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The talks over EADs and BAE Systems mergerhave now turned into a 3-way tug war. The countries involvedBritain,France,andGermany.Each wrestling for influence, and in some cases, potential control over whatwould be a defense on aerospace behemoth, bigger than Boeing. The threegovernments are running out of time to settle their differences before anextension will be needed to be sought. We are hearing a chorus of objections ofthis deal from both the private and public sector. And you will hear about thatif you come and join me over in the map room once again.欧洲宇航防务集团(EADs)和英国宇航系统公司BAE的合并谈判目前陷入了3方“拔河”拉锯状态,这三个国家分别是英国、法国和德国。对这个将超过波音规模的航天军工巨人,每个国家却在为其影响力,有时为其潜在的控制力较量。除非延期,三国政府已经没有时间解决分歧了。各私营部门或国有部门也都齐声反对此次并购交易。和我一起再次进入地图资料室,你将了解到这些情况。Now the top BAE share holder, lets startwith theUK.The top BAE share holder says, deal makes no strategic sense. Investor saystheres too much state involvement. And the UK Defense Secretory says the government may block the deal.Philip Hammond says the French and German states must not influence excessiveand it, it not, must exceed 10%.BAE的大股东,首先从英国谈起,这个大股东认为,这笔交易没有战略意义。投资方感觉政府涉入过多。英国国防大臣表示,政府可能会阻止这笔交易。国防大臣菲利普-哈蒙德认为法国和德国政府的影响力不能太大,绝对不能超过10%。Reuters is reporting thatFrancewants the chance to expandthe involvement. According to France, Reuters, France if looking to buy theLagardere stake. And of course, we know the Lagardere CEO says he doesnt thinkits the right deal, either.据路透社目前的报道,法国期望有机会扩大其参与份额。路透社还报道,法国正在寻找机会购买拉加代尔集团的股份。当然,该集团总裁也不认为这种交易合适。So toGermany,and thereGermanyis worried being marginalized. It wants the same stake asFrance. It alsowants, this is crucial, the headquarters to be in theGermany, perhaps in Munich.对德国来说,德国担心自己被边缘化了。它想拥有和法国一样的份额。它还想,最关键的一点,主部设在德国,可能是慕尼黑。So looking at the map overall. The deadlineis on Wednesday. They are likely to seek an extension for the takeover rules.But all of these is worrying the big concern of course is 3000 miles thatway---theed States,which has serious reservations of its own about European involvements ofgovernments in this takeover.因此,让我们俯瞰看看地图。最后期限是周三。三国政府很可能会寻找一个延期日期,以确定接管规则。但是,他们当然还得考虑3000英里远的美国的看法,美国对自己参与欧洲政府的接管事宜,也有很重要的发言权。 201211/207353

Books and Arts; Opera review; Einstein on the beach;文艺;歌剧;沙滩上的爱因斯坦;Breaking the waves; An avant-garde opera on a rare world tour.乘风破浪;一部先锋歌剧正在进行世界巡演,机会难得。 THE music of “Einstein on the Beach” is so grand and epic—yet so mesmerising and repetitive—that it feels as if it were the soundscape of a dream. Indeed, much of this odd and wondrous opera, the work of Philip Glass and Robert Wilson, with some transcendent choreography from Lucinda Childs, seems to inhabit a liminal space, eerie and otherworldly. Clocking in at nearly five hours without an interval (viewers can come and go as they please), the production is less a work of entertainment than an experience.“沙滩上的爱因斯坦”的音乐如史诗般宏伟壮丽——同时循环重复,引人入胜——让人有置身梦中之感。这部由菲利普·格拉斯和罗伯特·威尔逊共同创作,经露辛达·蔡尔兹出色编排的奇特而绝妙的歌剧,在很大程度上仿佛令人真的来到了一个奇异的超凡的朦胧世界。演出时间几乎五个小时,中间没有休息(观众可以随意进出)。观赏这部作品与其说是,倒不如说是一种体验。