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武汉男性尿道炎 治疗久久媒体

2019年09月15日 17:56:41|来源:国际在线|编辑:新华活动

Books and Arts; Book Review;Racism in sport;文艺;书评;运动场上的种族歧视;The black white hope;黑白的希望;The Longest Fight: In the Ring with Joe Gans, Boxings First African-American Champion. By William Gildea.《最漫长的比赛:与首位美裔黑人拳击冠军——乔甘斯同行》威廉姆吉尔迪亚著。“THE whitest black man that ever entered the ring,” said a famous American sports writer a century ago in praise of Joe Gans. Given the place and the time, the comment was unexceptional. It is Ganss reaction to the insulting words that still astounds. Far from being offended, the first American-born black boxer to win a world title regarded it instead as a compliment. So, less remarkably, did his numerous white fans.一百年前,某位著名的美国体育记者曾这样赞赏乔甘斯:“他是拳击场里最受白人拥戴的黑人。”彼时彼地,这绝不是一条普普通通的评价。甘斯对别人的侮辱有着惊人的忍耐力。对于首位赢得世界第一的美国本土黑人拳击手来说,这样的评价绝不是冒犯,而是褒扬。就连他不计其数的白人粉丝听后也感到甘之如饴。Against enormous odds, as William Gildea recalls in his episodic biography, Gans had by 1906 achieved the seemingly impossible. He actually left the ring a popular winner in successfully defending his title against Battling Nelson, a Danish-American, in Goldfield, Nevada. Even grizzled prospectors whooped when, after two hours and 48 minutes, the longest championship fight of the 20th century, Nelson was disqualified for a deliberate low blow.威廉吉尔迪亚在传记里回忆到,虽然困难重重,但是甘斯在1906年做到了似乎不可能做到的事情。他挫败了来自内华达州金矿市的美裔丹麦选手贝特林纳尔逊,成功地捍卫了自己世界第一的称号,以最受拥戴的胜者姿态告别了拳击场。这场耗时两小时四十八分钟的比赛是20世纪最漫长的拳击赛,当纳尔森因蓄意打在甘斯的腰下部位而被判出局时,就连头发花白的老矿工也大声呐喊起来。Extraordinary stoicism earned Gans his lasting popularity in America. Born and brought up in Maryland, a state bordering on the old Confederacy, he had to put up with the everyday humiliations suffered by all African-Americans there. And, on top of these, he had also to tolerate the particular horrors suffered by Americas black sportsmen.超凡的忍耐力为甘斯赢得了美国人民经久不衰的爱戴。乔甘斯生在马里兰,长在马里兰,这个州紧挨着老联盟,他每天都要忍受当地所有美裔黑人都会遭受的羞辱。除此之外,他还要忍受美国黑人运动员都会遭受的恐吓。Gans, a naturally polite and cheerful man, was tutored always to show restraint by Bob Fitzsimmons, a world champion at three weights, who argued that you should do as you would be done by. In consequence, Gans learnt to remain impassive in the face of the most egregious provocations: even, for instance, when one opponent called him “133 pounds of black meat” and when another spat in his face as they squared up in the centre of the ring.乔甘斯天性谦和开朗,世界冠军鲍勃费茨西蒙斯教会了他忍耐,因为鲍勃主张“己所不欲,勿施于人”。后来,甘斯学会了对于种种恶意挑衅漠然视之,就算有对手戏谑他是“133磅的黑肥肉”,就算在拳击场角斗时对手向他脸上啐唾沫,他也绝不动怒。Like other black boxers, Gans was exploited by the low-life types that inhabited professional boxing. Promoters paid him less than his white rivals, even when he was the main draw. His sleazy manager, Al Herford, bet heavily against Gans in two fights and then ordered him to lose. Gans eventually sacked his manager, confessed to the fixed fights, won international recognition as a fine champion and was mourned by thousands, white and black, at his funeral in Baltimore, when he died from tuberculosis at the then typically early age of 35.和其他黑人拳击手一样,甘斯也要遭到职业拳击行业里手段卑鄙的剥削。虽然双方打平,赞助商付给甘斯的酬劳却比付给他白人对手的要少。他下作的经纪人阿尔赫福德下了大注赌乔甘斯输,于是他便命令乔甘斯必须输。甘斯最后解雇了他的经纪人,并向公众坦承自己操纵了比赛,甘斯因此赢得了全世界的肯定,成了人们心目中最受尊敬的冠军。但是甘斯却在35岁是因罹患肺结核而英年早逝,在他巴尔迪的丧礼上,成千上万的粉丝,无论白人黑人全部为其默哀。Mr Gildea, a talented sports journalist with a y following among American ers, is nostalgic for the days when crowds of 125,000 jammed into wooden stadiums to watch prizefights although not, of course, for the racism that then infected this and other sports. He is also nostalgic for the days when Goldfield was a rip-roaring, hard-drinking, sinful boom town. Those times, too, have gone. On a day trip to Goldfield, he saw several empty shops and houses, only four other people and a petrol station with a sign ing: “OPEN EXCEPT WHEN CLOSED”. This is a memorable book about a time that should not be forgotten.才华横溢的体育记者吉尔迪亚将和众多拭目以待的美国读者一起缅怀那段熙熙攘攘的125000人涌进木质体育场里观看职业拳击赛的光辉岁月,当然他们的缅怀的绝不包括当时影响了拳击和其他体育比赛的种族歧视。吉尔迪亚怀念的还有当年热闹喧嚣,酒鬼遍地,罪恶却繁荣的金矿市。那些日早已一去不返。吉尔迪亚花了一天时间故地重游,商铺和住宅已经人去楼空,只看见聊聊四人和一个加油站,上面写着:“关门大吉”。这是一本关于一段值得铭记的岁月的回忆录。201207/190936

