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来源:爱分享    发布时间:2019年07月23日 16:59:41    编辑:admin         

Hi, my name is Emma, and in today#39;s lesson we are going to be looking at the IELTS.大家好,我是 Emma,今天继续聊聊雅思备考技巧。The IELTS is a test that a lot of ESL students have to take when they want to go to a Canadian university, an Australian university, an English university.雅思是许多有意向前往加拿大、澳大利亚、英国等国家学习或移民的同学必考的一项语言测试。When they want to study overseas or often times, when they want to immigrate to one of these countries.当他们想要去海外留学的时候,往往要接受雅思测试,当他们想要移民到这些国家的时候。We#39;re looking specifically at the speaking part of the IELTS, part two.今天我们重点探讨一下如何在雅思口语第二部分取得高分。The IELTS speaking task is split up into three sections.雅思口语测试分为三部分。We are going to be looking at section two in this .今天着重讨论第二部分。Let me first explain what happens in section two,首先我们会分析一下第二部分的考试要求,and then we are going to look at some tips on what you should do if you want to do well on this section, and things you shouldn#39;t do. Let#39;s get started.接着跟大家分享一些得分技巧和一些应该避免的事情。现在开始。In part two of the speaking component of the IELTS, you will be speaking for about two minutes.口语第二部分要求你用英语讲两分钟。This part lasts for about three minutes, so you have three minutes.这部分总时长三分钟,所以你有三分钟的时间。The first minute you will be handed a question card.第一分钟会发给你一张话题卡。Here is an example of a question card. It will tell you, often times, to describe something.话题卡通常要求你描述某个事物,;Describe a museum that you have visited.; It will tell you what you need to say.比如说,“描述你去过的某个物馆”。题目还会告诉你应该怎么描述:You should say:Where it is?Why you went there?What you particularly remember. This is just an example.这家物馆位于哪里你为什么去参观你记忆犹新的是什么等等。这只是举例。It can be on different topics, but you will get a card that looks something like this.当然实战中的话题可能有很多种,但你拿到的话题卡大致是这样的。You have one minute to look at the question and to make notes, and to think: ;Okay, what am I going to say?;你有一分钟的时间读题、做笔记、快速思考应该怎么说。That takes one minute, and then after that the examiner will tell you: ;Okay, you can begin.;一分钟结束时,考官会提示你“可以开始了”。You must talk for one to two minutes. A lot of students actually consider this the hardest part of the speaking component because it#39;s not a dialogue.你的答题时间为一至两分钟。因为这部分不是对话,所以很多同学其实觉得这部分是口语里最难的。The examiner isn#39;t asking you questions and you#39;re giving responses, and you#39;re going back and forth.并不是考官提问你来回答,一来一往的形式。In this part of the IELTS, you just talk and you talk for one to two minutes.在这部分,你需要自己说足一到两分钟。A lot of students find this difficult because talking for two minutes, even for some native speakers, is a little difficult.所以很多同学觉得这部分很难,因为即使对于一些母语人士,就一个话题说两分钟也有点难度。That#39;s what#39;s going to happen in this part. What are some of the topics you might be asked about in this part of the IELTS?以上就是这部分考试的要求。那么在这部分你可能会遇到什么话题呢?Well, topics often covered include: you might be asked about a precious item, so you might have to describe a precious item that you own.经常考到的话题有:描述一件珍贵的物品,也就是说,你需要谈谈自己的某件心爱之物。You might have to say something about where you bought it from or: how did you get it, what does it look like, why is it so precious?比如你在哪里买的,或者你如何得到的,这件物品的外观如何,为什么珍贵,等等。You might be asked about a special day, a sporting event that you went to or a concert, a special trip or journey or vacation, people who have influenced you.还可能考到的话题有:一个特别的日子、你看过的体育比赛或者演唱会、一段难忘的假期或旅程、对你影响最大的人等等。For example: they might ask you to describe your favorite teacher. What was she like? Why was she so great?比如:说说你最喜欢的老师。她长什么样子?她为什么了不起?You might be asked about a book, music, a television program, a movie you saw or even items of clothing.