2020年01月28日 17:58:40|来源:国际在线|编辑:求医分享
Researchers are trying new approaches to treat Type 2 diabetes amid widesp uncertainty about the most effective therapies and concerns that current strategies might be doing some patients more harm than good. 在人们普遍对何种糖尿病疗法最有效感到不确定、并且担忧当前的治疗策略对某些患者可能弊大于利的情况下,研究人员正在尝试治疗II型糖尿病的新方法。 New guidelines for treating the disease, which many experts consider a public-health crisis among millions of mostly overweight individuals, suggest doctors vary treatments depending on a patient#39;s age, general health and even personal preferences. The recently updated guidelines recommend that doctors back away from pushing patients to get their blood sugar down to a standard targeted level. Aiming for a very low blood-sugar level might be appropriate for a younger person, for example, while older patients might do better with a less aggressive approach, according to the guidelines, published in June in the journal Diabetes Care. 糖尿病被许多专家视为是一个公共健康危机,患病人数达数以百万计,其中大多数为体重超重的人。6月份发表在《糖尿病护理》(Diabetes Care)杂志上的糖尿病治疗最新指引建议医生要根据患者的年龄、总体健康状况甚至是个人偏好来改变治疗方案。该指引建议,医生要避免强迫患者将血糖降至标准的目标水平。例如,该指引提出,制定一个非常低的血糖水平目标或许适用于年轻患者,但是采取更温和的治疗方法对年纪较大的患者效果或许会更好。 #39;We need to be less dogmatic about what matters and be open to different approaches and give patients a voice#39; in treatment decisions, says Victor Montori, a diabetes specialist at Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minn., who wasn#39;t involved with writing the guidelines but supports the new direction. 美国明尼苏达州罗切斯特市梅奥诊所(Mayo Clinic)的糖尿病专家维克多#8226;蒙托里(Victor Montori)说,“关于什么是重要因素,我们应该要不那么固守成规,要愿意接受不同的方法,并让患者(在决定治疗方案上)拥有话语权。”蒙托里并未参与撰写这份新指引,但他对这个新方向持持态度。 Another approach gaining wider acceptance for some patients is the use of bariatric surgery, which results in dramatic weight loss. Though it comes with risk of serious complications, the operation has been shown in recent studies to lead to a rapid lowering of blood sugar, often enabling patients to go off most or all of their diabetes medicines. 对于某些患者而言,另外一个获得较广泛认可的治疗方法是施行可大幅降低体重的减肥手术。虽然严重并发症风险会随之产生,但近期一些研究显示该手术能使血糖水平迅速降低,常常可使患者停用大部分或全部在的糖尿病药物。 Some experts also are questioning the benefits of gradually stepping up the intensity of drug therapy, a widely accepted approach that was reaffirmed in the latest guidelines. The aim is to maintain a patient#39;s blood-sugar level while keeping up with the progressive nature of the disease. But researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, for instance, argue in a recent small study that hitting the disease early and hard is better. 有些专家也对逐渐增强药物疗法强度的益处提出质疑,这一获得广泛认可的方法在最新的指引中也再次得到肯定。该疗法的目的是要维持患者的血糖水平,同时也要跟上糖尿病会不断加重的这种特性。其中,位于达拉斯的德克萨斯大学西南医学中心(UT Southwestern Medical Center)的研究人员在最近一次小规模研究中提出,早早采用高强度疗法治疗糖尿病会更好。 More than 24 million Americans have Type 2 diabetes, the version of the disease usually associated with being overweight and living a sedentary lifestyle. By some estimates the number could double by 2025. 美国目前有2400多万II型糖尿病患者,该类型糖尿病通常与体重超重或是久坐不运动的生活方式存在关联。据估计,II型糖尿病的患病人数到2025年可能会翻番。 In diabetes, the body isn#39;t able to effectively use insulin or to make enough of it to metabolize glucose in the food we eat, resulting in higher than normal levels of blood sugar. Heart attacks and strokes, kidney failure, nerve damage, blindness and vascular problems leading to amputation are among the long-term complications when the disease isn#39;t well controlled. That makes diabetes a precursor to many of medicine#39;s most debilitating conditions. Annual costs for treatment and loss of productivity associated with the disease are about 4 billion, according to the American Diabetes Association, an education and research association that devised the new treatment guidelines in collaboration with its counterpart the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. 