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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年06月22日 15:50:58
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  Paris — The cover of this week’s Charlie Hebdo, the French satirical newspaper that was the target of a massacre on Wednesday by masked gunmen, featured a cartoon depicting Michel Houellebecq, whose polemical — some say prophetic — new novel, “Submission,” imagines a Muslim becoming president of France in 2022.巴黎——法国讽刺画报《查理周刊》(Charlie Hebdo)于星期三成了蒙面手屠杀的靶子,它本周的封面是一幅以米歇尔·维勒贝克(Michel Houellebecq)为主人公的卡通画,他的最新小说《屈》中想像出一位穆斯林成了2022年的法国总统,从而引起争议,但也有人说是预言性的。Under the headline “The predictions of the Great Houellebecq,” the celebrated novelist, wearing a magician’s hat and holding a cigarette, says, “In 2015, I will lose my teeth. In 2022, I will celebrate Ramadan.”漫画标题是“了不起的维勒贝克的预言”,图中这位著名小说家戴着魔法师的帽子,手拿一香烟,说:“2015年,我将失去牙齿。2022年,我就得过斋月了。”Even before its official release on Wednesday, “Submission” had aly set off intense debates in France — about the line between satire and Islamophobia and between fantasy and realpolitik, about the novelist’s (and Islam’s) treatment of women, and about the political mainstream’s struggles to keep pace with the rise of both Islam and the far right — a debate that the attacks are certain to intensify.甚至在星期三正式出版之前,《屈》便已经在法国引起激烈争论——关于讽刺文学与恐伊斯兰之间的界限、关于幻想与现实政治之间的界限、关于这位小说家与伊斯兰教对待女性的方式,乃至关于政治主流如何努力跟上伊斯兰与极右势力的崛起——这场争论无疑将因恐怖袭击而继续升温。Earlier this week, before the attack in Paris, President Fran#231;ois Hollande said he would it. Marine Le Pen, the leader of the right-wing National Front, whom the fictional Muslim leader defeats in the novel, cashed in, calling it “a fiction that could one day become a reality.” Late Thursday, Agence France-Presse reported that Mr. Houellebecq (pronounced WELL-beck) had stopped promoting the book.本周早些时候,在巴黎的恐怖袭击之前,弗朗索瓦·奥朗德总统(President Fran#231;ois Hollande)说自己会读这本书。右翼政党国民阵线的领导人玛丽娜·勒庞(Marine Le Pen)也抓住这个机会——书中的穆斯林领袖在竞选中击败了她——说,“这本小说有可能在某天成为现实。”上周四,法新社报道维勒贝克已经停止宣传这本书。With an ambitious initial print run of 150,000 copies, “Submission” is aly the No. 1 seller on Amazon in France. It is likely to join another book with a similar theme on best-seller lists: “The French Suicide,” a 500-page essay in which the journalist #201;ric Zemmour, 56, argues that immigration, feminism and the 1968 student uprisings set France on a path to ruin. The top seller in France, the book has sold 400,000 copies since its release in October, according to its publisher, Albin Michel.《屈》的首印量高达15万册之多,在法国亚马逊网站上位居畅销榜头名。畅销榜上还有另一本书也有着类似的主题——《法国的自杀》(The French Suicide),这本500页的书由56岁的记者埃里克·泽穆尔(#201;ric Zemmour)所著,称移民、女性主义和1968年的学生暴动令法国走向毁灭之路。其出版社阿尔宾·米歇尔称,这本书自去年10月出版以来已经售出40万册,Though Mr. Zemmour’s is a work of reactionary nostalgia and Mr. Houellebecq’s a futuristic fantasy, both books have hit the dominant note in the national mood today: “inquiétude,” or profound anxiety about the future.尽管泽穆尔的作品是保守主义的怀旧,而维勒贝克的书是未来主义的幻想,两本书都直击当今法国的主要思潮:“焦虑”(inquiétude),也就是对未来的深刻忧虑。Fueling this anxiety for many French are the fears of non-Muslims about Muslims, the threat posed by groups like the Islamic State and their recruiting in Europe, and rising anti-Semitism. More broadly, concern has grown that the political center is eroding and that extremes are rising in a way reminiscent of the 1930s, along with a sense that France, which prides itself on its republican tradition and strong, centralized state, has ceded too much power to the European Union.非穆斯林对穆斯林的恐惧、IS等组织的威胁,乃至他们在欧洲招募成员的行为以及反犹太主义的崛起,这些现象令这种焦虑进一步升温。在更大的层面上,人们担心政治中心力量受到侵蚀,极端势力在崛起,和20世纪30年代的情况有些相像。