还可能考到你看过的书、音乐或者电视节目,甚至是你喜欢的饰。Sometimes you#39;re asked about historical buildings, you might be asked about a neighborhood in your city.有时还有可能问到历史建筑或者你家乡的邻居等。The key thing that you probably will be asked is often about description, not always, but usually you have to describe something.关键是要求你口头描述,虽然也有例外,但一般都是要你描述某个事物。And then they usually have three questions, they can be: who, what, when, where, why?题目通常有三个小问,可能是:人物、事件、时间、地点、原因等。These are the types of questions that they ask.以上是题目类型。All right, so now let#39;s look at some things you can do in order to do well on this part of the IELTS.接下来我们看看能为你的表现增色的一些小技巧,What are some of the ;Dos; for the IELTS, the speaking part?也就是在口语考试中哪些事情是应该做的?Number one -- very, very important -- take notes. You#39;re given one minute where you get to look at the question,第一点——非常非常重要的一点——记笔记。你有一分钟的时间读题,and you#39;re given a pencil and you can take notes, do it. Take notes.考官还会给你纸笔,一定要记笔记。A lot of ESL students, they think, ;Ah, I don#39;t really want to take notes, it#39;s a waste of time. I know what I#39;m going to say in my head.;很多学英语的学生会想,“啊,我实在不想记笔记,太浪费时间了,我知道我要说什么。”What happens is while they#39;re speaking, they forget certain key points and they go off topic; they don#39;t stay organized.然而当他们张口说的时候,会遗漏重点甚至跑题,也就是没有条理。Your notes are very important because they keep you on topic and they keep you organized which is one thing you#39;re marked on.这就是问什么记笔记很重要,因为笔记能让你专注于问题本身,让你的有条理,这是一个评分点。Another thing that is very important -- actually this --, write keywords.第二个重点是——记下关键词。When you#39;re making your notes, don#39;t bother writing sentences of what you#39;re going to say.记笔记的时候,不需要写下完整的句子。You only have one minute. Just write keywords, important words that will help you to remember what you want to say.你只有一分钟,只需要写下能提醒你的关键词或重要的词。It#39;s very important to cover every point that is on the card.依次回答每一个小问题也很关键。In our previous example it said: ;Describe a museum that you have visited.; And it said: ;Where was the museum?;在之前的例子里,要求“描述你去过的一家物馆”,以及“物馆在哪里?”I think it said: ;What do you remember most about the museum? And why were you at the museum?;“物馆最令你难忘的是什么?”“你为什么去参观这家物馆?”If you get these three questions, make sure you answer each question.拿到这三个问题之后,一定要确保回答了每一个问题。And what#39;s a good way to know you#39;ve answered each question? As you talk, point.有什么好办法呢?那就是边说边用手指。For example: this is to point as you talk, put your finger on the point you#39;re talking about.比如,你接下来要回答这一问了,那就边说边用手指着这个问题。If this says: ;Why did you go to the museum?;比如问题是“你为什么去参观这家物馆?”Point at this while you talk about that point, and then move your finger to the next point as you talk about it.回答的同时,手指着这个问题;要回答下一个问题时,手指也挪到下一个问题。This will help you to remember what you#39;ve said, and to keep you on track.这样有助于你记住自己说了什么,也有效避免了跑题。Another very important thing to do is these often ask you about your own experiences. ;Describe your favorite teacher;, for example.另外需要提示大家的是,很多题目问的是你的体验。比如“说说你最喜欢的老师”。It#39;s good if you can remember one of your teachers or whatever the question asks, it#39;s good if you use your own experience.如果不管题目问什么,你都有相关的真实经验,比如说你记得你的某位老师,当然非常好,能用自己的经历回答问题是最好的。But maybe, maybe you#39;ve never been to a concert, maybe you#39;ve never been to a sporting event and that#39;s what the question asks.但有可能,题目所问的你没有经历过,比如你从来没听过演唱会,从来没有看过体育比赛。If this is the case: lie. Make it up. If your friend told you a story once about when they went to a concert, steal your friend#39;s story.这种情况该怎么办呢?那就编个。如果你的朋友曾跟你说他去看了一场演唱会,那就把你朋友的经历“偷”过来。It#39;s okay to lie and to steal other people#39;s stories on the IELTS.在雅思考试中是可以编造或者借用他人经历的。