患糖尿病后,人体会无法有效地利用胰岛素或是无法分泌足量的胰岛素来使我们从食物中摄取的葡萄糖发生代谢,从而导致血糖水平高于正常水平。糖尿病若没有控制好会引发一些慢性并发症,包括心脏病、中风、肾衰竭、神经损伤、失明和会导致截肢的血管问题等。这使糖尿病成为药物所引发的最易使体质变差的诸多症状的前兆。美国糖尿病协会(American Diabetes Association,简称“ADA”)的数据显示,美国用于治疗糖尿病的费用以及与该疾病相关的生产力的损失每年达到1740亿美元左右。ADA为一家教学和研究机构,其与欧洲糖尿病研究协会(European Association for the Study of Diabetes)合作制订了这份糖尿病治疗新指引。 There have been conflicting findings over the benefits for patients of keeping blood sugar strictly controlled, helping to fuel uncertainty about how best to treat the disease. Some popular diabetes drugs come with side effects─including weight gain, bone loss and even a small risk of certain cancers. And some data have shown that aggressive efforts to achieve tight glucose control, until recently considered a desirable goal, can lead to troubling episodes of low blood sugar called hypoglycemia or to increased risk for serious heart-related problems. 关于严格控制血糖水平的益处一直存在一些相互抵触的研究结果,这也加大了何种糖尿病疗法最有效这一问题的不确定性。一些常见的糖尿病药物具有副作用,例如体重增加、骨质疏松,甚至还有引发某些癌症的小风险。此外,一些数据也显示,采取激进疗法来严格控制住葡萄糖含量(直到最近还被认为是一个理想的目标)可能会造成患者有些时候血糖低的麻烦问题(即低血糖症),也可能会加大出现严重心脏问题的风险。 Although available drugs all improve blood-sugar levels, there is a lack of data to show whether they actually prevent or delay development of diabetes#39; long-term consequences. 尽管现有的药物都能改善血糖水平,但仍然缺乏有关它们是否真能阻止或延迟糖尿病的慢性并发症进一步加重的数据。 #39;The goal for treatment and the choice of individual drug must be personalized depending on the patient,#39; says Vivian Fonseca, the ADA#39;s president for science and medicine and chief of endocrinology at Tulane University Health Sciences Center, in New Orleans. ADA科学与医学事务主席、新奥尔良杜兰大学医学中心(Tulan University Health Sciences Center)内分泌学主任薇薇安#8226;冯塞卡(Vivian Fonseca)认为,必须根据病人的情况制定专门的治疗目标和选择药物。 For most patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the first line of therapy is to improve diet and exercise habits to reduce blood-sugar levels. Usually metformin, a basic diabetes medication, is also prescribed. But patients with only mildly elevated blood-sugar levels may try to improve their health habits for up to six months to see if they can control the disease before beginning medication. 对于大多数新近被诊断患有II型糖尿病的患者,首先展开的系列疗法就是改善饮食和锻炼习惯以降低血糖水平,同时医生常常还会给他们开一种名为二甲双胍的治疗糖尿病的基本药物。不过,如果患者的血糖水平只是温和上升,他们可能要先试着改善自己的生活习惯六个月时间,以看看是否能在用药之前控制住糖尿病。 Blood sugar is typically defined as being under control for diabetic patients when it is below 7%, using a measure known as hemoglobin A1c, or HbA1c, according to the ADA. Under the new guidelines, that level is still desirable. But younger, newly diagnosed and well-motivated patients with a long life expectancy may want to aim for even lower levels, closer to 6%, according to the recommendations. Such aggressive therapy is expected to better keep the disease from progressing. ADA称,糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)水平低于7%的糖尿病患者通常会被认定血糖受到控制。新发布的指引也认为这一水平比较理想。但是,指引中还提到,年纪较轻、新近被诊断患病、强烈希望自身长寿的患者可能要把血糖控制在接近6%的更低水平。这一比较激进的治疗方案可能会更好地防止糖尿病加重。 For older patients vulnerable to severe hypoglycemia or who may aly have advanced cardiovascular disease, less stringent targets of up to 8% or even a little higher would be sufficient, the guidelines say. This also could reduce the burden of side effects from medications. 新指引称,对于易患严重低血糖症的老年患者或是可能已经患有心血管疾病的患者,目标可以放松一些,8%甚至是略高一些的血糖水平就足够了。这可能会减轻药物副作用带来的负担。 /201207/191690Why do the British wear paper hats at Christmas lunch? 为什么英国人圣诞节要戴纸帽子?All over Britain on Christmas Day, families can be found sitting around their dining tables enjoying a traditional lunch of roast turkey with all the trimmings ; and all, regardless of age, wearing coloured paper hats. It is rumoured that even the Queen wears her paper hat over lunch!