“Einstein” stunned audiences at the opera’s premiere in Avignon 36 years ago; its narrative-free mesh of music, dance and drama inspired many to feel that they were witnessing something unprecedented. Word of mouth ensured “Einstein” enjoyed a sell-out tour in Europe, and then a hero’s welcome home in New York in late 1976, where the show filled every seat at the Metropolitan Opera. “The avant-garde has become official,” exclaimed a Met producer at the time.三十六年前,“爱因斯坦”在阿维尼翁的首演震惊了观众;它摆脱叙事的形式,将音乐、舞蹈和戏剧融为一体,这样的表演形式让很多人觉得自己正在观看一部前所未有的杰作。有了人们的口口相传,“爱因斯坦”在欧洲的巡演场场爆满。接着在1976年末,“爱因斯坦”到纽约演出,受到了凯旋英雄般的礼遇,大都会歌剧院座无虚席。“这部先锋歌剧已受到正式认可,”当时歌剧院的一位制作人激动地说。But the opera’s success did not mean it was profitable. As it happens, few operas make money and “Einstein” is quite a spectacle—even though it is often described as a landmark of minimalism. Its inaugural run may have made Messrs Glass and Wilson famous, but it also left them bankrupt. Not long after their Met triumph, Mr Glass went back to cab-driving in New York, struggling to make ends meet. This ordeal, together with the fact that this opera is uniquely demanding on performers and audience-members alike, has ensured that “Einstein” productions are rare.但是演出大获成功不代表这部歌剧有利可图。事实明,很少有歌剧能赚钱,而“爱因斯塔”正是一个奇特的典型——尽管它经常被形容为“极简主义”的里程碑。这部歌剧的首演或许让格拉斯先生和威尔逊先生声名大噪,却也让他们潦倒破产。在大都会歌剧院演出取得巨大成功后不久,格拉斯先生回到纽约开起了出租车,努力维持日常开销。这种艰苦的生活,再加上这部歌剧对表演者和观众的要求极高,使得“爱因斯坦”的演出次数非常少。So it is impressive that a new production of this unwieldy classic—the first in 20 years—is now making its way around the world, as part of a year-long celebration of Mr Glass’s 75th birthday. After appearances in France, Italy and Britain (where it was performed at the Barbican as part of the London 2012 Festival), its next stop is Toronto’s Sony Centre from June 8th to 10th.因此令人激动的是,这部制作庞大的经典之作,将作为格拉斯先生75岁生日为期一年的庆典活动的一部分,展开新一轮全球巡演,这是二十年来的第一次。结束了在法国、意大利和英国(在巴比肯作为伦敦2012年奥运会庆典活动的一部分进行演出)的演出之后,下一站它将在多伦多索尼索尼中心剧院演出,时间从6月8日到6月10日。Watching the show now, some of the scripted moments feel a little absurd. And Mr Wilson’s extravagant staging reinforces the opera’s reputation as a money pit. But the two extended dance segments are irrepressibly uplifting. And the meditative music, which is so technically challenging that Mr Glass originally had trouble finding performers for it, washes over listeners, as coolly vast and mysterious as the sea itself.现在看这部歌剧,一些有台词的场景会显得有点突兀。同时威尔逊先生奢华的舞台布景也验了该剧耗资庞大的名声不虚。但增加的两场舞蹈让人无法抑制激动的心情。还有那冥思的音乐对技术有极大的挑战,一开始格拉斯先生为寻找合适的演奏者颇费了一番周折。人们听着这音乐,仿佛置身于一片平静浩瀚而又神秘的大海之中。201206/187713

  Science and Technology科技Rare earths and climate change稀土与气候变化In a hole?陷入了危机?Demand for some rare-earth elements could rapidly outstrip supply某些稀土元素可能很快会供不应求MANY plans for reducing the worlds emissions of carbon dioxide-at least, those plans formulated by environmentalists who are not of the hair-shirt, back-to-the-caves persuasion-involve peppering the landscape with wind turbines and replacing petrol-guzzling vehicles with electric ones charged up using energy gathered from renewable resources. The hope is that the level of CO2 in the atmosphere can thus be kept below what is widely agreed to be the upper limit for a tolerable level of global warming, 450 parts per million.许多全球性减排二氧化碳的计划是要建造星罗棋布的风力涡轮发电机,并以再生能源发电为电动汽车充电,摈弃狂吞汽油的汽车。哦,至少那些并不坚决主张严酷节俭、回返穴居社会 [注] 的环保主义者是这样计划的。人们希望,这样一来,大气中CO2的含量可以保持在百万分之450以下。人们普遍认为,这就可以让全球气候变暖的程度处在可容忍的上限以下。