The main thing is that you practice or not practice, that you speak English.关键是你用英语回答问题。Whether you tell your own story about a museum you visited or if you#39;ve never visited a museum, pretend you went to the Louvre in France.不论你讲述的是自己参观物馆的亲身经历,还是你假装自己去过法国卢浮宫,都可以。Talk about how you saw the Mona Lisa and how it was a beautiful painting. You can make stuff up, it#39;s okay.用英语描述你见到蒙娜丽莎的感受,说说那幅画有多美。这些是可以编造的,不用担心。The next point of ;Dos; is: expand your answers.“值得做”列表的下一点:扩充你的。If it says: ;Where was the museum located?; Instead of just saying for that point: ;The museum is in Toronto.; That#39;s too short. Expand on this point.如果题目问:“物馆坐落在哪儿?”不要只回答“物馆在多伦多”,太短了。在这一点上扩展一下。;The museum is located in the downtown core of Toronto. It#39;s close to the university, some very important restaurants, and the CN Tower.;“物馆坐落在多伦多市中心,距离多伦多大学很近,也毗邻很加拿大国家电视塔和很多著名餐馆。”Okay, not true, but just...You can expand your answer. Make it long, give examples.虽然并不是真的……但你可以像这样扩充你的,让长一些,举一些例子。Another thing that is a good idea: because these questions are often about describing, it#39;s good to use your senses,还有一个很好的建议:这些问题通常是要你描述什么,所以说说你的观感是很不错的。meaning when you have to describe something, imagine it in your mind and if you run out of things to say, think about your senses.也就是说当你描述一个事物时,在脑海里充分构思和想象,当你不知道该说什么的时候,就谈谈你的观感。What did it look like? What did it smell like? What did it sound like?它看起来什么样?闻起来怎么样?听起来怎么样?For some of these, maybe you didn#39;t taste them, like a building, but you get the idea.有一些东西,比如建筑物,虽然你没法品尝,但也可以套用同样的理念。You can use your senses to help you imagine the area better, or the object, or the person.用观感帮助你更好地想象你需要描述的地点、物品或者人物。The next point: organize your speech. This is a must.下一点:组织你的语言,这是必须的。Some students, when they do this part of the IELTS, they talk, and they talk, and they talk, but there#39;s no organization.有些同学在这个部分,一直滔滔不绝,但所说的内容毫无条理。What you need to do is...it#39;s very good to have an introduction, it#39;s very good to have a body, and it#39;s good to have a conclusion.因此你需要做到:有一个好的开头,一个好的主体,一个好的结尾。It#39;s almost like you#39;re doing an essay, but you#39;re saying it.就像写作文一样,只不过我们是口头作文。You want to introduce the topic, then you want to address all of the points, the three points, and then you want some sort of conclusion.简要地介绍一下话题,点明要回答的所有要点,最后你需要一个结尾。You can say: ;So this is why this was a very memorable experience;, ;To sum up, my trip to Holland was a fantastic experience I#39;ll never forget.;你可以说;“这就是我觉得很难忘的原因”,“总的来说,我的荷兰之行很棒,令人铭记终身。”You want a conclusion as well. Okay, like I said earlier, it#39;s good to imagine in your head the object, person, or place.一个好的结尾是必要的,我们之前讲,可以边说边想象你要描述的物品、人物或者地点。This is a very good thing to do. It will help you to be less nervous as well. Use introductory phrases.这样做大有好处。还能让你不那么紧张。记得使用介绍性短语。When you introduce your topic, first thing you should say: ;I want to talk about blank.;, ;I#39;d like to talk about blank.;, ;I#39;m going to talk about blank.;当你介绍你的话题时,你首先要说:“我要说一说(空白)”,“我想谈一谈(空白)”,“接下来我要说的是(空白)”。You can use any of these.But it#39;s good... This can be your introduction: ;I#39;m going to talk about my trip to Spain.;,任何一种表述都可以。你可以这样组织你的开场白:“我要说一说我的西班牙之行。”;I#39;m going to talk about my teacher, Mrs. Fitzgerald.;, ;I#39;m going to talk about the most precious object in my life which is my pocket watch.;“我要介绍我的老师菲茨杰拉尔德夫人。”“我要聊一聊我最最珍惜的东西——我的怀表。”You can say whatever you#39;d like, but use an introductory phrase.不管你说什么话题,记得使用介绍性短语。This is a very important point: use transitions. What do I mean by that? Well, transitions help to organize what you#39;re going to say.下一个要点:使用顺序连接词,因为顺序连接词有助于你更好地组织内容。