此外,法国一贯为自己的共和政体传统,以及强大的中央集权国家感到骄傲,如今却将许多权力让渡给了欧盟,这也加深了焦虑之情。“I think this anxiety is the idea of seeing France give up on itself, of changing to the point of no longer being recognizable,” said the philosopher Alain Finkielkraut, whose much-debated 2013 book, “L’identité Malheureuse,” or “The Unhappy Identity,” discussed the problems immigration poses for French identity and cultural integration. “People are homesick at home,” he added, speaking two days before the attacks.“我认为这种焦虑是认为法国放弃了自己,变得让人认不出来了,”哲学家阿兰·芬基尔克劳(Alain Finkielkraut)说,2013年,他的书《不快乐的身份》(L’identité Malheureuse)探讨移民为法国人身份认同与文化整合所带来的问题,受到广泛讨论。“人们在自己家里,却患了思乡症,”他在恐怖袭击两天前这样说。Mr. Zemmour and Mr. Houellebecq wade into similar swampy waters, but reach different shores. “It’s the same book, in that both talk about the same subject: the irreversible rise of Islam in society and in politics,” said Christophe Barbier, the editor in chief of the newsweekly L’Express.泽穆尔与芬基尔克劳涉入类似的泥沼,却在不同的地方登岸。“它们是同样的书,说的是同一个主题:伊斯兰力量在社会与政治中不可避免的崛起,”新闻周报《快报》(L’Express)主编克里斯托弗·巴尔比埃尔(Christophe Barbier)说。For the pessimistic Mr. Zemmour, “the final prognosis is civil war. One day there will be a clash between the French who aren’t Muslim and the French who think that a Muslim should be president of the republic,” Mr. Barbier said. Mr. Houellebecq “takes the opposite tack: the rise of Islam is not civil war, it’s civil peace,” Mr. Barbier added.对于泽穆尔这样的悲观主义者来说,“最终的预测就是内战。总有一天在法国内部会有一场冲突,是那些非穆斯林与认为穆斯林应该当总统的法国人之间的冲突,”巴尔比埃尔说。而维勒贝克“方向正相反,他认为伊斯兰的崛起不会导致内战,而会带来国内的和平,”巴尔比埃尔补充。“Submission,” Mr. Houellebecq’s sixth novel, paints France as a vision of economic stability under the reassuring presence of Mohammed Ben Abbes, the son of a Tunisian grocer and graduate of the elite #201;cole Nationale d’Administration. He wants to emulate the Roman emperor Augustus and bring parts of the Maghreb and Turkey into Europe.《屈》是维勒贝克的第六部小说,书中把法国描述为一个经济稳定的国家,穆罕默德·本·阿贝斯的领导令人放心,他是一个突尼斯杂货商的儿子,从国家行政学院这个精英学府毕业。他希望努力赶上罗马帝国的君王奥古都斯大帝的功绩,把马格里布地区的部分国家和土耳其带入欧洲。With investment from the Middle East, the economically troubled France is in the black again. Shariah has come to the country of la#239;cité, where church and state are strongly separated. Polygamy is legal and women, now covered in public, take on the role of housewives.由于在中东的投资,经济一度陷入困境的法国如今再度扭转了赤字。伊斯兰教法成了这个原本政教分离的国家的宪章。一夫多妻成为合法,女人要在公共场合蒙面,回归到家庭主妇的角色。The protagonist is Fran#231;ois, a specialist on the 19th-century fin-de-siècle French novelist Joris-Karl Huysmans, a convert to Catholicism. Fran#231;ois converts to Islam to keep his job teaching at the Sorbonne. (With France under Islamic law, his sometime girlfriend, Myriam, who is Jewish, emigrates to Israel, echoing a very real trend among French Jews today.)书中的主角是弗朗索瓦,一个专门研究19世纪末法国小说家乔里-卡尔·于斯曼(Joris-Karl Huysmans)的专家,于斯曼是天主教的皈依者。弗朗索瓦则皈依了伊斯兰教,以便保住自己在索邦大学的教职(由于法国在伊斯兰法治下,和他分分合合的犹太女友米亚姆只得移民以色列,她的状况颇能反映如今法国犹太人的真实趋势)。Mr. Houellebecq, 58, is no stranger to controversy. He was tried on defamation charges after he called Islam “the most stupid religion” in a 2001 interview. His 1998 novel “The Elementary Particles,” was about the dark side of sexual liberation, while “Platform” (2001) explored sex tourism and anti-Muslim sentiments. In 2010, his novel “The Map and the Territory” won France’s prestigious Goncourt Prize.58岁的维勒贝克对争议并不陌生。2001年的一次访谈中,他说伊斯兰教是“最愚蠢的信仰”,被指控为诽谤。1998年,他的小说《基本粒子》(The Elementary Particles)写的是性解放中的黑暗面,2001年的《平台》(Platform)探索性旅游业与反穆斯林情绪。2010年,他的小说《地图与疆域》(The Map and the Territory)获得了法国极富声望的龚古尔奖。