明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月17日 08:16:54
A 3D printing technique that produces clusters of stem cells could speed up progress towards the creation of artificial organs, scientists claim.科学家称,现在可以用3D打印技术批量制造出干细胞,这一技术将能加速实现打印人造器官的进程。In the more immediate future it could be used to generate biopsy-like tissue samples for drug testing.在不久的未来,这种3D打印技术可以用来制造类活组织物质,作为药物测试的样品。The technique relies on an adjustable ;microvalve; to build up layers of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).该技术依靠可调节的“微型阀”来制造出一层层的人体胚胎干细胞。Altering the nozzle diameter precisely controls the rate at which cells are dispensed.通过改变喷嘴直径可精确地控制干细胞产出的速度。Lead scientist Dr Will Shu, from Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, said: ;We found that the valve-based printing is gentle enough to maintain high stem cellviability, accurate enough to produce spheroids of uniform size, and most importantly, the printed hESCs maintained their pluripotency - the ability to differentiate into any other cell type.;首席科学家、来自爱丁堡赫瑞瓦特大学的威尔#8226;休士说:“我们发现,这一依靠阀来调节的打印技术很温和,能保持干细胞的高存活率,也能准确地制造出大小一致的球状体,最重要的是,打印出的人体胚胎干细胞能保持它们的多能型,即分化成其他类型细胞的潜能。”Embryonic stem cells, which originate from early stage embryos, are blank slates with the potential to become any type of tissue in the body.源自早期胚胎的胚胎干细胞就像一块白板,有潜能成为身体内任何一种组织。The research is reported today in the journal Biofabrication.这一研究报告今日发表在《生物制造》杂志上。In the long term, the new printing technique could pave the way for hESCs being incorporated into transplant-y laboratory-made organs and tissues, said the researchers.研究人员表示,从长远来看,这一新打印技术将为人体胚胎干细胞用于实验室制造的可移植人体器官和组织铺平道路。The 3D structures will also enable scientists to create more accurate human tissue models for drug testing.3D打印出的人造器官还能让科学家制造出更准确的人体组织模型,用于药物测试。Cloning technology can produce embryonic stem cells, or cells with ESC properties, containing a patient#39;s own genetic programming.克隆技术可以制造出包含病人自身遗传基因的胚胎干细胞,或具备胚胎干细胞性能的细胞。Artificial tissue and organs made from such cells could be implanted into the patient from which they are derived without triggering a dangerous immune response.用这种细胞制造出来的人造组织和器官可以被移植到原细胞所有者体内,而不会引发危险的免疫反应。Jason King, business development manager of stem cell biotech company Roslin Cellab, which took part in the research, said: ;Normally laboratory grown cells grow in 2D but some cell types have been printed in 3D. However, up to now, human stem cell cultures have been too sensitive to manipulate in this way.参与这一研究的干细胞生物科技公司Roslin Cellab的业务发展经理杰森#8226;金说:“通常实验室制造的细胞是用2D方式培育出来的,但现在已经3D打印出一些类型的细胞。不过,迄今为止,人体干细胞文化一直都比较敏感,还不能这么操作。;This is a scientific development which we hope and believe will have immensely valuable long-term implications for reliable, animal-free, drug testing, and, in the longer term, to provide organs for transplant on demand, without the need for donation and without the problems of immune suppression and potential organ rejection.;“我们希望也相信这一科学发展对不用动物的可靠药物测试会有极大的价值和长远意义,在更长远的未来,还能应移植需求提供器官,不再需要器官捐献,也不会产生免疫抑制和潜在的器官排斥问题。” /201302/224918

Can Foxconn, the world’s largest contract manufacturer, keep growing and improve its margins now that cheap and willing hands are scarce?如今又廉价又听话的劳动力可谓凤毛菱角,富士康这个全球最大的合约制造商,能否一直保持增长的态势?TO GET some idea of the scale of Foxconn’s Longhua campus in Shenzhen, in southern China, a visit to its massive central kitchens is all that is needed. They lie at the heart of this sprawling complex of factories, dormitories, sports facilities, banks and stores built by the secretive Taiwanese-owned firm. The food-preparation centre, sp over 12,500 square metres on four storeys, goes through three tonnes of meat a day as it prepares grub with military precision.想知道深圳龙华富士康的规模,去它面积庞大的中心食堂看看足矣。这家神秘的台资公司是由许多厂房、宿舍、运动场、还有商场等不断扩展的综合设施构成,食堂在正中心,占地12.5万平方米,四层楼,每天要消耗3吨肉,他们准备食物的强度简直可以和军队一较高下。