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2018年02月22日 16:57:14 | 作者:久久时讯 | 来源:新华社
Business商业报道Home entertainment家庭Netflix messes upNetflix这回弄巧成拙了The terror of the film and television business has become a lot less scary电影和电视业的担忧恐惧都显得微不足道It seldom pays to annoy your customers你难得会因为惹怒用户而付出代价LAST December Jeff Bewkes, Time Warners boss, sneered that Netflix threatened media about as much as the Albanian army threatened world peace.在去年12月,时代华纳的老板Jeff Bewkes曾嘲笑Netflix就像阿尔巴尼亚军队危害了世界和平一样危害了媒体业。Few were fooled. Netflix, which hires out DVDs through the post as well as streaming films and television through the internet,Netflix,一个凭借邮递务租售DVD光碟和通过互联网租售流媒体电影和电视节目的公司,had aly impoverished Hollywood by training people to rent DVDs instead of buying them.由于使得人们不再购买DVD光碟而只是租借它们,早已让好莱坞的收入大为缩水。It was starting to lure people away from pay-television.它在开始引诱人们离开付费频道,但上当者人数寥寥。But then the army began marching in the wrong direction, and its general shot himself in the foot.然而,这军队接下来开始朝着错误的方向进军,这次,这位上将是搬起石头砸了自己的脚。On September 1st Netflix began imposing new prices on its 25m subscribers.自9月1日起,Netflix开始对2500万订阅用户执行新的收费方案。Americans had been able to pay .99 a month for DVDs through the post as well as the right to stream some films and programmes.在这之前,美国人每个月只需付9.99美元,就能享受邮递租借DVD光碟和网络观赏一些流媒体电影、电视节目的务。Netflix would henceforth offer them a choice:现在,Netflix给了他们一个选择:.99 a month for streaming,要么每个月为流媒体务付7.99美元,or the same price for DVDs.要么以同样的价格租借DVD光碟。People who wanted both would pay .98.两种务都需要的人则需每月付15.98美元。Customers dont like it.用户们并不喜欢这个方案。They have jammed the firms switchboard and posted 82,000 largely hostile comments on its Facebook page.许多人的投诉电话蜂拥而至以致电话系统瘫痪,并且在Netflix的Facebook主页上留下了多达82000条的恶意。Netflix told investors to expect a rare loss of subscribers, driving its shares down.Netflix告知投资者们要做好因订阅用户人数大幅下降所带来的股份下滑的准备,The companys reputation for top-notch customer service has been tarnished.这所公司以顶级用户务著称的名誉已经蒙上了污点。So Netflixs founder and chief executive, Reed Hastings, tried to explain himself—and made matters far worse.因此,Netflix的创立人兼总裁Reed Hastings尝试为自己的决定辩解—却只是越描越黑。On September 18th Mr Hastings explained that the company feared being left behind by technological change, like AOL with its dial-up service.在9月18日,Hastings先生解释说到他害怕公司会像还在提供拨号上网业务的美国在线务公司那样被日新月异的科技变化抛在背后,It was separating DVDs from streaming because its future lies in streaming. The DVD-by-post service,之所以要把DVD光碟业务从流媒体业务中分离出来是因为这项业务的未来存在于流媒体技术之中。he said, would move to a new website, with a new billing system, and be renamed Qwikster.他说到,邮递租借DVD光碟业务将会被移至一个新的网站,拥有新的付系统,并被重新命名为Qwikster。Its an odd name and a big mistake.这真是一个怪名字和一个大错误。As The Economist went to press, Netflix shares were trading around 0—a steep decline from their July peak of 9.在本文交付印刷之时,Netflix的股票成交价大概在130美元左右—与他们在7月份299美元封顶的价格相比下了一个大滑坡。Netflix has made a tactical error and treated its customers shabbily.Netflix不仅犯了策略性错误,而且对待用户们糟糕透顶。It has also jumped too hastily into the future—as if Renault were to declare that electric cars are the future and rename its petrol-car division Qwikmobile.另外,它对未来的规划也太过急进—好比说雷诺公司对外宣称电动车是未来发展的方向,然后就把他们的汽车部门改名为Qwikmobile。Worst of all, Netflix has disregarded a big strategic advantage.而最糟糕的是,Netflix忽略了一个极其重要的战略优势。DVDs may be old media, but they come with strong legal protections.DVD光碟或许是老式媒介,但是它们有着强力的法律保护措施。As soon as a DVD is released by a Hollywood studio,当一张DVD光碟从好莱坞片场发布那刻起,roughly four months after the film appears in cinemas, Netflix can start renting it.大概只要在电影院上映后四个月,Netflix就可以开始租售。To stream a film via the internet, in contrast, Netflix must strike an agreement with the studio or TV firm that owns it.相比之下,如果Netflix要通过互联网来播放流媒体电影,则必须先和持有它的片场或电视公司签订协议。As Netflix has become richer and scarier, negotiations have become harder.随着Netflix变得越来越有钱,越来越胆小,协商日趋困难。The company must wait eight or nine years to stream many studio films.公司必须要等到8到9年才能播放许多片场的流媒体电影,A few media firms refuse to sell any streaming rights at all.一些媒体公司更是拒绝出售任何播放流媒体的权利。When Netflix combined DVDs and streaming, it offered both a vast selection of up-to-date content and the prospect of instant gratification.在Netflix将DVD光碟与流媒体电影电视两种务结合在一起时,它不仅提供了大量可选购的最新内容,而且很容易使用户感到满意。By forcing customers to choose between the two, it has revealed the weaknesses of both of its offerings.然而Netflix强迫用户其二而择一的行为,将两者的弱点都暴露了出来。Netflix isnt like the Albanian army—it is far more dangerous than that.Netflix其实并不像阿尔巴尼亚军队—毕竟他们危险多了。