This week, before the attack, some critics said the novelist was playing with fire, that “Submission,” its title a play on the literal meaning of the word Islam, was more than a literary exercise in that it could have an impact on French politics and civil life.这个星期,在恐怖袭击发生之前,有些家说这位小说家写《屈》是在玩火,这个书名用“伊斯兰世界”的字面意义玩文字游戏,但它不仅仅是一个文学练习,也很可能对法国政治与公民生活发生影响。“Houellebecq uses his talent, if I may say so, to exalt or to highlight this aspect of a collective fear that is descending upon us,” the philosopher Malek Chebel, who is Muslim, said on France 2 television this week. “I reproach him for it, all the more so that he is a great writer, and when you are a great writer, you have more responsibilities.”“维勒贝克使用他的才能——如果我可以这样说——去提高或强调突然袭上我们心头的集体恐惧中的这一方面,”穆斯林哲学家马莱克·切贝尔(Malek Chebel)本周在France2电视台的节目中说,“我谴责他的做法,尤其是因为,他是一位伟大的作家,如果你是一个伟大的作家,你就应该更负责任。”Mr. Houellebecq rejected the idea that literature could alter events.维勒贝克不认为文学可以改变现实生活中的事件。“I don’t have other examples of a novel changing the course of history,” Mr. Houellebecq said on the same program. “Other things change the course of history. Essays, ‘The Communist Manifesto,’ things like that, but not novels. That has never happened.”“我不知道有什么小说改变历史进程的例子,”维勒贝克在同一个节目中说,“历史的进程是由其他东西改变的,比如《共产党宣言》之类的文章,但不是小说。这样的事情从来没有发生过。”Through a spokeswoman for his publisher, Flammarion, Mr. Houellebecq declined to be interviewed for this article. Farrar, Strauss amp; Giroux has acquired the book in the ed States but has not set a publication date yet. In an interview with The Paris Review, Mr. Houellebecq called the novel “a political fiction,” in the same vein as those of Joseph Conrad or John Buchan.他通过自己的出版公司弗拉马里昂出版社的一位发言人拒绝了本文作者的采访要求。法拉·斯特劳斯与吉鲁科斯出版社获得了本书在美国的发行权,但还没定下具体出版日期。在接受《巴黎》(The Paris Review)访谈时,维勒贝克说自己的小说是“政治虚构文学”,和约瑟夫·康拉德(Joseph Conrad)与约翰·巴肯(John Buchan)的小说源自同一血脉。Some commentators see the book as a brilliant commentary on France’s collaborationist tendencies.有些家认为这本书是对法国存在的卖国主义趋势的精。In Le Figaro on Thursday, the writer Chahdortt Djavann asked, “Is it out of misogyny that he makes all women submit to the veil and polygamy and expulsion from public spaces, without their offering the least resistance, or does he really think that Frenchwomen will be less courageous than Egyptian and Tunisian women?”在周四的《费加罗报》(Le Figaro)上,作家沙多尔·德亚万(Chahdortt Djavann)问道:“他在书中让所有女人屈于面纱、多配偶婚,甘于被放逐出公共空间,全无丝毫反抗,这是不是有点太厌女了,抑或他觉得法国女人不像埃及和突尼斯女人那样勇敢?”There are few such distinctions in “The French Suicide,” in which Mr. Zemmour argues that women should stay home and have more children. His essay examines moments in French culture since the death of Gen. Charles de Gaulle in 1970, with an unrepentant nostalgia for a past with strong leaders, and the peace and prosperity of “Les Trente Glorieuses,” or the 30 years from the end of World War II until the mid-1970s.《法国的自杀》中有些不同,泽穆尔认为,女人应当呆在家里,多生孩子。他的文章审视了1970年夏尔·戴高乐将军(Gen. Charles de Gaulle)去世后法国文化史上的重要时刻,对强硬的领导者与“荣耀30年”(从“二战”后到70年代中期)抱有坚定的怀旧情绪。There are complex dissonances at work. Mr. Zemmour, the grandson of Algerian Jews, is fairly apologetic for Vichy France, and argues that people in France should give their children French names.书中有着复杂的不和谐。泽穆尔的祖父辈是阿尔及利亚犹太人,却为维希法国政府辩解,还认为身在法国的人就应该给自己的子女起法国名字。Through an assistant, Mr. Zemmour declined to comment.泽穆尔通过助手拒绝了本文作者采访。In his daily editorial on the popular French radio station RTL, on Thursday, Mr. Zemmour called the attacks on Charlie Hebdo France’s Sept. 11. “We aren’t fighting a war for free expression, we’re fighting a war, period,” he said. The peace of postwar France had been a rare parenthesis. “France has always been a country of civil wars and wars of religion,” he added.泽穆尔在法国颇受欢迎的广播电台RTL中有一个每日社论栏目,星期四,他在这个栏目中称《查理周刊》的遇袭是法国的911事件。