The enormous scale is to be expected, given that Foxconn (also known by its parent company’s name, Hon Hai) is the world’s largest contract manufacturer. The Longhua campus, covering 2.5 square kilometres, employs 240,000 people. Across China, it employs 1.4m on 28 campuses . Nor, given the firm’s prowess at churning out gazillions of gadgets like Apple’s iPhones, does the kitchen’s efficiency come as a surprise. Tens of thousands on each shift pay for meals swiftly by swiping cash cards loaded with 400 yuan () a month in food credits.规模如此庞大也是必然,毕竟富士康是世界最大的合约制造商,也因母公司鸿海而名闻天下。占地2.5平方公里的龙华富士康拥有24万员工。它在中国有28个工厂,员工总数高达140万。再想想,既然它能生产出数目惊人的配件,比如为iphone生产,那它厨房效率之高也就不足为奇了。每一个班次有成千上万人刷刷刷的迅速刷卡打饭,每个月每张饭卡里都会有400元。The only things more impressive than the size of the canteen’s woks—more than 1 metre wide—are the firm’s spectacular growth and outsized ambitions. In the past decade it has gone from being one of many invisible firms in the electronics supply chain to the world champion of flexible manufacturing. Barclays, a bank, forecasts that the company’s revenues will exceed NT.9 trillion (4 billion) this year.比食堂的锅——宽达1米——更让人印象深刻是公司迅速的扩张还有它的雄心壮志了。在过去的十年里,它已经从许多默默无闻的电子设备供应商中脱颖而出,夺得了弹性制造的桂冠。巴克莱(Barclays)预计今年富士康的总收入将会超过3.9万亿新台币。Foxconn is investing heavily to expand in the interior of China. By the end of this year its newish facilities in Zhengzhou, in Henan province, will employ more workers than the Longhua campus. It is also expanding in Brazil and Mexico. There are rumours it might even open a factory in America, since Apple, its biggest customer, has just declared that it plans to have some of its Mac computers made at home. Rich-world companies looking to follow suit, “reshoring” jobs back home, are struggling to find enough skilled manufacturing workers; Foxconn could apply to Americans its extensive experience of training Chinese workers from scratch. It admits it is “exploring the opportunity”.富士康公司在拓展中国内陆市场上投入巨资。今年年底它在河南郑州的新工厂招用的工人数量要比龙华工厂的还要多。于此同时,富士康在巴西和墨西哥的拓展工作也在如火如荼的进行着。作为富士康最大的客户苹果刚刚宣布计划将在美国本地生产Mac,就有传言称富士康可能在美国开一家工厂。发达国家的公司似乎纷纷效仿苹果想将产业“迁回本国”,却为寻找足够的技术制造工而愁眉不展;在训练“从零开始”的中国工人上,富士康有丰富的经验可以提供给美国。它承认是在“寻求机遇”。More strikingly, Foxconn believes it can double in size yet again. Executives talk of becoming one of the world’s top 20 businesses. This is no fantasy: Barclays foresees Foxconn’s revenues growing by 15-20% a year in the coming three years. There are two main obstacles to sustaining such growth: finding and retaining good workers in China, and improving the firm’s anaemic profit margins. Both problems will only be aggravated by growth.更引人注目的是,富士康坚信他们的工厂规模还能翻一倍。公司高管们谈论着如何跻身全球20强,这绝非痴人妄想:巴克莱预计在未来的3年里,富士康的总收入将以每年15%—20%的速度增长。实现这一持续增长的目标有两大阻碍:在中国寻找、留住优秀的员工;增加公司利润。而增长只会使问题恶化。As good employees become scarcer, Foxconn is having to pay more attention to working conditions—an issue on which it has attracted much unwelcome publicity. A lunchtime visit to the Longhua campus suggests that nowadays life there is not so bad. Off-duty workers smoke and fiddle with their mobile phones on the kerb outside the production halls, snooze on the campus’s football pitch or sit crocheting together in their dorms. Employees on an assembly line making corporate IT equipment look bored senseless but the facilities are orderly and spotless—a far cry from South Asian firetraps.优秀雇员越来越难得,因此富士康不得不着力改善工作环境——这一问题曾招来众人关注。午饭时间在龙华富士康转一圈,发现现在那里的生活也没多糟。下了班的工人有的坐在厂房外的道沿儿上一边抽烟一边玩手机,有的坐在运动场上打瞌睡,还有的在宿舍打毛衣。一条装配线上的工人,一齐装配IT设备,看起来乏味无聊,但厂房却井然有序,一尘不染,与南亚那些易着火的厂房截然不同。When your correspondent requested an unscheduled visit to an assembly-line workers’ dormitory, officials immediately obliged and remained outside the dorm’s entrance. The women inside, who bunk eight to a room in basic but decent conditions, were unafraid and in good humour. People on campus dress in casual clothes, not company uniforms, and seem only about as discontented as the youth found in any Chinese city. Look closer, though, and you notice something jarring: enormous safety nets hung on many buildings to prevent suicide jumpers.当我们记者突然要求随机走访装配线工人的宿舍时,富士康的管理人员立即同意并一直在宿舍门外等待。宿舍里有八张床,条件虽然简单但也算一应俱全,房内的女工人一点都不怯生,还十分幽默。