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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月27日 16:26:57
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  People who visit the ed States sometimes wonder how the states got their names. Some of the most interesting names came from American Indian (印第安人) languages.  访问美国的人们常常想知道各个州的名称是从何而来的。一些最有趣的名字来源于(美州)印第安人的语言。  For example, Illinois was named for the Indians who used to (过去常常) live in that part of the country. In their language, Illinois means ;Brave (勇敢的) Men;. Connecticut means ;At the Long River Mouth; in the language of the Indians who used to live there.  例如伊利诺州是因过去住在这一带的印第安人而得名的。在他们的语言中伊利诺是;勇士;的意思。康乃狄格(州)在过去住在那里的印第安人的语言中,表示;在长河的河口;。  Twenty-five of the states have Indian names, but other names were taken from different languages. Georgia and Pennsylvania have names which were taken from the Latin (拉丁语的) language. Florida and Colorado were named by Spanish (西班牙) people. States like New Hampshire and New Jersey were named after (以…命名) places in England.  有25个州用印第安人的名称命名,另外一些州的名字则从没的语言中得来。乔治亚和宾夕法尼亚洲的名字源于拉丁文。佛罗里达和科罗拉多是由西班牙人命名的。像新罕布什尔和新泽西这样的州名是按英国的地名命名的。  The two newest states have names which did not come from any of those languages. Hawaii got its name from a word in the Hawaiian language which means ;homeland; (家乡). Alaska was named by the Russians, from whom Alaska was bought in 1867.  最新的两个州的名字不是来自于那些语言。夏威夷是按夏威夷语中的一个词命名的,意思是;家乡;。阿拉斯加州是1867年从俄国人手里买来的,而它的名字也是由俄国人命名的。 /201305/238591

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  正如培根总结的那样——“书籍好比食品。有些只须浅尝,有些可以吞咽,只有少数需要仔细咀嚼,慢慢品味。所以,有的书只要读其中一部分,有的书只须知其梗概,而对于少数好书,则应当通读,细读,反复读。”——在信息爆炸的今天,学会“一目百行”,炼成快速阅读十分重要。Use the following tips to faster.参考一下这些提示,学习如何快速阅读。Control Your Eyes管住眼球Leading your eyes with your index finger or pen has been a traditional way to keep your eyes from nipping all over the page. Using a card or a paper to block what you have before, keep the card above the line that your ing, is also an effective way to control the eyes, it forces you to move forward.用手指或笔来当做索引,管住眼球,好让你的眼睛能扫视整个页面,这是个传统的方法。用一张卡片或者是一张纸来盖住你已经阅读完毕的部分,让卡片保持在你所读的文本的上一行,这也是一个行之有效的法子,它迫使你往前读。Slow and Steady Isn#39;t Fast Enough稳稳当当可不够快Our brain has the power to recognize letters in 1/500th of a second, alas we are still spending as much as 1/4th of a second on each word.实际上,我们的大脑能在五百分之一秒钟就能识别文字,然而,遗憾的是,我们却还在用四分之一秒来识别每一个字。Grow Over Kindergarten该长大了When we are first taught to we are forced to stress on each and every word, however good this conditioning has done for you, it#39;s time to grow up. If you are still paying attention to each and every word, you would also be saying these words in your head, while the trick is to guzzle up words in groups.我们最开始学阅读的时候,老师们叫我们要一字一句地读,虽然这个方法有其益处,但我们该长大了。如果你还停留在专注一字一句的话,你同时肯定会在心里默念那些文字。而想要快速阅读,其实要一目十行。Practice实践Websites like ZapReader splits articles in chucks of 1-10 words. These splits are then thrown at you with a speed anywhere between 25 to 1,500 words per minute. The rate is obviously decided by you.类似ZapReader这样的阅读网站,他们可以让你自主选择阅读速度,选择的范围在一分钟25字到1500字之间。阅读速度全由你决定哦。Take a Test测试一下An average human can consume around 300 words per minute, while guzzling up over 1,500 words per minute is a geek#39;s super power. If you are able to break the 500 mark barrier then you can call yourself a Speed-Reader.一般来说,一个人的阅读速度为:300字每分钟,如果能达到1500字每分钟,那就是神一般的速度了。如果你能过了500字的大关,那么,你就可以称自己为“超人读者”啦! /201209/200129

  