“我们不是在为言论自由而战,我们是在打一场战争,就是这样,”他说。法国战后的和平不过是一个宝贵的间歇期,“法国总是处于内战与宗教战争之中,”他补充说。Commentators said that both “The French Suicide” and “Submission” would ultimately shore up the political fortunes of the National Front, a growing if incoherent mix of anti-establishment nativism, anti-immigrant sentiment, and anti-NATO and anti-European Union fervor.家说《法国的自杀》和《屈》最终都有利于国民阵线的政治利益,迎合了一股反体制的本土主义、反移民情绪,乃至反北约和反欧盟狂热,这股狂热虽在不断增长,但却离破碎。“The left has nothing to propose or to respond, and Zemmour and Houellebecq profit from this absence,” said Eric Naulleau, Mr. Zemmour’s more left-leaning co-host on a weekly television program and the author of a 2005 essay critical of Mr. Houellebecq.“左派没有什么建议或回应,而泽穆尔和维勒贝克从这种缺席中获利,”埃里克·诺尔洛(Eric Naulleau)说,他和泽穆尔共同主持一档每周电视节目,不过和泽穆尔相比立场偏左,2005年,他还曾撰文批评维勒贝克。“One flees to the past and the other flees to the future,” Mr. Naulleau added of the two authors, “but neither offers any answers.”“一个逃往过去,一个逃进未来,”诺尔洛这样评价这两位作家,“但他们都没给出任何。” /201501/353875

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  China#39;s super rich should rethink the value of the once-coveted U.S. green card.中国有钱人应该重新思考,曾经让人羡慕的美国绿卡究竟是否值得拥有。中国首富、娃哈哈集团创始人宗庆后近日宣布,他已经去美国领事馆还掉了他的美国绿卡。Take beverage billionaire Zong Qinghou, one of China#39;s wealthiest people, who recently gave up his permanent-resident status because #39;China is getting better and stronger than America, #39; his spokesman said.中国人还是想要出去。根据贝恩咨询的一项调查,教育、资产安全和准备退休是最主要的原因。年初北京的雾霾和现在黄浦江里浮着的几千头死猪,都给人以寻找“退出机制”的动力。The Chinese do still want to go abroad, with education, safety of assets, and retirement preparation the top reasons cited in a Bain amp; Co. survey. Other concerns∪such as thick Beijing smog and the recent scandal of dead pigs floating in a river that supplies water to Shanghai∪add new incentives to look for an exit strategy.美国是中国富豪最喜欢的移民目的地。上个财政年度美国批准的7,600个投资移民的签中,有八成给了中国人。The U.S. is the most popular destination, with as many as 80% of the 7, 641 investor immigrant visas approved in the U.S. in fiscal 2012 taken up by Chinese.尽管中国富豪正在把家庭和财产转移海外,但波士顿咨询的一项调查显示,只有6%的高净值人士自己拿了外国护照。他们国内的生意还在增长,他们还没有到打包离开的时候。But while the rich are sending their families and assets overseas, only 6% of the Chinese high-net-worth individuals have taken up foreign citizenship, according to Boston Consulting Group. Their businesses are still growing in China, so they aren#39;t y to just pack up and leave.但一本美国护照的成本也很高,尤其对于那些没有意识到拿了美国护照就要交美国税的中国富人。和其他国家不同的是,美国对其永久居民和公民的海外收入和资本利得也都要征税。所有在拿到美国身份之后获得的收入,都必须缴纳美国税。普通收入的最高税率为39.6%,高收入者的长期资本利得要交20%的税。A U.S. passport can be costly, especially to the wealthy who often don#39;t realize that with U.S. citizenship come U.S. taxes. Unlike other countries, the U.S. taxes its citizens no matter where they live or where they earn their income. All gains realized after becoming a U.S. citizen will be subject to U.S. taxation. Ordinary income is taxed at rates up to 39.6% and long-term capital gains are taxed at 20% for wealthier taxpayers.“有钱人一般只给他们的家人和亲戚申请美国投资移民,因为这对他们自己来说会有很大的税务影响,”以伦敦为总部的国际律师事务所Withers的美国移民主管Reaz Jafri说。#39;Wealthy people often just send their relatives through the U.S. investor program because it has significant tax implications for themselves, #39; said Reaz Jafri, head of U.S. immigration for London-based international law firm Withers.美国护照可能是一个成本高昂的附属品──在享受美国公民权利的同时也得承担美国赋税。 《华尔街日报》的顾蔚解释了为什么一些中国富人放弃美国绿卡,转而考虑在一些债务缠身的欧洲国家和一些富裕的亚洲城市入籍,以享受更优惠的待遇。A foreign residency can become a political liability at home. Revelation of Mr. Zong#39;s green card has led some Chinese to question whether they should be represented by an #39;American#39; at the National People#39;s Congress. Mr. Zong and his family members no longer carry U.S. green cards.