厂内的工人穿的不是厂,而是舒适的衣,虽然面带不满,却与城里的年轻人没什么不一样。可是,走近一看,却能看到与周围不相符的装备:巨大的安全网悬挂在楼外,防止有人跳楼自杀。That hints at Foxconn’s biggest challenge: demography. No longer can the firm rely on a steady supply of migrant workers grateful for any escape from grinding rural poverty. The country is rapidly ageing, and the pool of hungry young workers is shrinking. Besides expecting ever better pay and conditions, today’s new recruits want more fulfilling lives than those their predecessors put up with.这却暗示了富士康最大的挑战:人口结构。从前,为了摆脱贫困,只要给农民工提供工作,他们就心存感激,忠心耿耿,现在却再也看不到了。中国正在迅速老龄化,又饥又穷的年轻劳动力正在缩减。如今的新进员工期望更加优厚的薪酬以及更加优越的环境,比起他们的前辈来说,他们希望更多的满足自己的需求,而不是默默忍受。Until recently Foxconn was unyielding in its discipline and working practices. But two years ago a spate of suicides led to a global outcry that shook the firm. Since then, several outbreaks of worker unrest and noisy campaigns by activists have further blackened its name. In response, Apple requested that the Fair Labour Association (FLA), an American watchdog, audit its suppliers. A report issued by that group in March found that although Foxconn’s facilities were “no worse than any factory in China” there were violations of the FLA’s code of conduct.直到最近富士康才坚守企业规章和职业操守。两年前,连续不断的自杀事件让公司震惊,在全世界也引起一片哗然。从那时起,爆发了数起工人动乱,让富士康的名声更臭了。苹果公司更是要求美国监督部门美国平等劳动协会(FLA)对富士康进行调查。FLA于3月份公布的一份调查显示,尽管富士康企业“和许多中国企业一样糟”,但是确实多处存在违反FLA规定的情况。Peter Deng, a manufacturing director at the firm, recalls that a decade ago Foxconn gave only one or two days off per month and there was no limit on overtime—“and the workers didn’t mind.” Now, the firm claims to limit overtime and to insist that workers take a day off every week. It is also increasing wages and, after scandals, limiting the use of interns (about 2.7% of its workforce). In August the FLA said that Foxconn was “ahead of schedule” in improving conditions.富士康公司制造主管Peter Deng回忆说,十年前,富士康每月只准休息一至两天,加班倒是没有时限——“工人都不在意”。可是现在,公司要求限制加班,而且坚持每周给工人放一天假。在连环跳楼事件和其他丑闻爆出后,富士康给工人们加了工资,限制实习生人数(约占总劳力的2.7%)。八月,FLA说富士康在改善条件方面做得很好,“远远超出计划”。Fine, but if Foxconn wants to keep booming, it must do far more. The canteen visit hints at three ways it plans to improve workers’ lives.富士康做的不错,但它要想一直保持繁荣,要改善的还有很多。经过这次食堂访问可以看出改善员工生活的方法主要有一下三条。First, automation. It takes just three people to prepare the eight tonnes of rice consumed at lunch. The assembly lines are next. Terry Guo, the company’s flamboyant chairman, has vowed to build “one million robots” in an effort to eliminate mind-numbing tasks and move towards fully automated plants. The challenge is that tastes change quickly in consumer electronics. By the time bespoke robot kit is y to automate a given factory line, the product mix has changed, making it obsolete. Scepticism is warranted, but insiders believe the firm is just a year away from breakthroughs that work at scale on commercial lines. Such “Foxbots”, and related services, could even be sold to other firms.第一:自动化。准备午饭要吃的八顿米饭,仅仅需要三人。下一步是装备线。如明星般耀眼的总裁郭台铭(Terry Guo)立下誓言,说要造“100台机器人”,减少乏味的工作,最终达到建设完全自动化的工厂。这一想法的困难在消费者对于电子产品的需求变化太快。待到装配线上的工人全都变成自动化的机器人时,产品结构又会发生改变,这些机器人就报废了。定会有人对此保持怀疑,但内部人士相信,公司要不了一年就会在商业装配线上做出突破。这些“富士康机器人”以及相关务甚至可以卖给其他公司。Second, a bit of freedom. Workers can now skip the canteen, instead swiping meal cards at food courts on campus or going off campus to eat. They also now get a housing allowance, letting them choose between staying in dorms or (as 70% now do in Shenzhen) living off campus. There is more of a social life, too: a young employee, recently arrived from remote Xianyang, talks blushingly about her evenings with handsome co-workers at the Cyberfox, the campus internet café.第二:更加自由。如今工人们可以不在公司食堂里吃饭,在食堂周边的小吃区同样可以刷卡消费,或者还可以去工厂外吃饭。现在他们也能领到住房津贴,可以住宿舍(在深圳70%都在宿舍)还可以住在厂外。社交生活也丰富了许多:一位新来的咸阳工人,红着脸诉说着在工厂网吧Cyberfox和帅气的同事聊天的夜晚。Third, outsourcing. The dorms, catering, security and much else at Longhua are now run by outsiders. Louis Woo, special adviser to Mr Guo, insists this is not to save money but to improve workers’ quality of life: “they simply do a better job than us.”