But it seems to have trained its guns against itself.但是这回,看起来他们是把口对准了自己。点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201304/233262Its Thursday, May 12th. Im Wilson Tang and its time to get loaded.今天是5月12日,周四。我是Wilson Tang,是时候接受今天的最新资讯。Yesterday, we mentioned Googles new Chromebooks as they are now called. And today, we have some more details about the new web-centric laptops. Google has announced two models, the Samsung series 5 and the Acer Chromebook. They will retail starting at 9 and 9 respectively. But google has also announced a 3-year subscrition model starting at a month for business users, and a month for students. In another Google IO news the company has updated its poorly-received Google TV software based on the Honeycomb UI. The new Google TV promises a simpler interface support for 3D and game controllers. So far though, Google has yet to announce any products that used the new software.昨天我们提到了谷歌的新产品Chromebooks。今天,我们会带来一些关于这款网络笔记本的详细信息。谷歌发布了两种模型,三星5和宏基Chromebook。这两款产品分别售价为429美元和349美元。但谷歌同时宣布,商务用户可以每月花费28美元租用,学生则仅需20美元。另外,谷歌开发大会宣布将升级其成绩不佳的谷歌电视软件为蜂窝UI系统。新款的谷歌电视将提供一个更加简单的界面来进入3D模式或是接入游戏手柄。但是目前,谷歌还未宣布任何有关于使用新软件产品的信息。In Facebook news the site added the ability to tag items in a photo. The new feature will only let you tag items of Facebook pages in the products, brands or people categories. Were positive this feature will be heavily abused. So, its expected awkwardly tagged photos to be a new mean.接下来是一条关于脸谱网的消息,脸谱网现在可以给照片加标签了。这款功能现在只允许用户在照片上标注出产品,品牌或是人物。可以肯定的是这项新功能一定会被大量用在广告宣传上。也就是说,这项新功能会给照片标签功能带来新的含义。In more Facebook news, the company is not playing nice. The Daily Beast reports that Facebook has hired a PR firm to bash Google. Allegedly the firm contacted a blogger about writing a negative app ad on Google. Instead the blogger turned down the offer and posted the emails. USA Today also claims that the PR firm sping whisper campain about Google on behalf of an unnamed client that has now turned out to be Facebook. It looks like the smearing campaign has heavily backfired.更多关于脸谱网的消息。脸谱网使用不佳手段抹黑对手。《每日野兽》报道,脸谱网雇用了一家公关公司来打击对手谷歌。据说这家公司找到一位主对谷歌的应用进行负面宣传。不料主不但拒绝,还公布了邮件内容。《今日美国》还报道这家公关公司曾以谷歌匿名用户的名义散布不利于谷歌的消息。但现在看来,这些小动作所起到的作用都是适得其反的。In a move that has aly stirred up significant controversy, FCC commissioner M. Becker has announced she would be joining comcast as a lobbyst. Just 4 months after approving the highly contentious merger of comcast with N Universal. The move has aly drawn the eye of many groups opposed to the merger. But Miss Becker signed it on an Obama administration pledge banning her from lobbying anyone at the FCC for at least 2 years. In addition, shes prohibited from lobbying the remainder of the administration if this is a lifetime ban on lobbying the executive breach as a condition of the comcast merger.一个小举措引发了一场意义深远的争论,联邦通信委员会FCC委员M. Becker宣布将加入康卡斯特(美国最大的有线系统公司)。这是在争议颇多的康卡斯特和N环球公司合并之后4个月后宣布的。这一举动吸引了多方目光,有不少人反对。Becker签署了合并合同,但奥巴马政权承诺在未来2年内禁止Becker游说FCC其他成员。另外,Becker还被禁止游说其他政府人员,游说将破坏合并合同条件。At the next month E3 gaming conference, were expecting news of the new Nintendo game console, but you should also expect the launch of the eshop for the 3Ds. Set to debut June 7th, the eshop will bring the abilities to download games, virtual console capabilities, the ability to watch 3D movies and even Netflix.下个月的E3游戏发布会,我们将为您到来新款任天堂游戏机的消息,同时也敬请玩家关注6月7日发售的3D版本,网络商城将具备游戏下载,虚拟平台,虚拟控制台,观看3D电影的功能,甚至是能够连接上Netflix。Finally, Twitter has unveilled a new mobile web version of the popular micro blogging service. The new mobile website promises a much slicker interface, fast loading times and experience closer to Twitters native iPhone and Android apps.最后一条消息,Twitter揭秘了最新一款手机网页版本的微务。这一站点拥有流畅的界面设计,快速登入务,和近于iPhone和安卓应用一样的用户体验。Those are your headlines for today. Im Wilson Tang for CNet.com and youve just been loaded.以上就是今天的头条。我是Cnet的Wilson Tang,感谢您的收看。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201211/208870