外国身份在中国国内也可能是个政治包袱。宗庆后绿卡被曝光后,有些中国人开始抱怨一个“美国人”是否适合作为人大代表。宗庆后之所以放弃美国身份,是因为“中国变得越来越好而且一定会比美国强” ,他的发言人如此说到,并补充说现在宗庆后全家都是中国身份,没有人持有美国绿卡。Some Chinese businessmen have applied for foreign passports so they can enjoy preferential policies at home. Those policies include China#39;s tax breaks for foreign investors. Some business owners got foreign passports so they could list their companies in Hong Kong as #39;red chip#39; stocks. But foreign investors are now subject to the same tax rates as locals, and Hong Kong has tightened listing requirements.之前拿外国身份还有一个好处是可以在中国享受特殊待遇,中国过去对外商有税务优惠政策。要在香港以“红筹”身份上市,企业主也需要一本外国护照。但现在外商投资企业和本地企业的税率已经拉平,而且香港提高了上市审查标准后,海外上市也不那么容易了。The sheer demand for visas to the U.S. and elsewhere by Chinese is making them harder to get, with China now the world#39;s biggest exporter of its people. In 2011 alone, 150, 000 Chinese got immigration visas from foreign countries, according to the Center for China and Globalization, a Chinese think tank.中国人对美国投资移民的庞大需求本身也使得美国绿卡更难拿了。现在中国已经是世界上最大的人口出口国。根据智库中国和全球化研究中心的数据,仅2011年,就有15万中国人获得了海外移民身份。For the U.S. investor visa program known as EB-5, an individual-country a is likely to kick in later this year, according to the U.S. State Department. That means some Chinese investors will need to wait for several years after their money has been invested in the U.S., Mr. Jafri said.根据美国国务院预测,今年开始,投资移民签会开始受国家配额限制,这意味着未来中国申请人把钱投到美国后,可能要等好几年才能拿到移民签。A U.S. green card can be lost just by doing nothing, yet the applicant may still be on the hook for U.S. taxes. In general, permanent residents who fail to enter the U.S. for more than a year will be treated as if they abandoned their green cards. This is a time burden for first-generation rich in China who are still deeply involved in their businesses at home.美国绿卡也很容易失去,但绿卡拥有者可能还要继续给美国税。一般来说,美国永久居民如果有一年没有踏上美国土地就被认为自动放弃了绿卡。这对还积极忙于打造他们的商业帝国的中国第一代富豪来说,这也是个不小的时间负担。#39;People should ask themselves if a U.S. green card is what they really want, #39; said Erik Wallace, a Hong Kong-based lawyer at Withers. #39;If not, there are other options available.#39;“人们应该问问自己,是否美国绿卡真是他们想要的,”Withers的香港律师Erik Wallace说,“如果不是,他们还有其他选择。”For Chinese businessmen who want to sp their empires to America, they can apply for an L-1 visa, which allows foreign employees of international companies to relocate to the corporation#39;s U.S. office. The L-1 visa, which can be extended to up to seven years, may legally be used as a steppingstone to a green card.对于想要把自己的生意扩张到美国的中国商人,他们可以申请L-1签。该签帮助国际公司的外国雇员在其美国公司工作。L-1签可以一共延期到七年,也可以合法地作为申请绿卡的一个踏脚石。The L-1 visa has no investment or job-creation requirements, while the U.S. investor visa program does, and L-1 visas can usually be approved in a matter of weeks. People on L-1 visas are subject to U.S. taxes on their U.S. income, but not on their overseas income and capital gains if they spend fewer than 122 days each year in the U.S., according to Mr. Wallace.和美国投资移民不同, L-1签对于在美国的投资金额,以及在美国创造的工作都没有特别要求。一般来说,几个星期就可以批下来。Wallace说,成功的申请人需要为他们的美国收入交税,但只要每年在美国呆的时间不超过122天,一般就不需要为海外收入交美国税。Many Chinese believe a foreign passport, especially if it is from the world#39;s No. 1 superpower, can protect them from being targeted by Chinese authorities, or get them on a plane out of China if the country sinks into turmoil. Those are unlikely scenarios and people need to be realistic about the costs and benefits of foreign passports. It is always good to have a backup plan, but rich Chinese also need to make sure that they aren#39;t overpaying for it.