Wind turbines and electric vehicles, however, both rely on dysprosium and neodymium to make the magnets that are essential to their generators and motors. These two elements, part of a group called the rare-earth metals, have unusual configurations of electrons orbiting their nuclei, and thus unusually powerful magnetic properties. Finding substitutes would be hard. Motors or generators whose magnets were made of other materials would be heavier, less efficient or both.但风力涡轮发电机与电动汽车都要靠镝与钕来制造对电机和发动机极为关键的磁铁。在这两种同属稀土金属的元素中,围绕原子核旋转的电子排列方式很不寻常,因此具有异乎寻常的强大磁性能。很难找到它们的替代品。用其它材料制造磁铁的发动机或电机或者更为沉重,或者效率不高,或二者兼有。At the moment, that is not too much of a problem. Though a lot of the supply of rare earths comes from China, whose government has recently been restricting exports (a restriction that was the subject of a challenge lodged with the World Trade Organisation by America, Europe and Japan on March 13th), other known sources, such as the now-abandoned Mountain Pass mine in California, pictured above, could be brought into play reasonably quickly. At current levels of demand any problem caused by the geographical concentration of supply would thus be an irritating blip rather than an existential crisis.这一问题当前还不甚突出。尽管大量稀土来自中国,而该国政府最近一直在限制出口(美国、欧洲与日本已就此于3月13日向世贸组织(World Trade Organisation)提起诉讼),但其它已知矿源,比如现在已放弃开采的加州帕斯山(Mountain Pass mine in California)(上图),可以在较短时间内重新开采供货。按照当前的需求水平,供应来源集中于某地的会引起的任何问题都只不过会让人烦恼一时,不会造成生存危机。But what if the environmentalists dream came true? Could demand for dysprosium and neodymium then be met? That was the question Randolph Kirchain, Elisa Alonso and Frank Field, three materials scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, asked themselves recently. Their answer, just published in Environmental Science and Technology, is that if wind turbines and electric vehicles are going to fulfil the role environmental planners have assigned them in reducing emissions of carbon dioxide, using current technologies would require an increase in the supply of neodymium and dysprosium of more than 700% and 2,600% respectively during the next 25 years. At the moment, the supply of these metals is increasing by 6% a year. To match the three researchers projections it would actually have to increase by 8% a year for neodymium and 14% for dysprosium.但如果环保主义者的美梦成真了呢?到那时,镝与钕的需求也会得到满足吗?这就是麻省理工学院的三位材料科学家伦道夫?科尔臣、伊利莎?阿隆索和弗兰克?菲尔德(Randolph Kirchain, Elisa Alonso and Frank Field)最近向自己提出的问题。他们在最近发表在《环境科学与技术》(Environmental Science and Technology)的文章中给出的回答是:如果要让风动涡轮发电机和电动汽车以现有科技完成环境规划者赋予它们的二氧化碳减排使命,在未来25年间,钕与镝的供给量将需要分别增加600%和2500% 以上。这两种金属现在的年供给量增长为6%;要达到三位研究人员预计的水平,镝与钕的年供给量实际增长必须分别为14%与8%。 That will be hard, particularly for dysprosium. Incremental improvements to motors and generators might be expected to bring demand down a bit. But barring a breakthrough in magnet technology (the discovery of a room-temperature superconductor, for example) the three researchers figures suggest that the worlds geologists would do well to start scouring the planet for rare-earth ores now. If they do not, the mood of the Chinese government may be the least of the headaches faced by magnet manufacturers.这会是很困难的,对镝来说尤其如此。发动机和发电机的逐步改进可能会让需求有所下降。但这三位研究人员的数字说明,除非电磁技术发生突破(例如发现某种室温超导体),全世界的地质工作者还是现在就开始掘地三尺,全球搜寻稀土矿为妙。如果他们不这样做,在令磁铁制造商头疼的事情中,中国政府的心情可能是最微不足道的了。201207/192458