Science and Technolgy.科技。Social status and health.社会地位与健康。Misery index.贫困指数。Low social status is bad for your health. Biologists are starting to understand why.社会地位低对身体不好,生物学家开始理解此中的奥秘。ONCE upon a time the overstressed executive bellowing orders into a telephone, cancelling meetings, staying late at the office and dying of a heart attack was a stereotype of modernity. That was before the Whitehall studies, a series of investigations of British civil servants begun in the 1960s. These studies found that the truth is precisely the opposite. Those at the top of the pecking order actually have the least stressful and most healthy lives. Cardiac arrest-and, indeed, early death from any cause-is the prerogative of underlings.曾今,人们对现代化的一个根深蒂固的印象是,领导们在巨大压力的折磨之下,对着电话狂吼,下达命令,取消会议,待在办公室到很晚,最后死于心脏病。可是,自1960年代开始的英国白厅对英国政治家们展开的一系列调查之后,这种印象开始改变,因为调查发现事实却完全不是那么回事。实际上处于社会高层的人们承受的压力最小,生活最健康。心跳骤停——而且,确实是,不管是出于什么原因的早死——那都是做下属的才有的事。Such results have since been confirmed many times, both in human societies and in other primate species with strong social hierarchies. But whereas the pattern is well-understood, the biological mechanisms underlying it are not. A study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, sheds some light on the matter.在人类社会,还有等级严格的其他的灵长类物种中,都已多次验这种结果的正确性。但是,虽然这种模式很容易理解,潜在的生物学机制却并不这么认为。杂志《国家科学院》最新出版的专题里,对此现象有相关阐述。In it, a group of researchers led by Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad at the University of Chicago looked at the effects of status on rhesus macaques. Experience has shown that these monkeys display the simian equivalent of the Whitehall studies findings. The high risk of disease among those at the bottom of the heap in both cases suggests that biochemical responses to low status affect a creatures immune system. Those responses must, in turn, depend on changes in the way the creatures genes are expressed. To investigate this phenomenon means manipulating social hierarchies, but that would be hard (and probably unethical) if it were done to human beings. You can, however, do it to monkeys, and the researchers did.专题里,詹妮东和要吉拉德领导的研究小组在芝加哥大学,研究地位之于恒河猴的影响。实验经过表明,这些猴子所表现出来的是英国白厅研究发现的猴子版本。社会地位低的患病风险高,这既适用于人类界也同样适用于猴子。这暗示了社会地位低的物种的生物化学反应影响其免疫系统。反过来,这种生物化学反应又取决于物种生物基因的变化方式。若要调查这种现象,那就意味着需要控制社会等级,在人类身上进行,很困难(而且很可能不道德)。但是,你可以在猴子身上做实验,而且研究人员也是这么做的。Unhappy minds in unhealthy bodies.不健康的身体,不快乐的心情。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad took 49 middle-ranking female macaques (females were chosen because a lot of previous work on animal hierarchies has been done on female macaques) and split them into groups of four or five. The researchers were able to control where in a group an individual ranked by the order in which it was introduced into its group (newly introduced monkeys almost always adopt a role subordinate to existing group members). The hierarchies thus established, the team conducted tests on cells in the monkeys blood, in an attempt to determine the effect of a macaques rank on her biochemistry and, in particular, on how rank influences the activity of various genes.士东和吉拉德,用49个中等地位等级的女性猴子做实验(用女性猴子的原因是,前期大量动物地位等级的准备工作都是在女性猴子身上做的),并把他们分为四到五组。根据猴子们加入研究群体的时间顺序,研究人员给她们的地位等级编号(新来的都是要听前辈的,这是潜规则)。等级于是得以建立。研究团队采集猴子血液做细胞研究,试图搞清楚恒河猴的地位等级对其生物化学的影响,特别是地位等级是如何对各种基因活动起作用的。The answer is, a lot. Dr Tung and Dr Gilad looked at the expression in each animal of 6,097 genes (30% of the total number in a monkey genome-or, for that matter, in a human one). They were searching for correlations between social rank and gene activity, and in 987 genes they found one. Some genes were more active in high-ranking individuals; others were more active in low-ranking ones. The relationship was robust enough to work the other way round, too. Given a blood sample and no other information, it was possible to predict an individuals status within her group with an accuracy of 80%. 研究结果有很多。每个动物有6097个基因,士东和吉拉德观察每个动物的基因(一个猴子基因组总数的30%——这也适用于人类),寻找社会等级与基因活动之间的相互关系。在987个基因中,他们找到了一个。某些基因在等级高的个体中更活跃,而其他的基因则活跃于等级低的个体中。这一结果很牢靠,倒过来看也成立。只提供血液样本而没有其他相关信息,就可以预测个体在群体里的地位等级,且精确度达到80%。The next question was what all these genes actually do. Sure enough the answer, for a substantial fraction of them, was that they regulate aspects of the immune system. In particular, low-status individuals showed high levels of activity in genes associated with the production of various immune-related cells and chemical signalling factors, as well as those to do with inflammation (a general immune response that involves tissue swelling and increased immune-cell activity in the affected area). Although the researchers did not explicitly examine the health of their simian charges, chronic, generalised inflammation is a risk factor, in people, for a long list of ailments ranging from heart trouble to Alzheimers disease.下一个问题,所有这些基因,真正起的是什么作用。很显然,对大部分基因而言,它们起着调节着免疫系统的作用。这非常明显地体现在,社会地位低的个体,产生各种与免疫相关的细胞和化学信号基因的活动更为明显,还有那些有关于炎症的基因(一种普通的免疫反应,包括细胞组织的膨胀,还有增加免疫细胞在疫区免疫细胞活动)。