  Historian Lucy Worsley caused a furore when she remarked last year that she had been‘educated out of the natural reproductive function’.  历史学家露西·沃斯利去年提到她因为受教育而放弃“自然生殖功能”,引起了不小的轰动。  Now it seems she might have had a point, after a new study has revealed a clear correlation between intelligence and childlessness - with cleverer women more likely to choose not to have a family.  现在看来她可能是有道理的,一项新的研究表明智商和是否有子女之间有着密切联系——较为聪明的女性大多选择单身。  The study, which was conducted by Satoshi Kanazawa, a researcher at the London School of Economics, found that a woman#39;s urge to have children decreases by a quarter for every 15 extra IQ points.  这项研究由伦敦政治经济学院的学者金泽哲指导,该研究表明,智商每高出15分,女性想要孩子的欲望就减少25%。 When Kanazawa, who used data from the UK#39;s National Child Development Study, added controls for economics and education, the results remained the same - the more intelligent the woman, the less likely she was to have children.  金泽哲所使用的数据来自英国全国儿童发展研究中心,他还表示经济学管制和教育结果是一样的——女性越聪明,她们就越不想要孩子。  Worsley isn#39;t the UK#39;s only famously clever childless woman, with others including B presenter Kate Humble and actress Helen Mirren.  历史学家沃斯利并不是英国唯一知名的无子女高智商女性,同样还有B主持人凯特·汉和演员海伦·米伦。  In the USA, Oprah Winfrey, Cameron Diaz and Eva Mendes are among the famous names who have said they#39;ll never become mothers, with Diaz adding:‘I have the life I have because I don’t have children.’  在美国,奥普拉·温弗瑞,卡梅隆·迪亚兹和伊娃·门德斯都是著名的没有孩子的女性,迪亚兹说:“我能过我自己想要的生活,是因为我没有孩子。” Mendes too has said that she values her lifestyle too much to share it with children.‘I don’t want kids,’ she said.‘I love sleep and I worry about everything.’  门德斯也曾说过她实在是太珍惜自己的生活方式了,不想让孩子来破坏它。“我不想要孩子,” 她说。“我喜欢睡觉,不想什么事都操心。”  Humble, meanwhile, told the Times that she just ‘doesn’t have a maternal gene’ and resolved not to have children at the age of 14.  汉曾告诉《时代》周刊,她就是“没有母性基因”,从4岁时起,就下定决心不要孩子。  ‘People are very judgmental,’she added.‘It’s as if I made a selfish decision not to have children, but I never, ever, wanted them.’  “人们很爱品头论足,”她说。“好像我不要孩子很自私似的,但我绝不,永远不会要孩子。” /201309/254732It has been a chilly Spring in the US, but one bird is chirping. American Express and Walmart said on Tuesday that their Bluebird venture for financial services now has federal deposit insurance. The two teamed up last October to offer prepaid debit cards and cheque services targeting low-income households that are frustrated with the fees on traditional bank accounts or not using them at all.今年美国的春天有点冷,但有一只鸟在啼鸣。美国运通公司(Amex)和沃尔玛(Walmart)周二表示,他们共同推出的蓝鸟(Bluebird)金融务,如今已有联邦存款保险。两家企业于去年10月联手推出预付借记卡和票务,针对那些对传统账户的收费不满、甚至根本不用此类务的低收入家庭。The FDIC insurance opens up areas of growth for the fledgling service - people who were uneasy or limited without the federal backing. Many of Walmart’s shoppers are military personnel, veterans and Social Security recipients. Direct deposit of government cheques can only be done with FDIC insured accounts. The insurance also puts Bluebird on equal footing with traditional banks as well as Netspend and Green Dot which offer FDIC-insurance on Visa and MasterCard-branded pre-paid cards. By the end of January, Bluebird had more than 575,000 accounts with 5m of funds.美国联邦存款保险公司(FDIC)的保险为这项方兴未艾的务开启了成长空间——没有联邦保险的持,人们会感到不安或受限。在沃尔玛的顾客群中,许多是军人、退伍军人和领取社会保障人士。直接入账的政府付款只能打入有FDIC保险的账户。这一保险也让蓝鸟卡与其他传统、以及Netspend和Green Dot这样的公司有了平等竞争的地位,这些公司提供有FDIC保险的Visa和万事达(MasterCard)品牌预付借记卡。截止1月底,蓝鸟卡已拥有超过57.5万个账户,资金总额达2.75亿美元。Walmart unsuccessfully tried to become a bank several years ago. For Bluebird, Amex issues the cards and Walmart distributes them. The FDIC insurance kicks in because Amex uses accounts at Wells Fargo, an FDIC member bank, for Bluebird’s registered customers. Revenue comes from merchant transaction fees (and perhaps Walmart can cut its own transaction costs – the financial terms with Amex were never disclosed), and a few other fees. Bluebird does not charge overdraft, monthly, activation or minimum amount fees.沃尔玛几年前尝试业务没有成功。蓝鸟卡由运通发行,沃尔玛负责经销。得到FDIC保险是因为运通使用美国富国(Wells Fargo,FDIC的成员)的账户,为蓝鸟卡注册用户提供务。营收来自商家交易收费(也许沃尔玛还能削减自身的交易成本——它与运通达成的财务条款从未公开),以及其他一些收费。蓝鸟卡不收取透费、月费、激活费或账户最低存款额费用。There is a market opportunity: a 2011 FDIC survey found that 20 per cent of the 120m US households were underbanked and 8.2 per cent were unbanked. Amex does not quite have the acceptance of Visa and MasterCard, but combined with Walmart’s reach - 140m US customers weekly - there is room for Bluebird to sp its wings.市场机遇是存在的:FDIC在2011年的一项调查发现,美国1.2亿户家庭中,20%的家庭未充分使用业务,还有8.2%的家庭完全未使用务。接受美国运通的商家数量赶不上Visa和万事达卡,但借助沃尔玛的规模(美国每周1.4亿顾客),“蓝鸟”有展翅高飞的空间。 /201303/232708