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  Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Sci-tech Today, on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息。4,500 people worldwide have died from swine flu since March of this year. Its just a fraction of those who have contracted the virus. But health experts are trying to figure out why some people dont survive it. In Sci-tech Today, we find out the answer may lie with the lunges. And joining us now from Museum of Science Boston is Brindha Muniappan. Thanks so much Brindha for joining us.今年有4,5000人死于猪流感(甲型性流感)。我们发现只有部分接触病毒的人群患病。健康专家正在研究为什么猪流感能致人死亡。今天的Sci-tech我们要弄明白猪流感和肺的关系,波士顿科学院的Brindha Muniappan将和我们一起探讨这一问题,欢迎。Thanks Caroine. And Brindha, why is H1N1 so deadly?谢谢主持人。Brindha,为什么H1N1会致人死亡?Well, it is a type of the influenza virus, much like the flu viruses we see in the winter, our normal flu season. But the normal flu, the seasonal flu virus typically affects people who dont have very strong immune systems, like the elderly, or the very young, or even pregnant women. But the H1N1 type A influenza virus, also known as the swine flu virus has been very devastating to people whore normally healthy with strong immune systems including teenagers and young adults.这是一种流行病毒,就想冬天流感季节的病毒一样。一般的季节性病毒攻击的是抵抗力弱的人群,比如老人,小孩儿,甚至是妇。但H1N1病毒,也就是猪流感病毒,攻击的是健康人,免疫力强的人,包括青少年和成人。And so researchers have found that there is some connection to the lung—a lack of oxygen?研究人员发现这和肺缺氧有关?Yeah, so there are 3 new studies that were published in the ;Journal of American Medical Association;. And the researchers in these studies took a look at hospital records in Mexico, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. And they took a look at hospital records of people who had been admitted to the intensive care units, so people who are critically ill, who have come down with the H1N1 virus and tried to figure out if there was, commonalities, certain characteristics that were similar to these patients. And they did find that a large majority of these patients were lacking in oxygen in their bodies. So they werent getting enough oxygen to their lungs and into their bloodstream.是的,美国医学会的期刊刊登了3篇相关文章。研究人员观测了墨西哥,加拿大,澳大利亚和新西兰四个国家的医院记录,查看了加护病房的病例,研究了病重和幸存病人的数据发现了这些病人的共同特征。那就是大部分的患者身体中的氧含量低。患者不能从肺提供的血流中得到足够的氧。So how, Brindha then, dose this change the way that people are treated?那么,知道了这一点会改变医治患者的方法吗?Well, this is hopefully going to provide a lot of information and help to physicians to treat people who come down with severe cases of H1N1. Possibly by letting physicians know, well, you know, if we have a critically ill patient with this disease, we need to probably, administrate extra oxygen more than likely the patient is going to have to go on a mechanical ventilator, a machine to add oxygen to their body. Physicians are going to have to pay close attention to the patient, probably administer anti-viral medications and maybe even you know, monitor the patient and watch out for secondary infections that could be caused by other organisms, other viruses, but maybe even bacteria. So theyll also have to watch out and possibly provide antibiotics as well. But for all these patients in these 3 studies that were taken a look at. All of those patients just about all required an extensive amount of time in the intensive care units once they had come down with the severe case of H1N1.