;First of all;, ;Secondly;, ;Thirdly;, ;Finally;, these are all examples of transitions.“首先”、“第二”、“第三”、“最后”,这些都是顺序连接词。Um...And if you#39;re...In this case, you may be talking about what happened somewhere, you might be describing an event.当你描述一件事,比如在哪里发生了什么时,;First, we went to the soccer stadium. Then we watched the game. After that, we went for ice cream.;可以说“首先我们前往球场;接着我们看完了比赛;之后我们去吃了冰激凌。”You can use these types of transitions: ;First;, ;Then;, ;Next;, ;After that;, ;Finally;.你就可以用到“首先”、“接着”、“之后”、“最后”等等连接词。These will help you in your cohesion marks, so in your fluency and cohesion mark.这些有助于提高你的连贯得分,也就是流利和连贯方面的分数。Finally, very important: speak loudly.最后一点,也是很重要的一点:大声说。You don#39;t want to mumble, you don#39;t want to be shy. You want to be confident.你肯定不希望自己口齿不清,也不希望自己羞涩怯场,而是自信大方。Be confident, make eye contact when you talk, speak loudly. These are all important tips.那就自信一点,说话的时候和考官保持眼神交流,大声说。这些都很重要。Another thing: practice. Practice talking for two minutes. You might have to build up to this.还有一点:多练。练习说到两分钟,这方面你可能需要多花点力气。For some people, talking for long periods of time is very difficult.对有的人来说,就一个话题说较长时间是很大的挑战。Maybe speaking English for one minute is really difficult for you.如果对你来说连续说一分钟很难,Start with 30 seconds, then move that to one minute, then a minute and a half, then two minutes.那就先说30秒,慢慢加到一分钟,一分半,最后两分钟。But you must practice speaking for two minutes.不论如何,一定要练习两分钟口头表达。One thing that a lot of people do is they think: ;Oh, okay. I need to speak for one to two minutes in this part of the IELTS.;不少同学觉得:“这部分说一到两分钟就可以了。”That#39;s true, but the closer you get to two minutes the better.没错,但越接近两分钟越好。If you#39;re at one minute, that#39;s a little bit of a short answer. Ideally, you want to be able to talk for two minutes.如果你只说到一分钟,其实是有点短的。理想情况下还是要说满两分钟。And also, don#39;t rush with what you#39;re going to say. Speak nice and at a good rate, so not too fast, not too slow.此外,不要像倒豆子一样说得太快。口齿清晰,语速适中,不要太快也别太慢。One other thing I wanted to say about ;Do;, it#39;s not on this list but, often times you will be using the past tense.最后一点“值得做”,虽然没写在列表里,但通常你的表述都应当是过去时。For this part of the IELTS, the past tense is very important. Get used to talking about past experiences using the past tense.在这一部分,过去时态很重要,要习惯用过去时态谈论过去的事情。Now let#39;s look at ;Don#39;ts;. Now I have a list of things you should not do. These are the ;Don#39;ts;, so don#39;t do this.现在我们来看看在考试中“应该避免的事”,同样有一个列表,这些事在考试中应当避免。The first one: a lot of ESL students want to do this, they want to memorize answers in advance.第一点:很多英语学生想提前把背下来。They look up a whole bunch of different questions and then they write down what they#39;re going to say,他们整理了很多话题,把要说的写在纸上,and they spend so much time memorizing for each question.然后用大量的时间记住每个问题和。This is not a good idea because first of all, it#39;s easy to tell when you#39;ve memorized something; it doesn#39;t sound natural.我们并不提倡这样做,首先因为考官一眼就能看出你是在背,背出来的听上去不自然。You#39;re going to lose marks if it sounds like you#39;ve memorized something. And there are just too many different questions they can ask.如果发现你在背诵,考官会扣分。而且可能考到的话题太多了,不可能全部都准备好。Don#39;t memorize answers. That#39;s not a good way to prepare.因此,不要背,这不是好的备考方式。Instead, focus on expanding your vocabulary.相反,要着力扩大你的词汇量。Practice talking about museums. What words do you need to know where you can talk about museums?如果你要练习物馆的话题,想一想你需要知道哪些词汇呢?Same with objects, teachers - how can you describe someone?谈论物品或老师时也是一样——你应该怎样描述一个人?Try to come up with descriptive words, expand your vocabulary. That would be a better way to prepare for this.因此试着有意识地学习一些描述性语言,扩大你的词汇量。这是备考的更好方式。