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2019年09月24日 04:09:35    日报  参与评论()人

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厦门激光祛斑价格Its an aquatic version of follow the leader. Dr.Manrizio Porfiri of NYUs Polytechnic Institute has combined his love for mathematics and animals to invent a robot that he says would one day be able to lead schools of fish away from danger.这是水下版本的“追随领导者”。纽约大学理工学院的Manrizio Porfiri士把他对机械的热情全部投入到了动物身上,并发明了一款机器,将来能领导鱼群远离危险。Porfiri says the hardest part of his research has been to find out what the qualities of a leader are through the eyes of fish. But he thinks as is the case with most animals, it basically comes down to sex.Porfiri表示这项发明最难的地方是如何找出鱼类眼中的领导者特质。他联想到了其他动物,大多是通过性别来吸引其他个体的。;If you take out a propeller and you put it into the water, it may remain as fast as the fish but the fish may not like it. If you can make something that swim like a fish, the fish may perceive it as a mate even if it looks different. ;“如果把螺旋桨放入水中,虽然它能和鱼类跑得一样快,但鱼类不会喜欢它。如果你能发明一种机器游起来像鱼一样,虽然长相不同,但鱼群能够接纳它。”Porfiris team is developing a prototype and testing it out with small schools of fish in his lab. They are fine tuning the robot to mimic the actions of a leader, programming it to swim fast and erratically to gain attention, the goal, infiltrate the school and take it over.Porfiri的研究小组正在实验室中用发明的机器原型和小群鱼群做测试。他们操纵机器模仿鱼群领导者的样子,游得更快,不时转弯,吸引鱼群注意力,融入鱼群并最终成为鱼群领导者。;So through mathematics we should be able to gain an understanding of how many robotic fish are needed for drive a group of fish over certain size, and knows them, we can coordinate these fish, so we can have these multi-robotic fish that interact with each other. ;“除了计算数据,我们还要了解鱼群的大小,以决定由多少机器鱼引导鱼群,这样才能整合鱼群,使机器鱼和鱼群互相影响。”Porfiri says he wants to programme his robot fish to work autonomously without human control. He envisions his robot fish acting like sheep-dogs under water, keeping schools of fish out of danger areas like the oil polluted waters of the Gulf of Mexico, or protecting them from hydro-electric turbines.Porfiri表示,希望机器鱼最终能够无人驾驶,自动引导鱼群。他想象这些机器鱼能变成水下牧羊犬,管理鱼群远离危险区域,如墨西哥湾石油污染区,或是躲避水电涡轮机。;Guide a group of fish from a region which is risky, there is a pollutant you want to drive them somewhere else. There is a migration that you dont like to be somewhere because its in a 3M bad area, drive them somewhere else. There is power plant and you want to bypass the power plant, it could be risky, the fish may die sucking to the turbines, so how about making a guiding system, a bypass system that uses these robots.;“鱼群要远离危险区域,污染区域。也要离开其他鱼群栖息地。还有发电厂,鱼群也要远离发电厂,因为那附近很危险,鱼有可能被吸入涡轮机,为什么不建立一个引导机制,于是就有了机器鱼引导机制。”Eventually Porfiri says he wants to upgrade his robot fish and fit them with processors and sensors giving them the ability, not just to lead the school but to learn how to interact with other creatures underwater.最后,Porfiri表示,他们想将处理器和传感器安装到机器鱼上,使机器鱼不仅能领导鱼群,并且能学会如何与水下的其他生物和平共处。Ben Gruber Reuters.Ben Gruber报道,路透社消息。aquatic adj. 水生的,水栖的erratically adv. 不定地,不规律地evision v. 想象;预想注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/188969福建省厦门针灸减肥医院 In just a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the building blocks of our Universe begin to take shape. But this first matter is like nothing we see today.大爆炸后短短的一瞬间,宇宙的组成元素开始出现。但第一种物质却并非今日所见。