虽然研究人员没有仔细分析参与实验的猴子们的健康状况,但是慢性的、全身性的炎症对猴子们来说是危险因素,人类的部分,就是从心脏病到老年痴呆症等一大长系列疾病。Finally, the team investigated the mechanisms behind these differences in gene expression. In keeping with previous work, they found that high- and low-rank individuals showed different levels of responsiveness to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which regulate immune-system activity and response to stress. They also found changes in the mix of cells within the animals immune system itself. But what is new, and intriguing, is that they discovered, for the first time, evidence that a phenomenon called epigenetic change is at work.最后,研究小组用基因表达调查造成这些不同的机理原因。与之前工作结果一致,他们发现地位高和地位低的个体,对被称为糖皮质激素的一组基因,表现出的反应级别不一样。糖皮质激素控制免疫系统活动和对压力的反应。同时他们发现,在动物免疫系统自身,混合细胞有发生改变。但是最为新奇的是,他们头一次发现了后天改变在起作用的据。Epigenetics—currently one of molecular biologys hottest topics—is a process by which genes are activated or deactivated by the presence or absence of chemical structures called methyl and acetyl groups. Dr Tung and Dr Gilad found that methylation patterns were systematically different in high- and low-ranking animals. Crucially, these changes are generally passed on to the daughter cells produced when a cell divides, and are thus perpetuated throughout an animals life. To the extent that epigenetic marking is involved in creating social status, then, status may be being maintained by the animals cells as they replicate.表现遗传学——目前分子生物学最热的话题之一——是这样一个过程,基因的激活或是失效取决于被称为甲基和乙酰基的化学结构的存在或是消失。士东和吉拉德发现甲基模式在地位高级和地位低级的动物之间是不一样的,且这种不一样是系统性的不一样。至关重要的一点是,这些变化一般在细胞分裂的同时传递给子细胞,因此这些变化将贯穿动物的一生。从此意义上讲,后天标记参与社会地位的形成,社会地位的维持靠动物细胞的复制。Destinys child?命运的产物?Those who believe in progress will, however, be pleased to know that epigenetics is not necessarily destiny. Methyl groups may help maintain the status quo, but if that status quo is interrupted by outside events they can be wiped away and a new lot put in place.但是,相信事物是发展变化的人们会很高兴,因为表现遗传学并不是上天注定,难以改变的。甲基或许可以帮助维持现状,但是如果外来事件打断了它,那么甲基将被移除,新的一批上任。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad discovered this because a few of their monkeys did change status within their groups. When that happened, changes in gene expression appropriate to the new status quickly followed. Those who do break free from their lowly station, then, may begin to reap the health benefits almost immediately.士东和吉拉德能够发现了这一点,是因为,参与实验的几个猴子确实改变了她们在群体中的地位等级。地位等级一旦发生改变,与之相应的基因表达随即改变。那些确实改变了它们之前卑贱地位的猴子们,身体状况几乎都立刻获得改善。As with any animal study, this one cannot simply be mapped straight onto humans. But it does provide pointers that researchers who work on people can use. In particular, the experiment ensured that social rank was the only factor being changed, providing strong evidence that the chain of causality runs from low social status, through a disrupted immune system to worse health, and not the other way around. The best medicine, then, is promotion. Prosper, and live long.不管以什么动物为研究对象,结果都不能直接简单地运用于人类,这个也不例外。但它确实给研究人类的学者们提供了一些建议。该实验的独特之处是,它确保了实验中社会等级是唯一发生改变的因素。它为因果关系链的正确模式提供了一个强有力的据,正确模式是低等的社会等级通过被破坏了的免疫系统损害健康。而不是反过来的顺序。晋升是疗效最好的药物。因为成功,所以活得长久。 /201209/200526

Business.商业。Formula One.一级方程式赛车。Flagged down.落马。Can Formula One succeed without Bernie Ecclestone?没有了伯尼#8226;埃克莱斯顿,F1能否继续传奇?BERNIE ECCLESTONE, the boss of the Formula One Group, rarely sticks around for the finish of a Grand Prix. This is meant to show what a serious businessman he is. Still, eyebrows lifted when he didnt turn up at all to last weekends race at Hockenheim in Germany. An ongoing court case in Germany over a payment of m from Mr Ecclestone to a banker who was involved in the sale of Formula One to CVC Capital, a private-equity firm, in 2005 has put his future at the top of the sport in doubt. German media reported that, had Mr Ecclestone gone to Germany, he might have run into trouble.F1的掌门人伯尼#8226;埃克莱斯顿很少会在国际汽车大奖赛结束后逗留。这意在显示他是一个谨慎的商人。然而公众的对他上周一直没有出现在德国霍根海姆大奖赛一事依旧表示惊讶。在2005年,参与CVC资产合作伙伴公司(一家私募股权公司)收购F1股份的高管承认收到了埃克莱斯顿4千4百万“好处费”,这件正在审理的案子让伯尼在此项运动上掌门地位受到质疑。德国媒体报道称,如果埃克莱斯顿去了德国,他将陷入困境。For CVC Capital, the uncertainty over Mr Ecclestone, who is 81, is becoming a problem. CVC took a huge risk in buying into the sport, at a time when several teams were threatening to break away and form a new outfit, in the hope of extracting a larger share of profits. The breakaway never happened and CVC profited handsomely.对于CVC资产合作伙伴公司来说,81岁埃克莱斯顿的不可靠将成为最大的问题。