这一研究结果提供了猪流感的更多信息,并有助于医生医治猪流感患者。医生们知道了这一研究结果,面对猪流感的重症患者时,就会额外地为患者输氧,而不只是让患者从医院排风扇呼吸氧气。医生们能够密切观察病人,精确使用抗病毒药物,有效防范其他病毒细菌的二次感染,合理使用抗生素。但是这三篇文章中的所有研究对象在度过猪流感危险期后曾再次回到加护病房。All right, Brindha Muniappen, thank you so much for joining us.好的,Brindha Muniappen,谢谢你的报道。Youre welcome, Calrine.没关系,Calrine。And you can join in us every Thursday morning at this time for Sci-tech Today or log on to the Museum of Science website mos.org.每周四早晨敬请收看Sci-tech Today,或关注我们的网站mos.org。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/181406During the first 30 years of the 20th century, America became a safer and healthier place. Living conditions improved, causing many diseases to almost disappear. One exception to this pattern was cancer, and in 1937 Congress established the National Cancer Institute.在20世纪前30年里,美国成为一个更安全更健康的国家。人民生活水平提高了,许多疾病也差不多销声匿迹了。唯一的例外就是癌症。1937年国会成立了国家癌症研究所。By 1970, cancer had become the nations second leading cause of death. Texas Senator Ralph Yarborough sought to make its conquest a national priority. He led a group of medical experts, cancer advocates, and business leaders who explored the issue. They became commonly known as the ;Yarborough Commission.;到1970年,癌症是造成人口死亡的第二大原因。德克萨斯州参议员拉尔夫力图倡导国家大力抗击癌症。他还专门成立了小组来探讨这个问题,成员包括医疗专家、癌症倡导者以及商人领袖。The Yarborough Report became the blueprint for the National Cancer Act, which was signed into law in 1971 by President Richard Nixon. The National Cancer Act provided additional funding for the National Cancer Institute, establishing 15 new cancer research centers, local cancer control programs, and an international cancer data research bank.理查德·尼克松总统于1971年签署了国家癌症法案,这条法案的蓝图就是 Yarborough 报告。国家癌症法案为国家癌症研究所提供了专项资金,并成立15处新的研究中心,地方癌症控制项目以及国际癌症研究资料库。Its passage received a boost when popular columnist Ann Landers encouraged a flood of mail from her ers, urging representatives to vote for the bill. The goal for a simple cure for cancer remains elusive. But scientific knowledge about cancer continues to grow. New techniques for detection, diagnosis, and treatment are constantly emerging, as a result of efforts of Congress and the American people.安·兰德斯是一位广受欢迎的专栏女作家,她鼓励读者们以邮件的方式强烈要求众议院投票持,这推动了法案的通过。但对癌症患者进行简单的治疗远远不够。不过人类对癌症的科学知识在不断增长,新的检查、诊断和治疗方法也在不断涌现,这些都是国会和美国人民一起努力的结果。原文译文属!201211/207107

  

  

  ONE of the unforgettable experiences to be had in California is to go whale watching in Monterey Bay. Nancy Black, a licensed marine biologist, is one of the scientists who lead these commercial outings, besides doing her own whale research. As Lawrence Biegel, her lawyer, tells it, one day Ms Black was in her research boat with assistants when killer whales attacked a pod of grey whales and killed a calf. Its blubber floated to the surface, and the killer whales were about to feed on it. Seizing this opportunity to film their behaviour, Ms Black thed ropes through some pieces of blubber, then lowered a camera underwater.来到加利福尼亚州,前往蒙特利海湾观赏鲸鱼是其中一个令人难忘的经历。