第三:外包。龙华富士康的宿舍、食堂、保安等都由第三方运作。胡国辉(Louis Woo),郭台铭的特别顾问,称他们不是在节约成本,而是改善员工生活质量,“这方面他们做的比我们好。”Foxconn’s net margin has aly fallen from above 6% a decade ago to around 2% now. It risks being squeezed further as the firm splashes out to attract and retain new workers. The trouble is, Foxconn is stuck in the hyper-competitive middle of the electronics supply chain. Upstream, the designers of components make enormous margins, as do the firms downstream that market the finished products. But midstream gadget assemblers do not. In China, it costs Apple a few dollars to have an iPod assembled, which it then sells for 9.富士康的净利率已从十年前的6%多跌至现在只有2%左右。公司花费巨资吸引并留住新员工,这就可能会有更低净利率的风险。问题在于,富士康卡在高速竞争的电子供应的中间环节。上游是部件设计商,他们能获得丰富的利润;下游是成品销售商,同样获利颇丰。只有想富士康这种配件装配的中间商没有多少利润可言。在中国,苹果仅需几美元就能装配一台ipod,但售价却高达299美元。Could Foxconn’s push towards cheaper inland provinces boost margins? Not for long. Because of tax holidays granted to its new plants, the firm’s effective tax rate will drop from 25% in 2011 to 16-18% this year. But the gains will soon be eroded by higher inventory and logistics costs (because of the more remote locations), rising pay and fading subsidies. Within a few years, argues Alberto Moel of Sanford C. Bernstein, an investment bank, the shift will bring “no net benefit to gross margins.”富士康能像中部省份进军寻求高利润吗?可以,但不是长久之计。富士康的新厂虽在免税期,富士康的有效税率将从2011年的25%降低至今年的16%-18%。但是由于增长的库存和物流成本(因为工厂低处偏远)、工资增长、补贴减少,获利很快会被蚕食一空。投资Sanford C. Bernstein的Alberto Moel认为,不出几年“基本不会盈利”。Dull work, but not dangerous工作虽无聊,但是很安全Still, Mr Guo does have a strategy for increasing margins. First, he is moving upstream. In March he announced plans to buy a stake in Sharp, a troubled Japanese technology firm, and to help finance Sharp’s glass-panel research. (When Sharp’s shares later plunged, he waffled when asked to reconfirm the stake-buying.) Aly, almost everything Foxconn makes has glass display screens—and this week it was reported to be working with Apple and Sharp on a new range of high-definition televisions. Foxconn wants to learn how to make screens better and cheaper. By using its manufacturing savvy to scale up any breakthroughs, it plans to boost Sharp’s sales—pocketing a share of the gains. Other such deals are likely.即便如此,郭台铭还是在增加利润上有其战略。首先,他正跻身上游。三月,他宣布计划购买身处困境的日本技术公司夏普(Sharp)的股份,资助夏普对平板产品的研发。(后来夏普的股票暴跌,当被问及是否确定购买夏普股份时,郭台铭闪烁其词。)富士康产品的屏幕几乎无一例外都是玻璃的,本周就有报道披露,它将会与苹果和夏普一道研制新一代高清电视。富士康想知道如何制造物美价廉的屏幕。凭借自己在制造业的经验,进行新突破,帮助夏普增加销量——从其获益中分得一杯羹。富士康还会进行类似的交易。Mr Guo is also pushing downstream into retailing. He does not want Foxconn to create its own consumer brands; the idea is to use the firm’s supply-chain muscle to help its branded customers promote their products, by guaranteeing retailers that they will get their supplies on time and on demand. To help with this, it has taken stakes in several retail chains in China, including the local operations of Media Markt, a German electronics seller.同样,郭台铭也在潜到下游的销售业。他并不希望打造属于富士康自己的消费品牌,而是希望利用富士康强大的供应链,通过向销售商保可以按时按需完成供应,帮助品牌消费产品提高销量。为了实现这一目标,郭台铭投资了几家中国的连锁店,包括德国电子设备经销商万得城电器(Media Markt)。Foxconn says branded manufacturers, especially Western ones with poor penetration in smaller Chinese cities, will benefit from its promotion of their products, shops will be able to hold lower inventories and consumers will enjoy lower prices. Analysts are doubtful. But if this takes off over the next five years, the firm also plans to tighten its links further with retailers by letting them tap directly into Foxconn’s internal e-commerce portal.富士康说,他们不仅可以帮助那些名牌制造商(特别是对于外国的名牌产品却在中国的二三线城市占有份额较小)提高销量,使之从中获益;能帮助商店获得较低的存货出;还能让消费者享有较低的价格。分析家对此表示怀疑,可是一旦这一计划在未来五年里付诸行动,富士康还计划加强与经销商的关系,将它们直接纳入富士康内部电子商务平台。These moves may pay dividends in the long term. But Mr Moel argues that quicker returns are to be found in the company’s core manufacturing operations, for instance by making more parts in-house. Foxconn is increasingly making components such as batteries, lenses, speakers and touch panels. It has scope to improve the efficiency of its production lines, especially on new campuses purpose-built for automation. The firm could also try demanding higher prices. There are signs that it is y to move away from a low-price strategy, instead stressing reliability and high-volume capabilities.