CVC为收购F1管理公司承担了巨大的风险,因为为在当时有数车队为了争取更大的利润分成,威胁退出F1另组建新赛事。车队退赛没有发生,CVC也赚得漂亮的一手。CVC had hoped to reduce its stake with an initial public offering (IPO) of Formula One on the Singapore stock exchange. However, in May it sold a total of 21% of the sport, for .6 billion, to three institutional investors: Waddell amp; Reid and BlackRock, both American asset managers, and Norges Bank Investment Management, Norways state money manager. Combined with cash from the business, the sale gave CVC a tasty 300% return on its original investment-though an IPO could have earned it more. In June CVC postponed the proposed IPO, blaming market conditions.CVC本打算通过在新加坡券交易所为F1首次公开募股的方式减持股份。但是在五月,CVC将16亿美元即总资产的21%卖给了三个团体投资人:同为资产管理者的Waddell amp; Reid和黑石,还有挪威投资管理——挪威的国家资金管理者。尽管公开募股会赚的更多,结合从营销中获得的现金,出售给团体投资人还是带给了CVC为原有投资300%的高额回报。在6月,CVC归咎于市场行情,推迟了原有计划的公开募股。Private-equity firms do not often have to deal with chaps like Mr Ecclestone, who has dominated the sport for decades. In CVC had to join an apology made by Mr Ecclestone for seeming to praise Adolf Hitler. Also that year Sir Martin Sorrell, the boss of WPP, an advertising giant, who sits on the Formula One Groups board, protested when Mr Ecclestone complained that a life ban from Formula One given to Flavio Briatore, Renaults team chief, for ordering a driver to crash, was excessive (The ban was overturned in 2010).私募股权公司不需要经常与像埃克莱斯顿这样献身于F1数十载的老伙计进行交易。在年CVC不得不参与到埃克莱斯顿关于自己表扬希特勒的言论的道歉中。在同一年中,WPP,这个广告业巨头的总裁、F1董事会成员之一苏铭天爵士,对埃克莱斯顿的抱怨表示反对,因为埃克莱斯顿认为认为对于雷诺车队队长弗拉维奥?布里亚托利操纵车手故意撞车被终生禁止参与F1任何赛车事务的处置太过分了(这项禁令于2010年废除)。Now CVC is waiting to see whether Mr Ecclestone will be charged in connection with the case involving the German banker, Gerhard Gribkowsky. On June 27th Mr Gribkowsky was found guilty in Munich of receiving corrupt payments, and given a prison sentence, which he is now appealing. According to people close to the sport, if the German authorities charge Mr Ecclestone with a non-trivial offence in relation to the payment to Mr Gribkowsky, (which he has admitted making, though he says he was being blackmailed), he will be permanently removed as chief executive of Formula One Group.现在CVC正在作壁上观,看埃克莱斯顿是否因与德国家Gerhard Gribkowsky 受贿案关联而被控诉。7月27日,Gribkowsky被查出于慕尼黑受贿,已被判入狱,但他现在正在申诉。根据体育圈的人说,如果德国当局对埃克莱斯顿给Gerhard Gribkowsky行贿一事判他严重犯罪(行贿一事埃克莱斯顿已经承认),就算他声称自己是被勒索,他也将永久被剥夺F1首席执行官的职位。CVCs managing partner, Donald Mackenzie, is said to be worried about how his possible departure might affect the business. The Formula One Group depends on reaching agreement with a dozen racing teams and the Federation Internationale de lAutomobile, which regulates racing. In the past Mr Ecclestone has handled the teams brilliantly, using divide-and-rule tactics to prevent any serious rebellion and to keep a large share of revenues for his firm. He maintains close relations with circuit owners and governments, which together make up the sports largest source of revenue, in the form of hosting fees. It is not obvious who inside the business could succeed him; Mr Ecclestone reportedly jokes that a number two could send faxes and bring coffee, but nothing else.CVC的合伙人之一麦肯齐,据说他很担心埃克莱斯顿可能的离开对商业带来的影响。F1的正常运转离不开12参赛车队的合作以及负责管理赛车项目的国际汽车联合会的持。在过去的日子里,埃克莱斯顿运筹帷幄,运用分而治之的策略杜绝任何违规行为并为自己的公司保持巨大的收益。赛道所有者和政府以主办的形式为整个赛事的收益投入巨资,埃克莱斯顿则与这些人保持着紧密的联系。目前在赛车圈内尚未发现合适继任者;埃克莱斯顿据报道有过这样的玩笑话:二把手可以发传真可以买咖啡,但是除了这些也没什么别的能耐了。Bernies blinkers 伯尼的马失前蹄Mr Ecclestone is a skilled dealmaker; but he has missed out on two areas of opportunity for the sport. The first of these is the internet. Formula One has barely begun to develop its business online. Licensing Formula One brands and content to -games firms could generate pots of money, as could online betting.埃克莱斯顿是个经验丰富的交易商,但他在这项运动的两个方面错失良机。第一个是网络;F1基本没有开发其商业网络,向公司出售F1品牌商标和赛事相关内容的使用权可以带来大量的金钱收入,媲美网上。Second, Formula One has failed to establish itself in America, despite corporate sponsors need for exposure in the worlds biggest market. Partly because of the steep fees that Mr Ecclestone charges to host a Grand Prix, circuits often end up losing money and stop hosting the event; there has been no American race for the past five years. That will soon change, with Austin, Texas, hosting a race in November and plans for a Grand Prix in New Jersey in June 2013. Red Bull, a team owned by an Austrian energy-drinks firm, is said to be looking at launching a new “Stars and Stripes” Formula One team with American drivers. Local drivers boost audiences.