圣诞节当天,全英国的家庭都会坐在餐桌前,吃一顿传统的圣诞大餐,塞满了各种馅料的烤火鸡。无论年龄老幼,所有人都会在头上戴一顶色纸做成的纸帽子。据说,就连伊莉莎白女王也会戴纸帽子哦!So why this quaint tradition? Where do these paper hats come from? The answer is the Christmas Cracker. 那为什么会有这个古怪的传统呢?戴纸帽子的传统来源于哪里?就在另一项圣诞传统活动;;圣诞拉炮! A Christmas Cracker is a cardboard paper tube, wrapped in brightly coloured paper and twisted at both ends. There is a banger inside the cracker, two strips of chemically impregnated paper that react with friction so that when the cracker is pulled apart by two people, the cracker makes a bang. 圣诞拉炮是用硬纸板做的纸筒,再用色鲜艳的纸包裹在外面,两端拧紧。在拉炮里会有一个爆竹,当两个人拉动拉炮两端时,拉炮里的两条浸渍纸就会发生擦,发出;嘣;的响声。Inside the cracker there is a paper crown made from tissue paper, a motto or joke on a slip of paper and a little gift. 拉炮里会装有纸做的、写在纸上的名言或笑话,还会有一些小礼物。Christmas crackers are a British tradition dating back to Victorian times when in the early 1850s, London confectioner Tom Smith started adding a motto to his sugared almond bon-bons which he sold wrapped in a twisted paper package. 圣诞拉炮成为英国传统的历史可以追溯到维多利亚时期,约在19世纪50年代早期,伦敦的一个糖果商汤姆-史密斯把写有名言的纸片放在了他售卖的糖果包装里,包装方式就是在糖果外用纸将两头拧紧。The paper hat was added to the cracker in the early 1900s. The cracker was soon adopted as a traditional festive custom and today virtually every household has at least one box of crackers to pull over Christmas. 到了20世纪初,纸帽子也被放到了圣诞拉炮里。很快,拉炮就成了英国人过圣诞节的传统习俗。现在,所有的英国家庭至少都会准备一盒拉炮留到圣诞节时来拉响。 /201112/163662Is there an antidote to anxiety? "I'm very frightened," said Julie White. But she has a remedy: the stretching and deep breathing of yoga. The practice is so calming that after the terror upgrade, White made an upgrade of her own--from one class a day to two. she says, "Yoga is my tranquilizer."”You may find the lotus pose hopelessly warm and fuzzy in the face of terror. But there are a host of activities, from working out to going for a massage, that can temper the anxiety. Many of these techniques have been used for decades, if not centuries; now advances in science are showing they can reduce the hormones associated with stress and even affect brain activity. The common trait among all: maintaining control and recognizing that our concerns are a natural response to the world we live in.The first step toward combating fear is identifying it. Keep in mind that headaches, stomachaches, sleeplessness and rapid heartbeat are all symptoms of anxiety. Confront the emotion head-on by naming it, even saying, "I feel fear about this," says Saki Santorelli, executive director of the University of Massachusetts Medical School's Center for Mindfulness. Acknowledging anxiety makes us less passive, less vulnerable and, as a result, more able to cope.Understand that fear is a component of stress, the complex fight-or-flight response ingrained in us since the cave days. When we're confronted with danger, epinephrine (adrenaline) starts pumping, the heart speeds up, blood pressure increases, breathing quickens.One of the most efficient ways to reduce stress is to focus inward on one thing we can effectively control: our own breath. At the Mind/Body Medical Institute, participants elicit a "relaxation response," repeating a word - anything from "om" to "Hail Mary"--silently as they exhale. In numerous studies, Benson has found that the practice leads to lower blood pressure, slower breathing and an overall calm.Richard Davidson at the University of Wisconsin-Madison recently found that a form of meditative breathing pioneered at the Center for Mindfulness can affect the brain. In a small, soon-to-be-published study, Davidson took brain images of 25 members of a biotech firm who practiced meditation six days a week for eight weeks. He found increased activation