从长远看来, 这些举措可能会给企业带来盈利。但Moel认为富士康的核心制造会进行更快的转变,比如生产过多部件。富士康正在越来越多的生产诸如电池、镜头、扬声器以及触摸板之类的部件。不但如此,它们还在提升生产线的效率,特别是在那些为了自动化生产而建造的新工厂。同时,富士康还可能太高价格。种种迹象表明它已经准备好了从廉价战略转向高可靠性和大批量生产力战略。Can Foxconn really persuade Apple, the world’s most powerful electronics firm, to cough up more money? That risks alienating a customer that accounts for 40-45% of its revenues. But as the world’s largest outsourced manufacturer grows even bigger, it is becoming ever more indispensable to Apple as well. In the end, that is the best thing Foxconn has cooking.富士康真的有能力让全球最大电子商苹果公司愿意付出资更多吗?这样做有可能会让苹果公司不再选择富士康,可是富士康总收入的40%—45%均来自苹果。随着全球最大的外包制造商越来越壮大,富士康对苹果来说也是越来越重要。所以,说苹果公司加价才是富士康心中所想。 /201212/217547


  Divorce rates are far higher among ;modern; couples who share the housework than in those where the woman does the lion#39;s share of the chores, a Norwegian study has found.挪威一项最新调查表明,共同分担家务的;现代;夫妇的离婚率比妻子承担绝大部分家务的夫妇高得多。In what appears to be a slap in the face for gender equality, the report found the divorce rate among couples who shared housework equally was around 50 per cent higher than among those where the woman did most of the work.调查报告显示,共同分担家务的夫妇离婚率比妻子承担绝大部分家务的夫妇高出50%。这好似给了性别平等的理念当头一棒。;What we#39;ve seen is that sharing equal responsibility for work in the home doesn#39;t necessarily contribute to contentment,; said Thomas Hansen, co-author of the study entitled ;Equality in the Home;.研究报告的合著者托马斯-汉森说:;从调查可以看出,在家里共同分担家务并不一定会提高婚姻满足感。;这份报告名为《家庭生活中的平等》。The lack of correlation between equality at home and quality of life was surprising, the researcher said.汉森表示,夫妻关系的平等和生活质量几乎没有关系,这很令人吃惊。;One would think that break-ups would occur more often in families with less equality at home, but our statistics show the opposite,; he said.他说:;人们可能认为一些男女更不平等的家庭离婚率更高,但是结果截然相反。The figures clearly show that ;the more a man does in the home, the higher the divorce rate,; he went on.而且很明显,;丈夫在家做的家务越多,夫妻离婚率越高。;The reasons, Mr Hansen said, lay only partially with the chores themselves.汉森说,这与家务事本身仅有部分关系。The deeper reasons for the higher divorce rate, he suggested, came from the values of ;modern; couples rather than the chores they shared.他表示,双方分担家务的家庭离婚率更高的深层原因来自于;现代;夫妻的价值观,而不是他们分担的家务劳动。;In these modern couples, women also have a high level of education and a well-paid job, which makes them less dependent on their spouse financially.; Mr Hansen said.他说:;在现代夫妻中,女性的受教育水平也很高,工作收入也不错,这就降低了她们对于伴侣的经济依赖。;They can manage much easier if they divorce,; he said.他说:;如果她们离婚的话,也能更从容地应对。;Norway has a long tradition of gender equality and childrearing is shared equally between mothers and fathers in 70 per cent of cases.在挪威,男女平等的观念由来已久。在70%的家庭中,夫妻二人会共同承担抚养子女的义务。 /201210/202454。

  RENT is rising in cities across China, and young Chinese are feeling the brunt of this worrying trend. 最近一段时间,中国各大城市的房租都在持续上涨,年轻人成了这一趋势的主要受害人群。  Apartment rent in major cities like Beijing, Guangzhou and Wuhan has increased by an average of 10 percent, according to Xinhua News Agency. Prices are up as much as 20 percent in some of these cities' districts.   据新华社报道,北京、广州、武汉等主要城市的房租平均增长了10%。其中,个别城区的房租上涨幅度达20%之多。   Experts blame the rising costs of renting an apartment on a number of factors, such as recent government regulations on housing prices, and an influx of rental demand from new graduates and other groups.   对此,专家认为,导致房租上涨的原因很多,例如,不久前政府调控房价、应届毕业生和其他人群租赁需求的涌入等等。 /201007/108499