Don#39;t write too much. I told you for the first part of this section, you get to write for one minute.不要一直写。第一部分我们说过,你只有一分钟时间记笔记。Don#39;t write full sentences. It#39;s good to write about one to two words per point. There#39;s about three points, one to two words is good.不要写完整句子。每个小问题写一两个词即可。三个小问题,每个问题一两个关键词足够。Don#39;t panic. A lot of students, as soon as they get to this part of the exam, they get really nervous and they panic, and their English just goes down.不要怕。很多学生到口语第二部分会非常紧张,害怕,因此发挥也不好。Don#39;t panic. Use stress management techniques. Breathe, that#39;s a good thing to do when you#39;re nervous.不要怕,学习一些压力管理技巧。深呼吸有助于缓解紧张。Imagine you#39;re in a nice green forest or on a nice beach. You can do these things, it will help you not to panic.想象你正在一片翠绿的森林里,或正在松软的沙滩上。这样也能让你不那么害怕。It#39;s also good before the IELTS, I find, before the speaking part if you can go on a walk.另外我发现在考前去散散步很不错。Walking actually calms your heart, it calms you down; it#39;s a good thing to do. Don#39;t focus too much on one point.散步有好处,能让你的心绪平静。不要太关注某一个小问题,There are three things you have to address at least.因为你要三个问题都答到。Don#39;t spend your whole time talking about the first thing.不要把所有时间都花在第一小问上。For example: if you have to describe your favorite teacher, and the first question is: when did you have her as a teacher?比如要你讲最喜欢的老师,第一小问是:你什么时候遇到这位老师的?Don#39;t spend your whole time covering this point. Make sure you cover each point they ask you to.千万不要把所有时间花在这一个问题上。记住每个问题都要谈及。Don#39;t use boring words. Remember: you#39;re getting marked on vocabulary.不要用太普通的词汇。要知道你还有词汇分。You want to use interesting vocabulary. For example: ;good;, that#39;s a boring word, ;bad;, again a boring word.用一些有意思的表达。“好”或者“不好”,都太普通太无趣了。Use something interesting like: ;My favorite teacher was really exciting. She was very enthusiastic.;换个说法,“我最喜欢的老师很有感染力,满腔热情。”That#39;s so much better than just saying: ;My favorite teacher was good.;这样比说“我最喜欢的老师很好”高级多了。Or my, you know, ;The museum I went to was bad.; No, use something better.不要说“我参观的那家物馆不好”。说点更有亮点的。Don#39;t give short answers meaning you have to talk for at least a minute, make sure you do this.回答不要太简短。记住你要说够至少一分钟。It#39;s better to even talk for close to two minutes. Make sure your answers aren#39;t too short.能说得越接近两分钟越好,一定不能太短。For example: ;I once went to the ROM [a museum in Canada], it was a good experience.比如,“我一次我去了 ROM(一家加拿大物馆),很好玩。The end.; Too short. You need to expand your answer.没了。”太短了,扩充你的。Don#39;t go off topic. What do I mean by this? Well, if you have to describe the most precious item you have, don#39;t start talking about education or technology.不要跑题。如果你谈论的是你最珍惜的东西,那就不要一开始就说起教育或者科技。Unless it#39;s relevant to what you#39;re talking about, don#39;t go off topic. Just talk about what they want you to talk about.除非这跟你的话题密切相关,不要跑题。只谈论题目要求谈论的内容。This is actually a very important point: a lot of students tell me they really worry about their accents.还有一点极其重要:很多学生过于担心口音问题。They think: ;Oh, I can#39;t pronounce things very well. You know, I might mispronounce a word.他们认为“天哪我的发音不好。我可能会念错词,I have problems pronouncing #39;r#39;; -- for example, or certain letters, ;ch;. It#39;s okay if your pronunciation is not perfect.我的‘r’音或者‘ch’音总发不对”,诸如此类。其实不用太担心发音不完美。The main thing...And if you have an accent, it#39;s okay if you have an accent. Most people have accents.有口音没问题,大多数人都有口音。You don#39;t have to worry about your accent. It#39;s also...Well actually everybody has an accent. I have a Canadian accent for example.不用担心这个,比如说我就有加拿大口音。Now, does my Canadian accent mean my American friends cannot understand me? No. So it#39;s okay if you have an accent.