第二则是尽管赞助商需要在这个世界最大的市场中露面,F1还是没有进军美国。一部分是由于埃克莱斯顿所需举办大奖赛的经费逐年攀升,赛道所有者往往赔本最终停止举办比赛——美国已经在过去的五年没有举办了。这即将发生改变,德州的奥斯汀市将在11月举办比赛并计划将于2013年6月在新泽西举办大奖赛。由澳大利亚功能饮料公司所有的车队红牛,据说将成为一个由美籍车手参与的新“星条旗”车队,本地的车手则会增加观众的数量。Although losing Mr Ecclestone may not be as big a car crash as some fear, there are other risks for the company that sits atop the sport. The biggest is that the teams will demand more money. Without them, after all, there is no show, and they are the sports biggest cost. Over time, the racers have claimed an ever larger slice of the cake. In 2003 the teams collectively commanded an estimated 27% of the profits that Formula One derived from its three main businesses (hosting fees from governments, selling television rights, and advertising and sponsorship). In a new deal that lasts until 2020, now signed by nearly all of the teams, they will get 63%.尽管失去了埃克莱斯顿可能不会像撞车那么让人害怕,然而其他的风险对于该公司来说则比比赛本身更重要。最大的问题就是车队会索取更多的利润分成。毕竟没有这些车队,那就没有比赛可言,但他们是整个赛事中花费最大的。随着时间的推移,参赛者要求分到的蛋糕越来越大块。2003年,车队总共要求的经费大约占F1从三大主要商业项目(政府的主办费,电视直播的版权和赞助商的广告费)收益的27%。在一项持续至2020年,现在所有车队几乎都签署了的新交易中,他们将分到收益的63%。And some people wonder if Formula One can carry on charging governments so much to host races. By expanding outside traditional markets in Europe, Formula One has been able to keep raising its fees; non-European governments such as Singapores or Indias pay two-fifths more on average to host Grands Prix than traditional markets. For now, demand from governments comfortably exceeds the number of racing slots available. Mr Ecclestone has no shortage of calls from countries such as C?te dIvoire and Bulgaria seeking the prestige of hosting a race. Soon, however, they may be calling someone else.有些人怀疑F1还能否继续像现在这样向政府收取大量承办费用。通过跳出欧洲传统市场进行扩张,F1已经可以持续不断地募集经费;非欧洲国家政府例如新加坡和印度,相比传统市场平均付了举办大奖赛费用的五分之二。目前,政府的需求远大于已有可用于比赛的赛道数量。埃克莱斯顿呼吁像科特迪瓦和保加利亚这样,试图通过举办比赛增加威望的国家毫无压力。不过不久之后,这些国家可能要联系其他人了。 201208/193355

Try telling someone who has just fallen on a patch of ice that ice is not slippery and theyll think youre crazy. But, in fact, ice itself isnt slippery because it is a solid. One quality of solids is that when two solids are together there is friction between them that will keep them from slipping.告诉某个刚在冰上滑倒的人冰其实不滑,那人肯定会觉得你疯了。不过事实的确如此,冰本身并不滑,因为它是固体。固体的一个特点就是当两个固体接触时会产生擦防止打滑。So how can your shoe slip on ice? The answer lies in two peculiar properties of ice. The first is that as water freezes, its molecules move farther apart. The molecules of most substances move closer together as they freeze, making them shrink at lower temperatures.因此,为什么你的鞋子会在冰上打滑?原因在于冰具有两种特性。第一种特性就是水结冰时,水分子分离得更远。但多数物质在结冰时,分子会紧密聚集在一起,温度一降低物质就会收缩。But water molecules move farther apart at temperatures below 39 degrees Fahrenheit, making water expand as it freezes. That is why frozen water pipes burst, and a tray of ice cubes will freeze over its top if you fill it too full. The second peculiar property of ice is directly linked to its first peculiarity.但当温度低于39摄氏度时,水分子会分散开来,因此结冰后冰的体积大于水的体积。这就是为什么水管会冻裂,用盘子盛满水,结冰后冰面会超过容器的平面。冰的第二种特性与第一种特性是直接相关的。When subjected to pressure, ice melts. Remember that the molecules in ice are farther apart than the molecules in water; therefore ice molecules are vulnerable to pressure which pushes them closer together, causing the ice to change into water.冰在压力作用下会融化。记住冰的分子比在水的状态时更分散,受压后导致分子聚集,此时冰会变成水。So when you step on a patch of ice, you exert pressure on the ice, which causes its molecules to move closer together. That makes them revert to their more dense state, which is water. If you slip on a patch of ice, then, you in fact are slipping on a thin layer of water that the pressure from your weight has created. And, unlike solid ice, water, as a liquid , is quite slippery.所以,当你踏在一块冰上时,会对它产生压力,这个压力导致分子相互间靠得更近,使之恢复到更加紧密的形态——水。如果你在冰面上打滑了,实际上是你在一层薄薄的水面上打滑了,而这些水正是因为你体重带来的压力导致的。跟固态的冰不一样,液态的水是相当滑的。原文译文属!201303/229800