  

  The hunt is intensifying for new treatments for migraines, the common and debilitating headaches that have confounded scientists for decades. 人类正在加紧寻求治疗偏头痛的方法,这种让人身体虚弱的常见头痛病已经困扰了科学家数十年。 Of greatest focus for researchers is a brain chemical known as CGRP, which appears to play a role in the transmission of pain, but not in other brain functions, such as cognition or mood. Researchers are trying a variety of experimental drugs to stop CGRP from working by blocking its receptors in the brain. Others are working on artificial antibodies that could soak up the chemical in the bloodstream or brain before it can trigger migraines. 研究人员关注最多的是一种名为降钙素基因相关口(CGRP)的大脑化学物质,这种物质似乎与痛感传递有关,但是在认知或情绪等大脑的其它功能方面并没有造成影响。研究人员尝试使用各种实验药物,通过屏蔽大脑里感应CGRP的部分来阻止CGRP发生作用。还有一些人正致力于人工抗体的研制,使其在CGRP引发偏头痛之前将血液或大脑中的这种化学物质吸收。 Experts say the need for new medicines to treat migraine pain once it begins is great because current drugs only provide some benefit for 50% to 60% of sufferers and can#39;t be used in people with heart disease or who have had a stroke. Also, they aren#39;t a cure, and in many cases, the headaches tend to come back within 24 hours. 专家说,治疗偏头痛的新药一旦面世就会有巨大需求,因为目前的药物只对大约50%-60%的患者有一定疗效,并且心脏病患者和有中风病史的人都不能用。而且这些药物并不能治本,在很多病例中,患者在24小时内又会出现头痛。 There also is a separate category of preventive drugs, which tend to be used by a small proportion of people who suffer from more frequent or debilitating migraines. 还有一种单独类型的预防性药物,使用者一般是一小部分偏头痛发生频率较高或发作起来更难受的人。 #39;People need migraine drugs that have a rapid onset of action, that take the pain away and keep it away,#39; says Richard Lipton, director of the Montefiore Headache Center in New York. “人们需要立竿见影的偏头痛药,能够止痛并让它不再复发,”纽约蒙特菲奥里头痛研究中心(Montefiore Headache Center)的主任理查德#8226;利普顿(Richard Lipton)说。  Headache disorders are among the most common medical conditions world-wide. More than 1 in 10 adults globally are affected by migraines, which can be incapacitating, according to the World Health Organization. International studies have found that 50% to 75% of adults have reported a headache in the past year, with up to 4% of the global population reporting having a headache in half or more of the days each month, WHO says. 头痛症是全世界最常见的医学病症之一。根据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)的数据,在全球范围内,每10名成年人中就有1人以上身受可能让人无法正常行动的偏头痛之苦。世卫组织说,国际研究发现,在过去的一年里,有50%-75%的成年人声称发生过头痛。全球人口中有4%的人每月有一半或者一半以上的日子里会发生头痛。 There isn#39;t such a thing as a #39;regular#39; headache, but rather more than 300 types, says David Dodick, a professor of neurology at the Mayo Clinic#39;s branch in Phoenix and chairman of the American Migraine Foundation. People having migraines usually experience intense pain, sensitivity to light, dizziness and sometimes nausea and visual and sensory symptoms called auras. Two other major types of headaches are caused by tension or medication overuse. 美国梅约诊所(Mayo Clinic)凤凰城分所神经学教授、美国偏头痛基金会(American Migraine Foundation)主席大卫#8226;多迪克(David Dodick)说,头痛没有一种“常规”病症,而是有300多种类型他也是。患偏头痛的人通常会感受到剧痛、对光线敏感、头晕,有时会感到恶心,还会有一些被称为先兆的视觉和知觉症状。另外两大类头痛的成因是紧张或药物使用过度。 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen work for some migraine sufferers. But the class of migraine medicines that hit the market in the 1990s called triptans remain the best or only treatment option for many patients. Nevertheless, about half of sufferers don#39;t respond to them or can#39;t take them because of other health reasons. 