很多中国人相信一本外国护照,尤其是来自世界第一超级大国的护照,能够保护他们不受中国政府的惩罚。万一中国乱了,还可以坐上一架特别飞机离开中国,他们有必要更现实和理智地看待这个问题。给自己找一个备用方案是个好主意,但中国富人也没必要为其付出太高昂的代价。 /201310/262822A city best known for its millionaires and factories churning out everything from buttons to lightbulbs is now better known in China for its unintelligible dialect.温州,这个以百万富翁以及工厂产品从纽扣到灯泡无所不包而闻名的城市,现在又以当地难懂的方言出了名。That#39;s according to a post titled #39;China#39;s Top 10 Most Difficult Dialects#39; -- known as fang yan in Mandarin -- that#39;s been trending on Weibo, China#39;s microblogging service. Wenzhou, the free-wheeling commercial metropolis in Zhejiang province, took the crown.根据微上流行的一个名为“中国十大最难懂方言”的帖子,地处浙江省的这个商业城市拔得头筹。#39;Even if you#39;re not afraid of the sky or the earth, you#39;re afraid of the Wenzhou devil-language,#39; wrote the author of the top 10 list.帖子的作者写道:天不怕地不怕,就怕温州人说鬼话。The author, who posted the list anonymously, writes that the Wenzhou dialect is so notoriously difficult that during the war against Japan, the Chinese Communist Party#39;s Eighth Route Army used Wenzhou speakers to relay messages by foot or by phone so that Japanese intelligence officers would not be able to understand them. The author likens Wenzhou people to characters in Hollywood movie #39;Windtalkers,#39; which featured U.S. soldiers who used the Navajo language as a code to prevent the Japanese from listening in during World War II.这位未具名作者写道:据说在抗日战争中,八路军部队相互之间联系由于保密需要,都是派两个温州人,进行电话或者步话机联系,而日本的情报部门,总也翻译不出发音极为复杂的温州话;可以说当时的温州人就像美国大片中的风语者一样。电影《风语者》讲述的是二战期间美国士兵利用纳瓦霍语传递情报,以防日本人监听的故事。Cantonese comes in at an unsurprising second place. The post notes that while Cantonese is #39;trendy#39; and many people can say at least a few words of it, the fact that it has its own written characters -- and that in Guangzhou public announcements, Cantonese is often broadcast before Mandarin -- highlight the huge gulf between the two languages. Such a gap also continues to persist in Hong Kong, which returned to Chinese control in 1997 but continues to operate using Cantonese. #39;Some people in Hong Kong can#39;t even understand Mandarin,#39; the author adds.广东话不出意外地被排在第二。作者说:广东话可以说现在是流传广泛,很多人都会说几句简单的广东话,但是我把广东话排名第二的原因是,广东话不只有自己独特的发言,还有自己的文字,而且在广州的公交车上都是先用广东话再用普通话进行报站的,有些广东人包括香港人甚至听不懂普通话,这足以说明广东话和普通话的差别之大。The status of Cantonese in southern China has been an emotional issue, even sparking protests in Guangdong in 2010 following a plan by the government to switch some television programs to Mandarin.广东话在中国南方的地位一直是个情感问题,甚至还于2010年在广东引发了抗议活动,抗议的导火索是当地政府计划将部分电视节目改用普通话播出。In addition to the Wenzhou dialect, another linguistically related tongue of the wu family from the city of Suzhou comes in in the top three. Wu denotes the region which includes Zhejiang, Shanghai and parts of Jiangsu province. According to the post#39;s author, the Suzhou dialect has an air of #39;bookishness#39; and sounds especially mellifluous when spoken by Suzhou women -- and no wonder, as the city is known throughout history for being a center of culture, while its women are celebrated as among the most beautiful in China.和温州话一样属于吴方言语系的苏州话排名第三。吴指的是包括浙江省、上海市和江苏省部分地方在内的地区。据该帖子的作者称,苏州话有种古意和书卷气,苏州女孩子说苏州话时更为温软动听。这也不足为奇,因为苏州历来都是文化中心,也是盛产美女的地方。Suzhou shares third place with southern Fujian province#39;s Minnan dialect, also widely spoken in Taiwan and among diaspora populations in Southeast Asia. #39;If one doesn#39;t have a talent for languages, one could live their entire life in Fujian and still not understand Minnan,#39; says the post.和苏州话并列第三的是福建省的闽南话。很多台湾人和东南亚华侨也说闽南话。该帖称,估计没有语言天赋的人,就是在福建待上一辈子可能都听不懂闽南话。