Were expected to be perfect every single day. Were dealing with millions of people and it only takes one person to delay everything. It could be a sick passenger. It could be a crime.我们被期望每一天都是完美的。我们正在应对数以百万计的人,只需要一个人,就可以推迟一切。可能是一个生病的乘客,也可能是一种犯罪行为。Just because his train disappears underground, doesnt mean trouble wont follow. On a normal day, Abes biggest concern isnt terrorists, its his fellow citizens.只因为他的列车驶入地下,并不意味着麻烦会跟随。在一个普通的日子,阿比的最担心的不是恐怖分子,而是他的同胞市民们。The New York is New York. We have crime up here and down there, just like we do in the streets. Anything that happens in the street happens in the subway. The subway also carries its own built-in hazards. In 1991, five people were killed and more than 200 injured when a train derailed in Manhattan. In 2000, 66 people were injured when another train derailed in Brooklyn. Accidents on the subway are like farms in Manhattan, a rarity. Get no motorman can take the throttle without looking over his shoulder as the disasters that struck other systems. 1975, a crowded rush-hour train crashes into a dead end on the London underground-- 43 people die. 1995, the worst subway disaster in history, in the capital of Azerbaijan, a crowded subway train catches fire in a tunnel--some 300 hundred people perish. Then there is terrorism. French police blame radical Muslims for a 1995 attack on the Paris metro. Russian police suspect terrorists in the 2004 bombing of the Moscow subway. Perhaps the most frightening, the deadly sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway that send thousands to the hospital, and 12 to their grave. And then came 9.11. It drove the message home.纽约就是纽约。我们在这里和那里的犯罪,就像我们在街上做的一样。发生在街上的事情也会发生在地铁里。地铁也有自己的潜在危险。在1991年曼哈顿列车出轨导致5人死亡,超过200人受伤。2000年在纽约的布鲁克林, 另一辆列车发生出轨致使66人受伤。地铁事故就像在曼哈顿的农场,简直是稀世珍品。自然灾害袭击其他系统时候没有任何一位车长会不看肩膀后面发生了什么而还一味踩油门。1975年, 伦敦地铁一列拥挤的人潮列车撞进一个死胡同;;43人死亡。1995年,在历史上最严重的地铁灾害,在阿塞拜疆的首府,一个拥挤的地铁列车在隧道起火;;大约有3万人死亡。然后是恐怖主义。法国警方指责激进的穆斯林在1995年袭击巴黎地铁一号线。俄罗斯警方怀疑恐怖分子在2004年炸毁了莫斯科的地铁。也许最可怕的是,致命的沙林毒气袭击东京地铁,它能把成千上万的人送进医院,12人提前进入坟墓。再来就是9.11,它把消息带回家。Along these rails, New York stands guard for danger. On a beautiful Indian summer morning, it struck from the most unlikely quarter. Right out of the clear blue sky, an unprecedented catastrophe has stopped the New York in its tracks.沿着这些铁路,纽约防卫着危险的状态。印度一个美丽的夏日早晨,也许就是危险的前兆。对于洁净的蓝天来说,一种前所未有的灾难已经笼罩了纽约的地铁。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/171808

Books and Arts; Book Review;Understanding language;Talk, talk;文艺;书评;理解语言;不停地说;Language: The Cultural Tool. By Daniel Everett.《语言:文化的工具》,丹尼尔·埃弗雷特著。For half a century an influential group of Western linguists, led by Noam Chomsky, have argued that language is an innate human faculty, the product of a “language organ” in the mind. Other prominent “innatists” include Steven Pinker, an evolutionary psychologist and author of “The Language Instinct”, and Derek Bickerton, a linguist at the University of Hawaii and developer of a “bioprogramme” theory of language. Innatists believe that all languages share fundamental features. And linguistic innatism is part of a wider debate about just how much of human nature is wired into the brain.半个世纪以来一个由乔姆斯基领导的西方语言学家的群体已经实,语言是一种先天的能力,是大脑中“语言器官”的产物。另一个杰出的“先天派”包括进化心理学家、《语言本能》的作者——史蒂夫皮克和夏威夷大学的语言学家、“生物计划”语言理论的创始人——德里克贝克顿。“先天派”认为所有的语言都有共同的基本特点,并且语言天赋论是关于到底有多少人类本性被用于智力运作的宽泛讨论的一部分。Daniel Everett, a linguist at Bentley University in Massachusetts, disagrees on both innatism and the fundamental similarity of languages. He spent years learning tiny languages in forbidding jungle villages, experiences he recounted in his 2008 memoir, “Dont Sleep, There Are Snakes”. (A former Christian missionary whose original goal was sping the gospel, he fell away from his faith.) In his new book, “Language: The Cultural Tool”, Mr Everett moves away from narrow linguistic anthropology to broad theory. He argues that language is not the product of a “language organ” but an extension of general intelligence.丹尼尔 埃弗雷特,马萨诸塞州宾利大学的语言学家,对语言的天赋论和基本相似性都持有不同的看法。他在与世隔绝的小村庄里花费了数年的时间研究一些小语种,并在他2008年的自传《不要睡,有蛇!》里重新总结了这段经历。(一个曾经把传播福音作为最初目标的基督教传教士,后放弃了他的信仰。)在他的新书《语言:文化的工具》中,埃弗里特先生把狭隘的语言人类学从宽泛的理论中分离出来。他认为语言并不是语言器官的产物,而是一般智力的延伸。Instead of unfolding in the same way in Paris and Papua New Guinea, languages are crafted by their speakers to meet their needs. He cites the Piraha, the Brazilian Amazonian group he has spent the longest time living with. There are no numbers beyond two in Piraha because, Mr Everett argues, they have no money, engage in little barter trade, do not store food for the future and do not think about the distant past. This “living for the moment”, which the Piraha enjoy (they think Western life sounds dful), shapes their language.相反地,以同样的方式在巴黎和巴布亚新几内亚展开,语言发言者精心制作以满足他们的需求。他用他在巴西亚马逊居住时间最长的种群皮尔哈举例,他实在皮尔哈没有超过两位数的数字因为他们没有货币去进行小型货物交换贸易,不用为未来储存食物,也不用思考遥远的过去。这种皮尔哈人享受的“活在当下”的生活方式削弱了他们的语言。