像布洛芬这样的非类固醇抗炎镇痛药对某些偏头痛患者有效。但是上世纪90年代面市的曲坦类偏头痛药对很多患者来说仍然是最好或唯一的药物选择。然而,大约一半的患者要么用这类药后没有效果,要么由于其他健康原因不能用此类药物。 CGRP, which stands for calcitonin gene-related peptide neurotransmitter, has long been thought to play a role in migraines, but for much of that time for the wrong reason. Part of the confusion was because of a misunderstanding of migraines themselves. CGRP是降钙素基因相关口神经递质的缩写,长久以来它被认为在偏头痛中发挥了作用,不过很长一段时间里这种看法的依据都是错误的。出现混乱的原因是对偏头痛本身产生了误解。 Why they occur still isn#39;t clear, but specialists say they have recently begun to understand the migraine as a brain disorder and not a vascular disorder. Until about 12 years ago, they were believed to stem from constriction of blood vessels in the brain. The dilation of the vessels to compensate then led to the throbbing pain, so the thinking went. 偏头痛发生的原因尚不清楚,但是专家们说他们最近开始把偏头痛当作一种大脑病症而非血管病症。直到大约12年前,偏头痛都被认为是由于大脑血管收缩引起的。血管的补偿性扩张就导致了搏动痛,当时的人们就是这么想的。 Now, it appears more likely that migraines #39;hijack#39; the brain#39;s normal pain circuitry, says Dr. Dodick. The brain#39;s normal pain-sensory system, in which nerve endings send messages to the brain about a threat, goes awry in migraines. 多迪克说,现在看来,更有可能是偏头痛“拦截”了大脑的正常疼痛回路。在大脑正常的疼痛感知系统里,神经末梢会将威胁信息发送给大脑,偏头痛发生时这个系统就会出错。 Experts disagree about how a migraine is triggered, but the trigeminal nerve - an important pathway that carries sensory information about the face - and its connections to numerous other nerves and the brain appear to be responsible for transmitting the pain. 偏头痛是如何引发的?专家们对此意见不一,但是三叉神经(传递面部周围感官信息的重要途径)以及它与其它各种神经和大脑的连接神经似乎是传递疼痛的介质。 Researchers also have isolated certain genes that might be linked to a predisposition for migraines, Dr. Dodick says. 多迪克医生说,研究人员已经把某些与易患偏头痛体质相关的基因分离出来。 Triptans, which promote blood-vessel constriction and inflammation, block the release of CGRP in the trigeminal nerve. While CGRP does aid the blood-vessel dilation process, its role activating the nerves in the brain appears to be the key when it comes to migraine pain. 引起血管收缩和发炎的曲坦类药物可以阻止三叉神经中CGRP的释放。虽然CGRP的确促进了血管的扩张进程,但在偏头痛问题上,它对激活大脑神经所起的作用似乎才是最关键的。 In the mid-1980s, Peter Goadsby, a neurologist and headache specialist at the University of California San Francisco, and his colleagues found that CGRP is released in migraines and that triptans decreased CGRP action. 20世纪80年代中期,加州大学旧金山分校(University of California San Francisco)的神经病学家和头痛治疗专家彼得#8226;戈德比(Peter Goadsby)和他的同事发现,CGRP在偏头痛发生时被释放出来,而曲坦类药物减少了CGRP的活动。 Several researchers and companies have been trying to develop drugs that bind to the CGRP receptors to prevent the chemical from activating the pain network. But because CGRP has a complex receptor - the slot where the molecule must bind in order to initiate actions in the body - it took chemists 15 years to figure out how to block the effects of CGRP, and even longer to develop a compound that could be taken orally, says Dr. Goadsby. 好几家研究机构和公司一直在努力研发可以作用于CGRP感应器官的药物,从而阻止这种化学物质激活疼痛网络。但是戈德比医生说,由于CGRP的感应器官非常复杂──药物分子必须作用于这种感应器官才能激发身体的行动──药物学家用了15年时间来研究如何阻止CGRP起效,而研制可以口的药物还要更长时间。 