Business.商业The psychology of discounting.“打折”心理学Something doesnt add up.就是算不对How marketers can take advantage of consumers innumeracy.且看营销人员如何利用“数学盲”消费者WHEN retailers want to entice customers to buy a particular product, they typically offer it at a discount. According to a new study to be published in the Journal of Marketing, they are missing a trick.零售商想吸引顾客购买某种特别商品时,典型做法就是打折促销了。但是,一项发表在《市场营销杂志》的新研究则说明了他们并未统揽全局,掌握所有窍门。 A team of researchers, led by Akshay Rao of the University of Minnesotas Carlson School of Management, looked at consumers attitudes to discounting. Shoppers, they found, much prefer getting something extra free to getting something cheaper. The main reason is that most people are useless at fractions.以明尼苏达大学卡尔森管理学院的阿卡什?劳为首的调查小组研究了消费者对打折的态度。他们发现,购物者们更喜欢赠品胜过打折品。主要原因在于多数人对分数运算束手无策。Consumers often struggle to realise, for example, that a 50% increase in quantity is the same as a 33% discount in price. They overwhelmingly assume the former is better value. In an experiment, the researchers sold 73% more hand lotion when it was offered in a bonus pack than when it carried an equivalent discount (even after all other effects, such as a desire to stockpile, were controlled for).比如,消费者们常常很难意识到,加量50%就等同于折扣33%。绝大多人都以为前者更划算。在一次实验中,调查者们出售手霜,一种是带赠品的,另一种是打折品,两者价值相当(即使排除如囤货需要之类的其他因素),但是结果前者多售出73%。This numerical blind spot remains even when the deal clearly favours the discounted product. In another experiment, this time on his undergraduates, Mr Rao offered two deals on loose coffee beans: 33% extra free or 33% off the price. The discount is by far the better proposition, but the supposedly clever students viewed them as equivalent.即便当买打折品明显更划算时,人们还是无法走出数字盲区。另一次实验在本科生中展开,Rao先生出售散装咖啡豆时提供两种选择:赠送33%或者折扣33%。打折远远更加划算,但那些本以为十分聪明的学生们却认为两种促销都是一样的。Studies have shown other ways in which retailers can exploit consumers innumeracy. One is to befuddle them with double discounting. People are more likely to see a bargain in a product that has been reduced by 20%, and then by an additional 25%, than one which has been subject to an equivalent, one-off, 40% reduction.根据学生们的反映,零售商们发现了其他方式来利用消费者对数字上的不敏感。比如利用二次折扣来迷惑他们。人们觉得一件商品如果先打8折再打75折,那肯定比一次性打6折要划算。Marketing types can draw lessons beyond just pricing, says Mr Rao. When advertising a new cars efficiency, for example, it is more convincing to talk about the number of extra miles per gallon it does, rather than the equivalent percentage fall in fuel consumption.Rao先生说,这不仅对营销手段的价格方面有所启发,其他方面也是如此。比如,在宣传新车效率时,引用每加仑汽油多跑的英里数要比引用减少的耗油量的比值要更有说力。There may be lessons for regulators too. Even well-educated shoppers are easily foxed. Sending everyone back to school for maths refresher-courses seems out of the question. But more prominently displayed unit prices in shops and advertisements would be a great help.这对监管者也有所启示。即便是受过良好教育的购物者也很容易被骗。我们不可能让每个人都重新回到数学课堂。但如果商店和广告上能更清楚地标明单价的话必定可以帮上大忙。 201207/192560

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