In a country as large and linguistically diverse as China, how easy or difficult a particular dialect is a contentious issue. The author#39;s post prompted a storm of replies on the puzzling nature of the country#39;s languages.像中国这样一个幅员辽阔、语言多样的国家,判断某种方言的难懂程度存在一定争议。该帖子引来大量网友回帖,对费解的中国语言吐槽。#39;The distance between Wuhan and Xianning is less than 100 kilometers, but the dialects are mutually unintelligible. Yet I have no problems understanding the dialect in Enshi, which is 500 kilometers away,#39; wrote one Weibo user.一位微用户说,武汉和咸宁相距不到100公里,但却听不懂对方的方言,但他听500公里之外的恩施的方言却没有问题。Other users questioned whether the author of the post had missed other dialects also worthy of being listed, including that spoken on Hainan island, China#39;s southernmost province, where the dialect is part of the Minnan family of dialects but said to be incomprehensible to other Minnan speakers.其他用户质疑作者是否漏掉了其他也应上榜的方言,其中包括海南岛的方言。海南方言也属于闽南方言,但据说其他说闽南话的人却听不懂海南方言。The full list:整个排名:1. Wenzhou dialect1. 温州话2. Cantonese2. 广东话3. Suzhou and Minnan dialects3. 苏州话和闽南话4. Shanghainese4. 上海话5. Shaanxi dialect5. 陕西话6. Changsha dialect6. 长沙话7. Sichuan dialect7. 四川话8. Shandong dialect8. 山东话9. Tianjin dialect9. 天津话10. Northeast dialect10. 东北话 /201405/300349

  

  

  

  

  In some countries, business owners can go their way in the happy knowledge that government officials won#39;t be hitting them up for bribes or tossing them in jail on trumped-up charges. But in other parts of the world, public sector corruption is a fact of life.在一些国家,商人深知,可以通过贿赂,让政府官员不触及抓捕他们,或给他们一个“莫须有”的罪名入狱。但是在世界的其它地方,公共部门的腐败是一个不争的事实。Hoping to shine a light on this widesp problem, Transparency International, a non- governmental organization that serves as a watchdog for corporate and political corruption, has published its Corruption Perceptions Index for 2013. The index ranks countries around the world by perceived level of government corruption, with a score of 100 signaling an absence of official corruption and a score of 0 indicating a country that is hopelessly corrupt.为了揭露这一普遍问题,国际透明组织-一个非政府组织,对企业和政治腐败进行监督,公布了其2013年清廉指数。世界各国的政府腐败通过指数进行排名,100的高分代表无官员腐败,得分0暗示这是一个无可救药的腐败国家。Of the 177 countries and territories listed on the index, less than one-third managed to break 50. As No. 127 Nicaragua would say, that#39;s no bueno. So in what countries can you trust public officials and what places should you avoid?在177个国家和地区中,只有少于三分之一的国家能够超过50分,所以在这份排名中,你能发现哪些国家官员能够给予信任,哪些国家应该避免呢To start, the Nordic countries are a safe bet for business, with Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway all among the least corrupt nations. Rounding out the top five are New Zealand, tied for first with Denmark with a score of 91, and Singapore, tied with Norway for No. 5.在这份排名中,北欧国家腐败指数都非常安全,丹麦,芬兰,瑞典和挪威都排在腐败程度最低的榜单中,前五位中,排名榜首的新西兰和丹麦,得分是91分,新加坡和挪威并列第五Here are the 10 least corrupt countries in the world, according to the index:下面是世界十大腐败程度最低的国家Denmark丹麦New Zealand (tied with Denmark for No. 1)新西兰(与丹麦并列第一)Finland芬兰Sweden (tied with Finland for No. 3)瑞典(与芬兰并列第三)Norway挪威Singapore (tied with Norway for No. 5)新加坡(与挪威并列第五)Switzerland瑞士Netherlands荷兰Australia澳大利亚Canada (tied with Australia for No. 9)加拿大(与澳大利亚并列第九)What of the ed States? The world#39;s largest economy sits at No. 19 with a score of 73, while its fellow Anglophones to the north and south, Canada and Australia, are tied for 9th place with scores of 81. (Both have dropped since last year. In 2012, Canada scored an 84 and Australia an 85.) The ed Kingdom is ranked No. 14.那美国呢?世界最大的经济体得分73,位列19名。而其南北邻国加拿大和澳大利亚,并列第九,得分是81分。(两个国家相比于2012年得分都有所下降,加拿大当时84分,澳大利亚85分)。