南西bull;布莱克是一位获得执照的海洋生物学家,她是位在研究鲸鱼之余充当这种商业观光活动的导游的科学家之一。她的律师劳伦斯bull;比格尔说,有一天布莱克女士和助手正在研究船上,当时几头杀人鲸攻击了一群灰鲸并杀死了一只幼鲸。幼鲸的鲸脂浮上海面,而那些杀人鲸则打算以此果腹。为了乘机拍摄杀人鲸的生活习性,布莱克女士用绳将几块鲸脂串起来,然后将一部摄影机放入水下。For this, Ms Black might now face up to 20 years in prison and half a million dollars in fines, after a federal grand jury indicted her this month. Little about the charges makes common sense. The federal law in question is the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act, which was intended to save dolphins, seals and whales from being killed and harassed. The law also banned feeding these animals, on the theory that doing so might compromise their ability to forage naturally in future. Feeding is what Ms Black is now accused of. She says she was using the protocols she had learned from the federal agencies that are now investigating her to observe a natural feeding that was aly in progress.为此,布莱克女士在本月遭到一个联邦大陪审团起诉,如今她可能面临最高二十年的有期徒刑及五十万美元的罚款。这些指控完全不合情理。与此案相关的法律是于1972年颁布的联邦法律《海洋哺乳动物保护法案》。此法旨在保护海豚、海豹、鲸鱼不被捕杀及骚扰;同时也禁止向以上动物喂食,理论依据是这样做会损害日后它们自行觅食的能力。布莱克女士现在被指控的就是向鲸鱼喂食。她说她当时观察鲸鱼捕食所遵循的标准正是从正在调查她的各联邦机构处获得的。Just as ridiculous, says Mr Biegel, is the accusation, increasingly common in federal cases, that Ms Black lied to the authorities, which carries its own prison terms. Ms Black always edits the commercial s of her whale outings to make them more interesting. When investigators demanded footage, she gave them one of these edited s. Prosecutors now claim that she had tampered with evidence.比格尔说,同样荒唐的是南西被指控对当局撒谎(这种指控在联邦诉讼案件中日益普遍),而单是这项罪名也能被判监禁。布莱克女士总是会对她拍摄的商用鲸鱼视频进行剪辑,好让它们更有意思。当调查方要求获得拍摄胶卷时,她交出了其中一个剪辑过的视频。现在检察官声称她篡改了据。To Harvey Silverglate, the author of ;Three Felonies a Day: How the Feds Target the Innocent;, this is par for the course in Americarsquo;s federal justice system today. A couple of trends have combined to threaten justice and liberty. First, federal statutes are often so poorly written and so vague that they are in effect incomprehensible. This gives excessive discretion to bureaucrats and prosecutors, with their own career ambitions, who apply them haphazardly.在《一天三宗罪:联邦政府如何攻击无辜之人》的作者哈维bull;Silverglate看来,在当今美国的联邦司法体系中发生这种事实属意料之中。现已出现了两种趋势,对司法与自由都产生了威胁。首先,许多联邦法令行文拙劣、含糊其辞,以至于实际上难以理解。这就给了官僚和检查官们过度的决定权,这些各自怀有职业抱负的人会滥用这种权力。Second, federal law has been moving away from mens rea (;guilty mind;), a common-law tradition that suggests that a person who had no idea he was breaking a law should not be accused of doing so. With bloated federal legislation and without mens rea you can accuse most people of something or other, says Mr Silverglate. The question should be, he says, whether charges are reasonable when they run ;counter to all human instinct and experience;.其次,联邦法律已逐渐抛弃了;犯罪意图;(;犯罪心理;)这一概念。;犯罪意图;是习惯法的一种传统,意思是一个没有意识到自己犯了罪的人不应被起诉。Silverglate说,在名目繁多的联邦法律之下,没有;犯罪意图;这一概念,大部分人都可能因为这样或者那样的罪名遭到起诉。他说,问题应该在于:当指控与;人类所有的常识及经验背道而驰;时,它们仍是合理的吗?201201/168559。