  Monk Jianzhen's East Journey753-Monk Jianzhen's East Journey鉴真东渡753年的今天,鉴真东渡。The Kangxi Emperor was dead1772-The Kangxi Emperor,the fourth emperor of the Qing Dynasty was dead.Kangxi's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning Chinese emperor in history.康熙帝去世 1772年的今天,清朝第4位皇帝康熙帝去世。康熙在位61年,是中国历史上在位最长的皇帝。 Macao Returning 1999-Macao's return to the motherland.回归1999年的今天,回归祖国。Today is the 11th anniversary of Macao's return to the motherland.I still remember the song which called 《Song of Seven son》that learned in my primary school,I couldn't understand the song completely at that time,but after I grew up,I know how deep meaning the song have,it is the deep love of a city to his motherland,every Chinese remembers the difficulty process of Macao's return,it owns to all the Chinese.The day is a special day for Macao and our motherland,it declares that Macao is a part of China,and nothing can separate Macao from China.Happy birthday,Macao! /201012/121357Slowing growth in China is taking a brutal toll on Appalachian coal mines and coal towns. 中国经济增速放缓沉重打击了美国阿巴拉契亚地区的煤矿和煤城。 Appalachia has one of the world#39;s richest deposits of high-grade coal used to make steel. Thanks to Chinese demand, the price for premium metallurgical coal, whose low-ash and low-sulfur content makes it ideal for steelmaking, hit a record 0 a metric ton in early 2011. 下岗矿工鲍威尔(左)与家人在西弗吉尼亚州的霍顿市。阿巴拉契亚地区炼钢用高等级煤炭的储藏量位居世界前列。由于中国的需求,优质焦煤价格在2011年年初创下了每吨330美元的纪录。焦煤烟尘少、硫含量低,是炼钢的理想之选。 Now, the Chinese economy is slowing and so is its steel industry. That has sent the price of coal used for steelmaking down nearly 50% to 0 a metric ton. Those coal producers who counted on Chinese sales are reeling. 现在中国经济在放缓,钢铁行业也在减速,这导致炼钢用煤炭价格跌到每吨170美元,几乎下跌了一半。寄望于中国市场的煤炭生产商受到了沉重的打击。 #39;When someone had coal to move, China was your big box store,#39; said Ernie Thrasher, chief executive of XCoal Energy amp; Resources, a major U.S. marketer of such coal to Asia. This year, #39;the switch went off.#39; XCoal Energy amp; Resources是美国向亚洲出口焦煤的重要贸易商,该公司首席执行长思拉舍(Ernie Thrasher)说,当有人有煤炭要卖的时候,中国就是一个大卖场,但今年一切都停顿了下来。 While many have blamed the downturn in the U.S. coal industry on cheap natural gas supplanting coal and tougher environmental regulations, the slide in metallurgical coal demand has been equally devastating. Coal companies were caught flat-footed after ramping up production last year with the expectation that steep prices would cover their rising costs, despite coal#39;s past cyclicality. Instead, demand in China began to falter just as Australian metallurgical coal production-interrupted by floods last year-surged back into the market. 很多人将美国煤炭产业的不景气归咎于廉价的天然气取代了煤炭,以及环保监管越来越严格。然而焦煤需求下滑带来的打击也同样沉重。去年煤炭企业不顾以往本行业的周期性特征,仍指望价格的大幅上涨盖过成本的上升,所以扩大生产。结果中国的需求慢了下来,同时受去年洪灾破坏的澳大利亚焦煤生产迅速恢复供应,让他们措手不及。 In July, Patriot Coal Corp. of St. Louis filed for bankruptcy protection, shortly after it lost a contract for coal bound for an Asian steelmaker. Patriot#39;s stock slid 18% the day after it announced that news, taking other coal stocks down with it. Earlier this month, Patriot said it would temporarily idle metallurgical coal operations at three mining complexes in southern West Virginia and lay off 250 miners, in addition to 1,000 layoffs earlier this year. On top of that, Patriot has said it will need to reduce #39;unsustainable#39; pension and health benefits to 2,000 miners and some 20,000 retirees and surviving spouses. 今年7月,圣路易斯的Patriot Coal Corp.申请破产保护。之前不久,该公司丢掉了一份向亚洲一家钢铁企业供应煤炭的合同。公布消息之后的第二天,Patriot股价下跌18%,拖累煤炭股跟着走低。该公司本月早些时候表示,将暂停西弗吉尼亚州南部三个矿区的焦煤生产,并在今年早些时候裁员1,000人的基础上再裁掉250名矿工。除此以外,Patriot还曾表示将需要削减2,000名矿工、约20,000名退休人员及未亡配偶“不可持续”的养老和医疗福利。 China#39;s metallurgical coal imports dropped to 2.6 million metric tons in August, from an average of 4.5 million metric tons per month through July. Now coal mines are closing throughout Appalachia. Earlier this month, Alpha Natural Resources Inc., of Bristol, Va., which derives a large share of its profits from metallurgical coal, said it was cutting 1,200 jobs, or 9.2% of its workforce. Earlier this year, Alpha laid off more than 700 miners and trimmed production at more than 20 mines. Consol Energy Inc. of Pittsburgh, which sells more coal into China than any other U.S. producer, earlier this month idled the nation#39;s biggest metallurgical coal mine, which employs 620 miners. Arch Coal Inc. trimmed its metallurgical coal production estimate by 21% this year. 