英国目前排名14.Mexico, another U. S. neighbor, is listed as far more corrupt than Canada, with a score of 34 ranking it at 106 of 177. (This reporter#39;s own experience suggests the country#39;s low score is well-deserved.)美国的另一个邻国墨西哥,要比加拿大腐败的多,腐败指数34分,在177个国家中排名177.(改记者自身经验暗示该国的低分数是罪有应得的)At the positively wretched end of the scale it#39;s no surprise to see Yemen, Sudan, Syria and other Middle Eastern and African countries. But some of their scores look almost handsome beside the worst of the lot: Tied for last place are Afghanistan, North Korea and Somalia, all having scored a measly 8 on the index.在排名的末端,我们毫不惊讶的看到了也门,苏丹,叙利亚和其他中东和非洲国家。但他们的分数还是要比最糟糕的国家好一些:他们是阿富汗,朝鲜和索马里,他们的分数都只有8分。Here are the world#39;s 10 most corrupt nations, starting with the worst:下面是世界十大最腐败的国家Somalia索马里North Korea (tied with Somalia and Afghanistan for No. 175)朝鲜(与索马里阿富汗并列175名)Afghanistan (tied with North Korea and Somalia for No. 175)阿富汗Sudan苏丹South Sudan南苏丹Libya利比亚Iraq伊拉克Uzbekistan乌兹别克斯坦Turkmenistan (tied with Uzbekistan and Syria for No. 168)土库曼斯坦(与乌兹别克斯坦和叙利亚并列168位)Syria (tied with Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan for No. 168)叙利亚 /201312/270514

  The 11 fathers of Asia: 800 million modern men are descended from a handful of ancient leaders - including Genghis Khan研究称8亿亚洲人来自11名共同祖先More than 800 million men living today are descended from just eleven men, including the ruthless Mongolian leader Genghis Khan, according to new research.最新研究表明,残酷的蒙古首领成吉思汗等11人在今天有8亿后代。Geneticists have been able to find eleven distinctive sequences in Y-chromosomes - the chunk of DNA that is only carried by men - that are persistent in modern populations in Asia.  基因学家发现,现代亚洲人中,只有男性才拥有的Y染色体有11种互不相同的序列。  By systematically analysing the DNA of more than 5,000 men, they have been able to trace these male lineages to their approximate #39;founding fathers#39;.通过对5000多名男子的DNA进行系统分析,基因学家能够追溯到他们的男性祖先。  They found that along with Khan, who is reputed to have sired hundreds of children as his hoards cut a swathe across much of Asia, they traced ten other lineages.他们一共找到11种血统,其中包括成吉思汗的--他几乎横扫整个亚洲,留下许多子孙。  They found that 37.8 per cent of the 5,000 men they tested belonged to one of these eleven lineages.他们发现,5000名男性中的37.8%都有这11种血统之一。If this is reflected in the entire Asian population, then it could mean around 830 million men living in Asia currently owe their Y-chromosomes to one of these eleven men.这一点反映了整个亚洲的人口状况,可能表明约8亿3千万亚洲男性都从这11位祖先中的某一位那里继承了Y染色体。  Among them is a lineage that has previously been attributed to a Chinese ruler called Giocangga, who died in 1583 and whose grandson founded the Qing Dynasty that ruled China between 1644 and 1912.  其中的一种血统曾被认为来自中国酋长觉昌安。他卒于1583年,孙子是清朝(统治期1644-1912)的建立者。  Giocangga is thought to have had many children with his wives and concubines and is the direct male ancestor of more than 1.5 million men.  人们认为觉昌安和他的妻妾生了许多孩子,是150万人的直系男性祖先。  The researchers also found that another of the lineages appears to have population clusters that are concentrated along the Silk Road trading route and date back to around 850AD.研究人员发现另一种血统的持有者集中在丝绸之路一带。这种血统可以上溯到公元850年左右。  This suggests they may have their origins among the powerful rulers who dominated the steppes where the route passed - the Khitan, Tangut Xia, Kara-Khitan and Mongol empires.  这表明他们的祖先可能是契丹、西夏、西辽、蒙古等丝绸之路沿途各国的统治者。  The researchers suggest that Abaoji, Emperor Taizu of Liao and the Great Khan of the Khitans, who died in 926AD in the Khitan area of China, is a possible candidate for the father of this lineage.研究人员认为公元926年去世的契丹大可汗辽太祖阿保机有可能是这条血脉的始祖。 /201507/384040

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