  Books and Arts; Literature and its influences;Mother, may I文艺;书评;文学及其影响力;妈妈,我能不能...New Ways to Kill Your Mother: Writers and Their Families. By Colm Tóibín.Viking;《弑母新法》:讲述作家及其家庭的文献。科尔姆·托宾著。When the mother of Henry James, a 19th-century American novelist, appeared at a seance with a message for him, he was not surprised. As in life, so too in death, did his ;dear Mother; have an uncanny knack of ;pouncing upon the first occasion ... to get at me;.当十九世纪美国小说家亨利詹姆斯的妈妈出现在降神会上,给他留句话,詹姆斯并不感到惊奇。活着的时候,“亲爱的母亲”有神秘的能力能够“在第一时间冲出来……修理我”,死后亦然。;New Ways to Kill Your Mother;, the latest collection of essays from Colm Toibin, an Irish novelist and critic, is full of such moments when a writer and his family ;get at; each other. Fractious family relations may not be uncommon, yet the extent to which these writers-including W.B. Yeats, Thomas Mann, James Baldwin and John Cheever-managed to fight with their parents, siblings and children make arguments over the dinner table seem like a specialised art form.《弑母新法》是科尔姆托宾,爱尔兰小说家家最新的散文集,书中充满这样的细节,作家和他的家人如何“修理”对方。家人之间的剑拔弩张也许并不少见,但是和一些大师,包括叶芝,托马斯曼,鲍德温和约翰契福等,曾和父母兄弟子女动手的程度相比,在晚餐时拌拌嘴就像是种特殊的艺术形式。Mann justified spoiling his eldest child over his five others with the line, ;One should get the children used to injustice early.; ].M. Synge, an Irish playwright, was similarly pampered by his mother, and another, Samuel Beckett, admitted that he was what his mothers ;savage loving has made me;. Georgie Yeats implored a friend of hers not to speak with her mother, because she ;loves to make a whirlpool and especially if she can suck me in to it;, and W.B. Yeats was busy dissuading his father from trying his hand at writing, an effort inspired in old age by his sons success.托马斯曼溺爱长子超过其他五个孩子,他为自己辩护道,“人们应该让孩子在小时候就对不公平习以为常”。爱尔兰剧作家辛格也曾经得到过母亲如此的溺爱。荒诞派作家贝克特承认,他是母亲“野蛮的爱造就的”。诗人叶芝的夫人Georgie曾经请求她的一位朋友不要告知其母,因为她“喜欢制造混乱,特别是那种能把我吸走的混乱漩涡”,叶芝曾经忙于阻止父亲尝试写作,这股劲头是他在晚年因为儿子的成功而激起的。Mr Toibin writes in muscular prose and has a keen eye for detail. Dividing his book in two, ;Ireland; and ;Elsewhere;, he places these family wranglings within the larger context of trying to find an Irish voice, and of the struggle for writers such as Tennessee Williams to work out their identities as gay men in America. In Mr Toibins opinion, ;killing your father or your mother; is a necessary precursor to becoming an original writer.托宾散文笔道刚劲,拥有对细节敏锐的观察力。他将自己的书分成两部分:“爱尔兰”和“其他”,他将这些家庭争吵融入更广阔的背景中,那就是找寻一种爱尔兰式的创作,以及为如田纳西威廉姆一样的作家,为在美国寻求同性恋的作家身份而斗争。在托宾看来,“弑父弑母”是称为一个原创作家的必要前提。For most of his book, this argument is persuasive. However, not all of Mr Toibins chapters hang together well. The essay on Beckett s more like the book review it started out as, and the final piece on Baldwin only just about succeeds in comparing his literary style with the recent autobiographies by President Barack Obama.对于托宾的大多数作品,这个观点是有说力的。但是,并不是托宾书中所有的章节都很好的结合在一起。关于贝克特的文章读起来更像是他将着手写的书评,写鲍德温的最后一部分只谈及了他在文体上更胜一筹,是和总统奥巴马新近出版的自传之间做的比较。Instead, the finest moments of Mr Toibins book are when he focuses on the writers prose and how they went about creating their ;grim black marks on the page;. Hart Crane, a young American poet who committed suicide aged 32 in 1932, writes with a syntax that has ;something hard and glittering in it;. Baldwin had ;a fascination with eloquence itself, the soaring phrase, the rhythm pushed hard, the sharp and glorious ring of a sentence.;反而,托宾书中最棒的章节是关于作家的文章本身,以及他们如何写出“纸页上的冷酷黑色文字”的。年轻的美国诗人哈特克莱恩于1932年自杀身亡,年仅32岁,他的写作句法有种“坚硬闪光的东西在里面”。鲍德温“对雄辩,高翔的措辞,迅猛推进的节奏,句子尖锐辉煌的回环很着迷”。