今年1月至7月,中国平均每月进口焦煤450万吨,8月份降至260万吨。现在整个阿巴拉契亚地区的煤矿纷纷关闭。弗吉尼亚布里斯托尔的Alpha Natural Resources Inc.有很大一部分利润来自焦煤业务。该公司本月早些时候表示将裁员1,200人,相当于员工总数的9.2%。今年早些时候它已经裁掉700多名矿工,并减少了20多座煤矿的产量。皮兹堡的Consol Energy Inc.向中国出口的煤炭比其他任何美国生产商都多。本月早些时候,该公司让雇用矿工620人的全美最大焦煤矿停产。Arch Coal Inc.将自己今年焦煤产量的预期下调了21%。 Miners like Phillip Powell, 38 years old, of Wharton, have been swept up by the collapse. #39;A lot of guys that I worked with are scared of losing everything they own,#39; said Mr. Powell, who was laid off in March from a section foreman job at a Patriot metallurgical coal mine. Mr. Powell said he sees no chance of finding another job that would come anywhere close to paying the 8,000 he earned last year. After 17 years in mining, he plans to go back to college to get certified to teach physical education. 来自西弗吉尼亚州霍顿市(Wharton)的38岁矿工鲍威尔(Phillip Powell)是减产潮的受害者之一。他说,很多跟我一块工作的人都害怕失去自己拥有的一切。鲍威尔原来在Patriot公司的一座焦煤矿当领工,今年3月份被裁。他觉得自己再也找不到一份接近去年10.8万美元收入的工作了。在采矿业干了17年之后,他打算回大学拿一份教体育的文凭。 Appalachian coal industry executives had been counting on metallurgical or #39;met#39; coal─which is sold at a premium to steelmakers-to offset the dwindling market for lower-grade thermal coal used by power plants. The thermal coal market has been weakening because utilities are buying cleaner-burning natural gas instead. Natural-gas prices have plummeted as energy companies used hydraulic fracturing to extract gas from vast shale formations. 过去,阿巴拉契亚地区的煤矿业管理人员依靠焦煤来弥补不断缩小的动力煤市场,动力煤等级较低,用于发电厂发电,而焦煤则可以更高的价格卖给钢铁厂商。由于公用事业公司开始转而购买燃烧起来更清洁的天然气,动力煤市场一直在走软。随着能源公司利用水力压裂法从巨大的页岩层中提取天然气,天然气价格大幅下跌。 In April, natural gas and coal each fueled 32% of the nation#39;s electricity, achieving parity for the first time in the decades that the Energy Information Administration has tracked the data. For decades, coal powered about 50% of the electricity to the nation#39;s businesses and homes. 今年4月,天然气和煤炭发电量各占美国发电总量的32%,在美国能源情报署(Energy Information Administration)有数据记载的这几十年里首次达到相同占比。此前的几十年,美国企业和家庭用电量的约50%都来自煤炭发电。 Metallurgical coal exports were supposed to fill the gap. Only a year ago Patriot was posting record revenue and operating earnings and embarking on a plan called the #39;Met Built-Out#39; to open new metallurgical mines and hire up to 200 new miners. 焦煤出口原本应该弥补国内需求的疲软。仅一年前,Patriot还录得了创纪录的营收和运营利润,并正在启动一项“焦煤增产”计划,以开采新的焦煤煤矿,增聘最多200名矿工。 Other coal companies were buying rivals to strengthen their metallurgical coal operations and reserves. Four publicly traded U.S. coal companies made acquisitions in North America totaling billion in 2011, the largest being Alpha#39;s .1 billion purchase of troubled Massey Energy. 其他煤炭公司当时也在收购竞争对手,以便扩大其焦煤业务和储量。2011年,四家美国上市煤企在北美地区进行了规模总计140亿美元的收购,其中最大一桩是阿尔法公司(Alpha)斥资71亿美元收购陷入困境的梅西能源公司(Massey Energy)。 Alpha now has 1.5 billion tons of metallurgical coal reserves, and the ability to export up to 30 million tons a year. It is hoping to weather the weak market by being the low-cost producer of premium met coal. #39;While it#39;s a bit soft now, we have a very valuable metallurgical coal franchise, and we#39;re hitching our wagon to it,#39; said Alpha Chief Executive Kevin Crutchfield. 阿尔法如今有15亿吨焦煤储量,焦煤年出口能力最高可达3,000万吨。该公司希望凭借低成本生产优质焦煤而度过市场疲弱不振的难关。该公司首席执行长克拉奇菲尔德(Kevin Crutchfield)说,尽管眼下市场有些疲软,我们有着非常有价值的焦煤业务,我们正寄希望于此。 The cost to pull a ton of coal out of the ground varies widely from mine to mine based on geologic conditions and the degree of automation. In Appalachia, average mining costs are about to per ton. A ton of thermal coal is currently selling for a ton on the spot market, making it impossible to operate some mines at a profit. 依地质条件和自动化程度不同,各煤矿从地下开采一吨煤的成本相差很大。在阿巴拉契亚地区,平均开采成本约为每吨65美元至75美元。现货市场上动力煤的售价目前为每吨52美元,这就使得一些煤矿的运营不可能盈利。 