, making it difficult for the damaged cells to get the nutrients they need to recover.结果是脑部化学失衡。所有受损区域的神经传递素同时作用,造成脑内化学物质超负荷运转,从而损坏学习与记忆的神经元。化学物质过多也会引起动脉收缩,导致大脑受损细胞难以吸收到利于复原的营养物质。Because the brain can take as long as several weeks to recover from a concussion, its a good idea to take a break from contact sports if youve had one.由于脑部需要长达数周的时间来恢复脑震荡带来的损伤,如果你脑部受到撞击最好还是休息一段时间再继续参加此类接触性运动。 /201306/243370

  

  Business商业报道EU telecoms regulation欧盟电信规制Kroes control克洛伊持大局The digital commissioner proposes a single market to speed up Europe数字委员会提出单一市场来加速欧洲电信网络EUROPE wasnt always a digital laggard.欧洲也不总是一个数字界落后者,Its telecoms operators were far quicker than Americas to build 3G mobile-telecoms networks.就拿建立3G手机电信网络来说,欧洲的电信营业商比美国的要快很多,Nokia once made the worlds coolest mobile phones.且诺基亚也曾生产过世界最酷的手机。But the old continent has fallen behind. Only a quarter of the European Unions people have access to new 4G networks, according to the European Commission.只是古老的欧洲大陆还是落后了。据欧委会信息,欧盟内仅有四分之一国民能使用4G网络。In America a single company, Verizon, reaches nine out of ten.而美国的威瑞森电信,其电信网络的覆盖率达到十分之九。South Koreas broadband speeds leave Europe standing.韩国的宽带速度也远超欧洲。Apple and Samsung make todays palmfuls of desire.苹果,三星促使了今天人们对于网速的渴求。Neelie Kroes, the commissioner overseeing Europes digital agenda, thinks crisper connectivity would be a boon not just for the EUs telecoms industry and its consumers but for the unions entire economy, from transport to health care.欧洲的数字议程由欧委会委员尼莉叶·克洛伊监管着,她认为较弱的连接不仅对欧盟电信行业和其使用者有好处,整个欧盟的经济,从运输到医疗都能受益。On September 11th Ms Kroes published a plan, in the shape of a draft regulation, to bring Europe up to speed.9月11日,克洛伊女士以草案形式拟出一项提议来加速欧洲电信网络,The regulation is subject to approval by both the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers.并得到了欧洲议会和部长理事会的认可。Ms Kroes proposes a single market in an industry that still runs on national lines.克洛伊女士提议以务国内线路为主,在通信行业内实行单一市场。Plenty of operators serve several EU countries.在欧洲,大量的电信运行商同时为几个欧盟国家务,But none operates in more than half of the 28 states, each of which has its own regulator and rules.但是对于欧盟里,拥有自己规章制度的28个国家,没有哪一个运行商的客户国超过一半。The prices that network owners may charge competitors to rent copper wires vary by a factor of three.网络持有者对竞争者们网线收费价格的变动受三个因素的影响,Spectrum prices for 4G vary by a factor of 50.4G的光谱价格的变动因素增加到4倍,Retail prices differ widely too.零售价格也大不相同。Europeans pay extra to make calls to other EU countries or to use their phones abroad.欧洲人打垮国电话或者在国外使用手机都会被收取额外费用。Many travellers turn off data roaming to avoid being stung.许多游客会选择关闭漫游以避免额外收费。The commissioner wants to make it easier for telecoms operators to enter new markets.克洛伊希望能让电信运营商进入新的市场变得简单一点,A license in one country should be good in all.一个国家的许可也能够在他国通用。Future allocations of spectrum should be standardised,to make a pan-European business easier to plan.将来光谱的配给应标准化,以使泛欧洲商业能简单计划,Regulators should also facilitate sharing and trading of spectrum.而监管者也需帮助光谱的分享和交易。But the idea is not to favour entry regardless of all else.但是这个构想不是偏好某一项而不顾其他。To encourage investment in fast fibre-optic broadband,Ms Kroes recommends stabilising the prices that incumbent operators can charge entrants for renting older, slower copper wires.为了鼓励在以光导纤维为主体的快速宽带的投资,克洛伊女士建议增加现有运行商对新入网者在租用更老,更慢网线的费用。If fees are too low, entrants will undercut the whizzy new networks.如果费用过低,新入网者就会减少使用新网络的人。For consumers, the most eye-catching proposal is to scrap roaming fees, as Ms Kroes has long wanted to do.对使用者而言,提议中最吸引眼球的就是免掉漫游费,这也是克洛伊女士一直希望看到的。Operators will be encouraged to allow them to roam like at home—paying nothing extra for data or calls when they are abroad.运营商受到鼓励,允许那些游客像在国内一样使用网络,不会因为漫游或者跨国电话而被多收费。Companies with such deals will escape another rule, obliging them to let customers use another provider when they travel.而采取了本项提议的公司也免除了另外一项制度,即使用者在旅游时不必更换运营商。Calls from home to other EU countries will be charged at domestic rates.跨国电话也将按国内标准收费。Ms Kroes also says she will protect net neutrality.克洛伊女士还表示,她会保护网络中立,By this she means banning operators from blocking services, as some mobile firms do to internet voice calls, for example.也就是说,禁止运营商妨碍务,就像有些手机公司对网络语音通话所做的。But she will allow operators to charge more for better service, such as higher speed.但是对于更好地务,运营商可以收取更高费用,例如,更快的网速。This is also a thorny subject in America:这也是美国电讯通信的一大痛:lawyers for Verizon and the Federal Communications Commission, a regulator, had a preliminary skirmish in court this week.本周,威瑞森电信的律师代表跟监管机构,联邦通信委员会在法庭发生小争执。Consumers will doubtless be delighted at not having to fork out for checking e-mail or consulting online maps whenever they cross a border.毫无疑问,使用者会很开心,无论什么时候出国查收e-mail或者翻阅网络地图,也不用付费了。Mobile operators are grumbling at that. Incumbent broadband firms should like the copper-price idea.移动运营商却是对此有些牢骚,而现有的宽带公司应该是喜欢铜线方案的。Ms Kroes is right that Europes telecoms markets are too fragmented.对于欧洲电讯通信行业的碎片性,克洛伊女士的观点很正确,But pan-European licensing may not help much.但是泛欧洲许可并不能起很大作用。Most operators and analysts think that mergers inside borders are a likelier route.大部分运营商和分析家认为,更有可能实行国内合并这一方案。Several deals have been agreed or mooted in recent months, notably in Germany where, if regulators allow Telefónica of Spain to buy Dutch-owned e-Plus, the number of mobile operators will be reduced from four to three.近几个月来,一些观点已经获得同意或者提出了,尤其是在德国,如果德国的监管机构允许西班牙电信购买荷兰持有的e,那么移动运营商的数目会有4减少到3。In more concentrated markets Europes operators would probably be more profitable.在更加集中的市场,欧洲的运营商很可能获利,That, they argue, would give them the incentive to build the infrastructure Europes politicians demand.有人分析说,这是因为在这样的市场氛围里,运营商会更加有动力去建立基础的欧洲政治家们的需求。The snag is that this might mean higher prices, too: Americans may have faster networks, but they pay a lot more.但问题是,这也意味着更高价格。美国人能拥有更快的网络,但是他们付的也更多,On that, Europes regulators are likely to be much less keen.欧洲监管机构不太可能喜欢这种方式。 /201309/256725

  

  

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