那么我的美国朋友难道就听不懂我的加拿大口音了吗?并不是。有口音没有关系。The main thing is that people understand what you#39;re saying. Don#39;t worry about your accent.关键是你传达了什么,而不是你的口音如何。Worry more about enunciating things, about saying things clearly. That#39;s what you want to do.把注意力放在如何清楚地阐述上,这才是应该做的。And again, grammar is one thing you#39;re marked on. Your grammar does not have to be perfect.还有,语法也是一个评分项。你的语法也不需要苛求完美。If you make a mistake, that#39;s okay, move on. You can mistakes, it#39;s okay if you make mistakes.犯了错误没关系,说下去。考试中是可以犯错的。I#39;d like to recommend a website where you can get more tips on part two of the IELTS and also practice questions.好了,推荐大家一个网站,有更多关于口语第二部分的备考建议和样题。Again, very important to practice. Practice with a timer. Make sure you#39;re speaking for two minutes.再说一遍,练习很重要。用计时器练习,确保你说到两分钟。 Article/201706/513762。

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201611/476029。

Media giant Thomson Reuters is cutting 2,000 jobs and setting aside at least 200 million dollars to restructure its business.媒体巨头汤森路透正在削减2000个工作岗位,并预留至少2亿美元来重组其业务。The company says it#39;s not planning to fire newsroom staff. 该公司表示不打算裁掉编辑部人员。Most of the cuts are slated to come from its financial and risk division, as well as the enterprise, technology and operations unit.大多数裁员计划来自金融和风险部门,以及事业、技术和运营单位。Those sectors are also where most of the 200 million dollars will be spent. 这些部门也将花费2亿美元的大部分。Reuters says it#39;s planning to accelerate its efforts to streamline the business side of the company.路透社表示,它正计划加快努力简化公司的业务。Reuters said it brought in 286 million dollars in net earnings over the past quarter. 路透社表示,过去一季度其净盈利为2亿8600万美元。That#39;s less than it made this time last year, but a bit more than analysts expected it to make.这比去年同期少了一些,但比分析师预期的要多一点。译文属。 Article/201611/476685。

栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。 Article/201605/431364。

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201609/464440。

In the late 17th century, a medical student named Johannes Hofer noticed a strange illness affecting Swiss mercenaries serving abroad.在17世纪末期 一名叫约翰·霍弗尔的医学生发现一种困扰着在海外役的瑞士兵的怪病Its symptoms, including fatigue, insomnia, irregular heartbeat, indigestion,其症状包括 疲惫 失眠 心率不齐 消化不良and fever were so strong, the soldiers often had to be discharged.以及高烧 由于病情太严重 有的士兵必须被迫退役As Hofer discovered, the cause was not some physical disturbance, but an intense yearning for their mountain homeland.霍弗尔研究发现 这些症状不是由一些身体的不适引起的而是因为他们太思念自己的家乡He dubbed the condition nostalgia, from the Greek ;nostos; for homecoming and ;algos; for pain or longing.他称之为乡愁 nostos来源于希腊语回家一词 algos则意为疼痛或渴望At first, nostalgia was considered a particularly Swiss affliction.一开始 乡愁被认定为典型的瑞士病Some doctors proposed that the constant sound of cowbells in the Alps caused trauma to the ear drums and brain.一些医生觉得是阿尔卑斯山上奶牛脖子上的铃声对士兵的耳膜和大脑造成了直接损伤Commanders even forbade their soldiers from singing traditional Swiss songs for fear that they#39;d lead to desertion or suicide.指挥官甚至禁止士兵唱传统的瑞士歌曲担心他们分神或自杀But as migration increased worldwide, nostalgia was observed in various groups.但是随着世界上移民数量的增加 在不同的人群中发现了他们都会有乡愁It turned out that anyone separated from their native place for a long time was vulnerable to nostalgia.事实明 无论是谁只要跟自己的家乡分开很长一段时间就很容易产生乡愁And by the early 20th century, professionals no longer viewed it as a neurological disease,在20世纪初 专家们不再把它看做是一种精神上的疾病but as a mental condition similar to depression.而是把它看做一种类似于抑郁的心理状态Psychologists of the time speculated that it represented difficulties letting go of childhood,那时心理学家猜测乡愁代表着对童年记忆的难以割舍or even a longing to return to one#39;s fetal state.