Bringing to market CGRP blockers, or antagonists - the most advanced of the new drugs in development for migraines - has proved challenging. Several investigational compounds have been shown to be toxic to the liver, a challenge that highlights the difficulty in developing drugs for conditions that affect the brain. 事实明,面向市场推出CGRP阻滞药物或者拮抗物──最先进的偏头痛治疗新药──难度很大。好几种正在研制中的药物都被发现对肝脏有毒害作用,这项挑战突显了针对可影响大脑的病症开发药物的难度有多大。 CGRP antagonists don#39;t appear to work as well as triptans, but the blockers have an advantage in they don#39;t appear to cause cardiovascular complications, says Stephen Silberstein, a neurology professor and director of Thomas Jefferson University#39;s Headache Center in Philadelphia. 费城托马斯#8226;杰斐逊大学头痛病研究中心(Thomas Jefferson University#39;s Headache Center)的神经病学教授兼主任史蒂芬#8226;西尔伯斯坦(Stephen Silberstein)说,CGRP拮抗药物的疗效似乎不如曲坦类药物,但是阻滞类药物的优点是它们似乎不会引起心血管并发症。 #39;You trade one kind of risk for another,#39; says Dr. Silberstein, who has served as an investigator on several companies#39; clinical trials. “你是以一种风险来替代了另一种风险,”西尔伯斯坦医生说。他担任了好几家公司产品临床试验的调研员。 Merck amp; Co. had a promising CGRP-receptor antagonist under development but discovered in late-stage clinical-trial testing that some patients experienced liver enzyme changes. In July of last year, the company said it was discontinuing development of the compound, telcagepant, after looking at all its trial data. Germany#39;s Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH was also working on a CGRP antagonist but canceled development. A spokesman declined to comment. 默克公司(Merck amp; Co.)曾经研制了一种让人看好的CGRP感受器官拮抗药,但是在后期的临床测试中发现,有些患者出现了肝脏 改变的情况。去年7月,该公司称,在查看了所有试验数据之后,公司不再继续研制这种名为telcagepant的化学药物。德国的勃林格殷格翰制药公司(Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH)也曾研制过一种CGRP拮抗药,但后来终止了该产品的开发。一名发言人拒绝置评。 Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. is conducting several early stage studies on CGRP antagonists and other companies are testing or may begin development of similar compounds as well. 百时美施贵宝公司(Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.)正在进行几种CGRP拮抗药的早期研究,其它公司也在对类似药物进行测试或者准备开始进行开发。 Researchers and companies also are trying to develop artificial antibodies that, when injected, would glom onto CGRP in the bloodstream or brain, before it reaches the receptors in the brain, or by blocking the receptors. 研究人员和企业也在努力开发人工抗体,注射进人体后,人工抗体会在CGRP抵达感应器官之前拦截血液或大脑中的CGRP,或者屏蔽感应器官。 Research into these biologic antibody-based approaches is at an earlier stage than the testing of antagonist drugs, but antibodies eventually might be able to block CGRP action regularly so that migraines don#39;t ever begin. 对于这类基于生物抗体的方法的研究处于早期,还未达到拮抗药物的测试阶段,但是抗体也许最终能够规律性地阻止CGRP的活动,使偏头痛无从发作。 #39;The CGRP story is a story of developing an acute treatment for migraine,#39; says Dr. Goadsby. #39;But the antibody story is testing the larger idea [that] if you blocked continuously CGRP, would you have a preventive treatment.#39; “CGRP之说涉及到偏头痛紧急治疗方法的开发,”戈德比医生说,“但是对抗体的研究实际上是就更重要的理念展开测试,即如果不断阻止CGRP,就会是一种预防性的治疗手段。” /201208/196080。

  这是关于一个女孩、女人、女性的成长漫画On A Claire Day:亲情、友情、爱情;家庭,朋友、婚姻,工作,生活……一切的一切~今日嘱咐:孩子个子再高,岁数再大,在父母眼里也永远是孩子……是孩子,就还要父母罩;不管孩子想不想要……!译者:koogle内容来自: /201305/241126

  

  

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