Such phrasing stands out and suggests the strength of Mr Toibins writing style. In this respect, it is a shame that not more of Mr Toibin comes through. 0bviously fascinated with families, he has written eloquently elsewhere about his relationship with his mother, and has peopled his fiction with fractured family relationships. But in this volume his parents are never mentioned, and any personal recollection is brief. By concentrating only on the liberated voices of others, Mr Toibin has somehow managed to constrict his own.这样的措辞出类拔萃,也显示了托宾行文的强有力。由此看来,非常可惜没有更多托宾的作品取得成功。托宾显然对家人入了迷,在别的地方,他富有表现力地道出和母亲的关系,让自己的小说充满了折裂的家庭关系。但是在这卷书中,托宾的父母没有被提及,个人回忆也一笔带过。和着重描写其他人的无拘无束的语言相比,托宾不知为什么对自己的故事如此压抑。 /201212/213442

  A song by Caetano Veloso expressed the anger of the time and became a Tropicalia anthem. 一首由哥塔诺·维罗索创作的歌曲表达出愤怒,之后它成为了这个组织的会歌。Prohibiting is prohibited. 然而禁止就是被禁止。A slogan taken from the students upheavals in France. 来自学生的一个口号在法国引起轩然。The footage of him singing the song at 1968 TV global song festival has been destroyed, but song recording still exists for Veloso attacking the audience for their musical conservatism. 录像中他在1968年电视全球首歌节唱的这首歌已被销毁,但因为维罗索他们的音乐的保守主义攻击观众使得歌曲记录仍然存在。In December 1968, the confrontation between soldiers and protesters entered to the new phase. 1968年12月,士兵和抗议者之间的冲突进入到了新的阶段。注:听力文本来源于普特201303/230237

  These the fluctuations would grow to form galaxies. So if it wasnt for those little density fluctuations, you and I would not be here today.物质分布的密度不断涨落,范围逐渐扩大,最后形成星系。如果没有密度的涨落,你我也就不复存在了。 Our universe is now 380,000 years old and trillions and trillions of miles across. Clouds of hydrogen and helium gas flowed through space. It will take another 200 million years before those gases create the first stars.现在我们的宇宙年龄为38万年,已经延伸了数万亿英里。氢气和氦气云在延伸的空间里流动。再过2亿年这些云才能创建出第一颗恒星。The first stars ignited the universe into what must have been the most amazing firework. The universe went from the dark cages to an age of splendor when the first starts illuminated the gas and the universe began to glow, the majestic fashion that we should be in.第一批恒星点亮了宇宙,璀璨绚丽,可与世上最神奇的烟花相媲美。宇宙从黑笼子时期进入到一个辉煌的时代:第一批恒星在氢气和氦气里燃烧,宇宙就开始闪耀起来,就像一场宏伟的时尚秀,人类也将应该参与其中。It was like Christmas tree lights turning on. The universe began to light up in all directions until you form the beautiful mosaic we now see today.这就像闪烁着灯光的圣诞树。宇宙被照亮了,光芒万丈,因此我们就能看见漂亮的如宝石般镶嵌在太空里的星星。More and more stars turn on. One billion years after the Big Bang, the first galaxy forms. Over the next eight billion years, countless more take shape. Then about five billion years ago, in a quiet corner of one of those galaxies, gravity begins to draw in dust and gas. Gradually, they clump together and give birth to a star - our sun. Nine billion years after the Big Bang, our tiny solar system springs to life and with it, planet Earth. Everything there is exists because of the Big Bang and its still going on. Our universe is still expanding, but it wont just keep going forever. Our universe had a beginning, and it will also have an end.越来越多的恒星亮起来了。大爆炸后10亿年,第一个星系形成了。在接下来的80亿年,又出现了无数个星系。大约50亿年前,在浩渺星系的一个安静角落里,重力开始吸附尘埃和气体。渐渐地,它们凝聚成团,我们的太阳就因此诞生了。大爆炸后90亿年,渺小的太阳系因地球上生命的出现而充满生机。大爆炸是万物的起源,它仍然在进行。我们的宇宙仍在持续膨张,但它不会永远膨胀下去。宇宙有开端,也有结尾。201205/184578

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