甚至是对婴儿时期的向往But over the next few decades, the understanding of nostalgia changed in two important ways.但是 在接下来的几十年里对乡愁的理解有了两种重要的改变Its meaning expanded from indicating homesickness to a general longing for the past.乡愁的含义将单纯的思乡延伸到对回到过去的一种普遍的渴望And rather than an awful disease, it began to be seen as a poignant and pleasant experience.有别于讨人厌的疾病 乡愁开始被视为一场深刻而愉快的经历Perhaps the most famous example of this was captured by French author Marcel Proust.法国作家马塞尔普鲁斯特在其着作(《追忆似水年华》)中描绘的乡愁可能是最着名的例子吧He described how tasting a madeleine cake he had not eaten since childhood triggered a cascade of warm and powerful sensory associations.他描述了由一块自童年以后再没吃过的玛德琳蛋糕而联想起来的童年里一系列温馨感人的场景So what caused such a major reversal in our view of nostalgia?所以是什么造成了我们对乡愁看法的巨大改变呢Part of it has to do with science.很大一部分原因是科学的发展Psychology shifted away from pure theory and towards more careful and systematic empirical observation.心理学不再是纯理论而是更加谨慎和系统的实观察So professionals realized that many of the negative symptoms may have been simply correlated with nostalgia rather than caused by it.所以专家们意识到很多的消极症状很可能仅仅是与乡愁有关而不是由乡愁导致的And, in fact, despite being a complex emotional state that can include feelings of loss and sadness,事实上 尽管乡愁是一种带有失落和悲伤的复杂情绪状态nostalgia doesn#39;t generally put people in a negative mood.但是 通常乡愁并不会导致消极情绪Instead, by allowing individuals to remember personally meaningful and rewarding experiences相反 通过让人记住有意义的事情they shared with others, nostalgia can boost psychological well-being.以及与他人分享经验乡愁可以促进心理健康Studies have shown that inducing nostalgia in people can help increase their feelings of self-esteem and social belonging,研究表明 怀有乡愁的人更易建立自尊心和社会归属感encourage psychological growth, and even make them act more charitably.以及促进心理的成熟甚至促使他们做更多慈善So rather than being a cause of mental distress, nostalgia can be a restorative way of coping with it.所以与其说乡愁是心理疾病的一种诱因不如说它是应对心理疾病的恢复方式they tend to naturally use nostalgia to reduce distress and restore well-being.他们倾向于通过自然的怀旧来减少痛苦和恢复健康Today, it seems that nostalgia is everywhere,如今 乡愁无处不在partially because advertisers have discovered how powerful it is as a marketing technique.一些原因是广告商们发现利用人们的乡愁作为一种市场营销手段很有用It#39;s tempting to think of this as a sign of us being stuck in the past, but that#39;s not really how nostalgia works.使人们相信这只是人们沉浸于过去无法自拔的一种表现 而不是真的想念家乡了Instead, nostalgia helps us remember that our lives can have meaning and value, helping us find the confidence and motivation to face the challenges of the future.相反乡愁能帮助我们相信生活是有意义和价值的 帮助我们找到自信 给予我们面对未来挑战的积极性 Article/201706/512765。

栏目简介:Smart appliances with wireless control and personalized features are becoming more popular. I had the chance to see how they work at the 2016 Kitchen and Bath China exhibition here in Shanghai... Article/201706/513500。

It#39;d be really cool if you could check it out.如果你能来看看,那会非常棒。I#39;ll check it out, I might give you some pointers.我会过来看看的,我可能给你一些点子。Oh cool! See what happens.太棒了!那就拭目以待吧。So you#39;re gonna be hanging out in here. Okay.那么你就先在这里逛逛。好的。If you need anything, you got my number.如果需要什么,那就给我打电话吧。All right, appreciate it.好的,多谢。Okay. Mm-hmm. Yeah, that#39;ll work out. Yeah. Okay. Mm-hmm.好的。恩,没问题。恩,好的。Do you play? Oh!!你打乒乓球吗?哦!That ain#39;t on me.这可不赖我。Use the Chase mobile app to send money in just a tap,用Chase手机APP,只需一点就可以转账,to friends at more banks than ever before.相比以往,可以向在更多开户的朋友转账。Two minute warning. Okay...两分钟警告。好的。Come on guys... You got next?继续,伙计。你收到下一笔了吗?Chase. Helping you master what#39;s now and what#39;s next.Chase APP。帮你掌控现在和将来。 Article/201705/509929。

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201608/457819。