The stuff of matter has been very different over the ages of the Universe. What we now think is normal matter was not at all normal in the earliest moments of the Big Bang.宇宙形成百亿年以来,形成物质的元素不断变化。在现今宇宙里人们认为很常见的物质,在大爆炸最初时期并不存在。Thats because conditions were so extreme. There were no atoms yet. But there were tiny subatomic particles.那是因为当时环境非常极端。那时还没有原子,只有微小的次原子粒子。In the earliest moments of the Big Bang, the Universe was so hot and dense. There were great amounts of energy. And so particles will be created all the time and energy and matter will transform back and forth in this hot dense soup.大爆炸最初那一刻,宇宙温度极高,密度极大,蕴含了巨大的能量。因此才一直有粒子生成,能量和物质在这高温高密的大熔炉里反反复复互相转化。That earliest matter was too unstable to start forming the Universe as we know it. Think of it like this. Imagine rush hour at Grand Central in New York City as that superheated early Universe. The commuters racing through the main concourse are subatomic particles.最早的物质太不稳定,从而不能形成我们所了解的宇宙。把纽约中心地带高峰期想像成炽热的早期宇宙,把在中央大厅飞速往返穿行的上班族想象成次原子粒子。If you look at a crowd of people, a large crowd of people, they may appear randomly. That random, cocky motion is very similar to what was happening to the particles in the Universe in the earliest moments of the Big Bang.如果你观察一群人,一大群人,他们可能是随机出现的。这种随机的运动与大爆炸最初宇宙内粒子的高速碰撞运动十分相似。The extreme temperature of the early Universe energizes the subatomic particles. They appear. They disappear. They race around at incredible speeds. Its pure chaos.早期宇宙内的高温提供给次原子粒子能量。它们不断创生,湮灭,以惊人的速率运动,宇宙内一片混乱。Its like people. If they are excited and running around fast to catch trains at a train station, they have to move around quickly. But eventually they calm down and get slower. Thats whats been happening to our Universe in a sense. The particles are moving around very fast and as Universe cools down, the particles move more slowly and in some sense, less randomly.就像人类。如果人们在火车站为赶火车而到处奔跑,心烦意乱时,他们必须得快速移动。但是最终他们会平静下来,越跑越慢。从某种意义上宇宙也是这样,起初粒子四处飞移,当宇宙冷却,粒子运动越来越慢,从某种意义上不再那么随机了。As the Universe cools, the particles stop changing back into energy.当宇宙冷却,粒子不再转化回能量的形式。201205/183076厦门脱毛效果

厦门市欧菲医院网上咨询 Science and technology科学技术Premarital sex婚前性行为The waiting game等待的游戏Chastity before marriage may have its uses after all婚前守贞可能的确有作用WHEN is it the right time to do the deed?什么时候做爱做的事情合适呢?If priests had their way, it would be shortly after the wedding ceremony—but recent studies show such advice is rarely heeded.如果让神父们来说,这档事应当发生在在结婚典礼的不久之后—但是最近的研究显示,这样的建议很少得到人们的重视。Roughly 85% of the American population, for example, approves of premarital sex.比如说,大约85%的美国人赞同婚前性行为。Faced with numbers like that, what hope do the Vatican and its ilk really have?面对这样子的数据,梵蒂冈和它的同仁们又到底是做何想法呢?More than they did a week ago.相对于已在一周前Until now, the argument that couples should wait until they are married before they have sex has rested on mere assertion and anecdote.亲热过的情侣来说,现今依旧认为夫妇应将童贞留于婚后的论调,已仅仅成了一种口头宣言或是奇闻轶事。Dean Busby and his colleagues at Brigham Young University, in Utah, however, have gathered some data which support delay.然而,犹他州杨百翰大学的院长Busby和他的同事却收集了一些数据来持延迟性行为的做法。Little is known about the influence of sexual timing on how relationships develop.目前,还不清楚性交往的时间节奏安排对两性关系发展会产生怎样的影响。Even so, opinions abound.但即便如此,各种意见观点仍然比比皆是。Some argue that the sexual organs, both physical and mental need a test drive to make sure the chemistry between a couple means they will stay together both in sickness and in health.