(他们认为西方人的生活听着很可怕)That different cultures have different words is unsurprising. It is when these differences affect cognition (the Piraha cannot do maths, for example) that things get interesting. But Mr Everetts most controversial argument, and his biggest challenge to linguistic innatism, is about grammar.不同的文化有不同的文字并不令人惊奇,但当这些不同之处影响到了认知能力时事情就变得有趣了。(举例来说,皮尔哈人不会数学。)但是埃弗里特最有争议的论据和对语言天赋论最大的挑战是关于语法的。Mr Chomsky has argued that “recursion” is the key feature of all human language. This is the embedding of smaller units inside bigger ones: a subordinate clause is a kind of recursion, embedding a sentence in a bigger one. Mr Everett says that the Piraha lack grammatical recursion, and that even if recursion is universal (Piraha use it in stories if not within sentences), this does not prove the existence of the language organ. Information is naturally organised with smaller bits nesting inside larger ones. That nearly all humans would find this linguistically useful is little different than widely varying societies independently inventing the bow and arrow—it is simply useful, and no proof of an instinct. True instincts, like turtles making their way to the sea or ducklings bonding with their mothers, require no learning. Language does. Animals do not truly excel in their deployment of basic instincts, whereas some humans clearly use language much better than others.乔姆斯基已经明“递归”是所有人类语言的关键特征。递归是让更小的单位嵌入更大的单位内部:一个从句是一种递归,把一个句子嵌入更大的句子中。埃弗里特说皮尔哈缺乏符合语法规则的递归,即使递归是普遍存在的(皮尔哈人把它用在没有长句子的故事中),也不能明语言器官的存在。信息是用小字节嵌入更大的字节而自然组成的。几乎所有人都能发现这种语言学的用途和广泛变化的社会独立发明弓和箭是不同的,它是有用的而且没有本能的明。真正的本能是不用明的,就像海龟用它们的方式去海边和小鸭子总是跟着它们的妈妈一样。语言也是如此。动物们并不是真的擅长本能的调度,而有些人显然能比其他人更好的使用语言。But Mr Everett, in trying to reach a popular audience while making an argument aimed at professional linguists, makes some awkward compromises. He cites a paper by other researchers claiming to have found that there are no features that are common to all languages, an argument that is crucial to his thesis. But he does not give enough detail for the er. Later he even contradicts himself, saying that all languages have nouns and verbs.但是当埃弗里特针对语言学家得出结论时,为了争取到受众的欢迎而做了一些笨拙的妥协。他援引其它研究者的论文,声称已经发现了没有所有语言共通的特征,作为他的论文中一个重要的论据。但他并没有向读者展示更多细节。不久后他甚至自相矛盾的说所有语言都是有动词和名词的。He argues that differences between societies lead to profound differences between languages, but fails to drive the point home fully. The Wari people use the word “hole” or “vagina” as the ordinary word for “wife”. Could this be denigrating of women? Or, since the birth canal is the point of departure for human life, could it be a way of praising them? Mr Everett is not sure.Or take Banawá, another Amazonian language, in which the default gender of an unknown person or mixed group of people is feminine, not masculine as in most languages. The Banawá also practise rigid gender segregation, even whipping young girls bloody after their first menstruation. Could the unusual gender-assignment of Banawá be a product of this gender-segregated Banawá society? “The only answer at present is, ‘Perhaps,” he writes. Even the lack of grammatical recursion in Pirah?, Mr Everetts key piece of evidence that it is culture that creates language, cannot tell the whole tale. Similar tribal cultures have languages bristling with recursion.他认为,社会之间的差异导致不同语言之间的深刻分歧,却不能充分明其原理。沃利人用“洞”、“阴道”这样的词汇作为“妻子”的代名词;难道这是对女人的玷污?或者,产道是人类生命的出发点,难道这是一种赞美他们的方式?埃弗里特并不能确定。或者用亚马逊地区的另一种语言巴纳沃来举例,在大部分语言中,一个不知名的人或者一个混合群体的默认性别是女性,而不是男性。巴纳沃人仍然坚持严格的性别隔离,甚至要在女孩们第一次来月经后把她们鞭打的鲜血淋漓。巴纳沃的这种特殊的性别对待难道是巴纳沃社会性别隔离的产物?“现在唯一的是‘也许吧”,他写到。即使是缺乏语法递归的皮尔哈,埃弗里特据的关键点仍然是文化创造了语言,但这不能断定整个叙述。类似的种族文化里存在着充满了递归式的语言。Mr Everett thinks it possible that culture influences grammar, but he is not sure. He acknowledges that conjecture about what causes linguistic differences has been a staple of much irresponsible amateur linguistics. It is hard to work out where culture has affected language, where language affects culture and cognition (a hot topic of psycholinguistic research), and where the differences are unrelated. Mr Everett has taken a shot across the innatists bow, and an impressively modest and reasoned one given that Mr Chomsky once called him a charlatan. His case is not wholly proven, but it deserves a serious ing, and a response beyond name-calling.埃弗里特认为文化影响语法是可能的,但他并不确定。他承认,关于引起语言差异原因的猜想已经成为多数不负责任的业余的语言学的主题。文化在哪影响了语言、语言在哪影响了文化和认知(心理语言学研究的一个热门话题)、差异在哪是无关联的都很难计算。埃弗里特提醒先天派,一个印象深刻的谦逊的合理的人是会考虑到乔姆斯基曾经笑话他是个骗子。他的情况并不能完全明,但值得一读,还有超越了人身攻击的回应。 /201211/211365

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