Before the China steel market took off, metallurgical coal was valued much like thermal coal and was often sold to power plants where it was burned like lower-grade coals. #39;It was like using an expensive bottle of red wine to make spaghetti sauce,#39; said Paul Forward, an analyst with Stifel, Nicolaus amp; Co. 在中国钢铁市场升温之前,焦煤和动力煤一样不受重视,焦煤常常被销售给发电厂,和等级更低的煤一样烧来发电。经纪公司Stifel, Nicolaus amp; Co.的分析师福沃德(Paul Forward)说,就像是用一瓶非常昂贵的红酒做意大利面面酱一样。 That changed with China#39;s industrial boom. Up until 2004, the price for metallurgical coal stayed below a ton in the U.S. Prices hit an all time record of 0 a metric ton in the second quarter of 2011 after flooding in Queensland, Australia, disrupted coal supplies headed for China. 随着中国工业的快速发展,情况发生了改变。2004年之前,美国焦煤价格一直在每吨40美元以下。2011年二季度,澳大利亚昆士兰州发生洪灾,输往中国的煤炭供应中断后,焦煤价格达到每吨330美元,创历史新高。 China couldn#39;t seem to get enough metallurgical coal to feed its steelmaking industry. In 2009, U.S. met coal exports to China grew nearly six-fold, and grew by the same rate in 2010, linking Appalachia more closely to the global steel trade.为给钢铁制造业提供动力,中国对焦煤似乎永不厌足。2009年,美国对中国焦煤出口增长了近五倍,2010年增速与上年相仿,将阿巴拉契亚地区与全球钢铁贸易更紧密地联系在一起。 Now the China spigot is closing. The Chinese steel industry-which consumes half of all metallurgical coal mined each year-faces the possibility it could operate at a loss in 2012 for the first time as a result of overcapacity and weak steel prices, according to the China Iron amp; Steel Association. That would mean tougher times in West Virginia, where rail, barge, trucking and other jobs depend on coal.如今中国的需求开始下滑。据中国钢铁工业协会说,由于产能过剩和钢材价格低迷,2012年中国钢铁业可能将首次面临亏损的局面。中国钢铁行业的焦煤消费量占每年全球总消费量的一半。这将意味着西弗吉尼亚州日子会更加困难,在那里,铁路、货船、货车运输和其他工作岗位都要依靠煤炭行业。 /201210/202456





  A photograph taken more than 40 years ago showing a young Barack Obama as a schoolboy in Indonesia has been found, days before he begins his presidential visit to the country。  The picture was given to Associated Press by Hadi Surya Dharma, a childhood friend of Mr Obama's, who sits beside the future president in the black and white photo。  Mr Obama, who was born to a Kenyan father and an American mother, moved to Indonesia when he was seven – after his mother married an Indonesian man she met while studying at the University of Hawaii。  Mr Obama and his mother first set up home in the Menteng Dalam area of Jakarta。  Now a jumble of houses and narrow streets in the shadow of tower blocks, at the time it was on the edge of the city and fruit trees were landmarks。  Many families still live there, and they shared memories of the boy they knew as Barry。  "He went to everyone's house, played kites with local kids, got stuck in swamps," said Coenraad Satja Koesoemah, who allowed Mr Obama's mother to use his front room to give free English lessons to locals。  "He was a Menteng Dalam kid, what more can I say?"  For the first five months, Mr Obama reportedly struggled with the Indonesian language but soon became proficient。  By all accounts, he quickly became a favourite of the teachers and the pupils there, but endured some teasing on account of his looks。  Those early experiences have been cited as key moments that shaped his view on life。  "One of the reasons that he is so cool and non-combative is that he learned to deal with this teasing culture," said Kay Ikranagara, who worked with Obama's mother in Jakarta and knew the family well。  "It is a game here, and the trick is not to show you are bothered."  Mr Obama lived in Indonesia for four years before returning to Hawaii to live with his grandparents。 /201003/99156

  Merriam-Webster has just released the list of the some 100 new words added to its Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. 《韦氏大词典》刚刚公布了加入第11版学院词典的100个新词汇。 /200912/92066

  • 求医互动武汉龟头口有小肉粒子
  • 武汉射精快原因
  • 武汉华夏男子医院治疗前列腺炎多少钱飞度云大夫
  • 飞度云网武汉华夏医院男性孕前检查
  • 好对话武汉东西湖区看男科怎么样
  • 武汉做了前列腺手术后多以可以过性生话
  • 武汉治疗膀胱炎费用搜索优惠
  • 时空频道江汉大学附属第三医院不孕不育多少钱
  • 武汉治疗前列腺肥大的价格
  • 武汉华夏医院不育挂号资讯
  • 武汉哪割包皮好
  • 华龙问答武汉华夏男子医院男科
  • 武汉人民医院身体检查健步大全三峡大学仁和医院治疗阳痿早泄
  • 湖北武汉汉阳男科医院哪家好
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