有人认为,性器官包括生理和心理两部分,它们需要一种驱动性的考验以确保情侣两人身上的化学吸引能够维持长久,让两人能够同甘共苦。Others suggest that couples who delay or abstain from sexual intimacy early on allow communication to become the foundation of their attraction,还有人认为,推迟过早的亲密性行为或者禁欲的情侣,他们之间的沟通理解成为了相互间吸引力的基础,and that this helps to ensure that companionship and partnership keep them together when the initial flames of lust die down.这样以来,即使他们最初燃烧着的爱之欲火慢慢熄灭,他们也可以保持长久的友谊和伙伴关系。To examine these suggestions more closely, Dr Busby and his colleagues recruited 2,035 married people ranging in age from 19 to 71, and in length of marriage from less than six months to more than 20 years.为了更进一步的去检验这些意见观点,Busby士和他的同事征集到了2,035对已婚夫妇的数据,他们的年龄从19岁到70岁不等,婚龄从不满六个月到超过20年不等,Their religious affiliations varied widely; many had none.而且他们的宗教信仰差异也非常之大,很多人没有宗教信仰。All were asked to complete an online questionnaire normally used to help couples understand their strengths and weaknesses.所有的夫妇都被要求填写一份网上问卷调查,以帮助夫妇了解自己的长处和弱点。Among the nearly 300 questions, participants were asked when they first had sex with their partners, whether their sex lives were currently good,在将近300个问题中,参与者被问及到他们第一次与自己伴侣发生性行为的时间,他们的性生活目前是否良好,how they resolved conflicts, and how often they thought of ending their relationship.和他们如何处理矛盾冲突以及他们考虑终结伴侣关系这种想法的频繁程度。In addition, the questionnaire had 14 items that evaluated how good participants were at expressing empathy and understanding to their partners and how prone they were to be critical or defensive.此外,这项问卷调查还有14个项目,评估参与者能够多好的向他们的伴侣表达自己的同情和理解,以及他们在面临批评或自我防御辩护时将倾向于做什么。All questions, apart from those about frequency of sex, were answered on a five-point scale, with one indicating strong disagreement and five indicating strong agreement.所有的问题,除了性爱频度以外,选择的回答都是五分制计量的,由初始的1分表达强烈的反对到5分表达强烈的赞同。Because religiosity delays sexual activity, Dr Busby and his colleagues also asked participants how often they attended church, how often they prayed and whether they felt spirituality was an important part of their lives.由于笃信宗教可以延缓性活动,Busby士和他的同事同样也询问调查参与者他们出入教堂参与教会活动的频率,他们多久祷告一次以及他们是否认为精神生活是他们生活中重要的一部分。They used the answers to control for religiosity. They also controlled for income, education, race and length of relationship.他们采用的限定了信仰虔诚度,同样他们的也划分限制了不同的收入、受教育程度、种族以及两性关系维系长度。Their report, just published in the Journal of Family Psychology, suggests that people who delay having sex do indeed have better relationships, on four different measures.他们刚刚在《家庭心理学杂志》发表的的报告认为,那些延缓推迟性行为的伴侣在四种不同的测量比较上的确拥有一份更良好的两性关系。That result applies to both men and women.并且这个结果同时适用于男性和女性。Unfortunately, Dr Busbys method cannot distinguish the cause of this.但不幸的是,Busby的方法不能区分到底是什么原因导致的这个结果。It could be, as many moralists preach, that the delay itself is improving.正如很多道德说教所言,这结果很有可能是因为延缓推迟本身就正在经历改变。It could, though, be that the sort of people who are happy to delay having sex are also better at relationships.然而,这也有可能是因为乐于推迟性生活的人更善于经营两性关系。Correlation, in other words, rather than causation.换言之,这是一种相互左右的关系,而不是因果关系。That is material for another study.谈到婚姻则是另一份研究学问了。If the result persists, though, even when personality is taken into account, it will provide useful ammunition for priests and marriage-guidance counsellors.如果这个结论还是坚持其所持观点,那么即使考虑到人不同的性格问题,它也不免成为神父和婚姻指导顾问的强力攻击火药。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/232418厦门割双眼皮埋线厦门毛发移植

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