in the left side of the prefrontal part of the brain, an area associated with lower anxiety, positive emotion and inhibition of the amygdala, the brain's fear center.If sitting in one position for more than five minutes sounds impossible, you might try yoga. Concentrating on the physical intricacies of different poses forces you to filter out the "endless tape loops of chatter and fear," says Dr. Timothy McCall, medical editor of Yoga Journal, allowing you to be present in the moment. In so doing, you begin to clear the mind of future worries.That experience helps get rid of distorted thinking, says Stanford University psychiatrist Dr. David Burns. What to do in the face of terrorism? Accept your anxiety, but don't let it control you. And certainly don't ruminate on your own. "Anxiety feeds on itself," says Dr. Paul Appelbaum, president of the American Psychiatric Association, so talk to family and friends."Sharing the concern with others can be enormously helpful."”Scientists are finding that it can help to get outside your head completely. In a study of 60 schoolchildren traumatized by Hurricane Andrew, Tiffany Field, director of the University of Miami's Touch Research Institute, found that depression dropped in kids who received 30 minutes of massage twice a week for a month; kids who watched a relaxing showed no improvement. And cortisol levels, the body's marker for stress, declined significantly in the massage group. If massage isn't your thing, go for a vigorous walk, swim or bike ride. Exercise is not only good at keeping you fit; it reduces anxiety and depression, too.It may be difficult, but in troubled times, researchers say, people need to take comfort from life' s simplest pleasures.In a small study at the University of Rochester School of Medicine, Dr. O. J. Sahler found that bone-marrow transplant patients who listened to music reported less pain and nausea, and their transplants took less time to become functional. And, yes, laughter may be good medicine, too. Dr. Lee Berk, of the Loma Linda University School of Public Health, discovered that a group of students who watched a comic for an hour had marked reductions in epinephrine and cortisol levels. "If fear is too great," says Berk,"send in the clowns." Now that's something we can all meditate on. /200812/57595

If a 20-minute nap, a cup of joe, and more shuteye at night were in a cage match, who would win for reducing that classic afternoon "dip"? The answer is: (in order of effectiveness)二十分钟的小睡,一杯咖啡,晚上多睡一会,这三样哪种能更有效地减轻下午的瞌睡?如下(根据有效度排序):1. Nap 小睡2. Caffeine 咖啡3. Then more nighttime sleep 晚上多睡会儿A new study just released proves the power of a nap over a jolt of caffeine and even more sleep at night. It's actually the first such study to look at all three methods for combating the afternoon lull that's commonly experienced-and which is a very normal physiological response to the body cycling through its natural rhythms during the day.一项新研究刚刚明小睡的威力强过一罐咖啡甚至是晚上多睡一会儿。这实际上是第一次让三种对抗下午犯困的方法同台竞技。事实上,下午犯困是一天之中人体生理节律导致的非常正常的生理反应。Just because you feel sleepy at some point in the afternoon doesn't actually mean you're sleep deprived. About eight hours after you wake up, the body's temperature dips a little, triggering that oh-so-annoying drowsiness after lunch and smack dab in the middle of your attempts to focus and get more done in the late afternoon.其实下午犯困并不是意味着你缺觉。大概在醒后八小时,身体的体温会出现小幅回落,这会导致午餐之后昏昏沉沉的瞌睡,并且恰好这时你还想多做点事情,就更难集中注意力了。Why am I not surprised the nap wins out? For many reasons:为什么我对小睡排第一一点都不奇怪?这有下面几个原因:Naps refresh you at a cellular level that-sorry, Soda-caffeine just can't do.小睡会在细胞层面让你清醒,这些是一杯可乐或者咖啡无法完成的。 /200907/78857

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