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在厦门玻尿酸瑞兰二号价格厦门欧菲医院做双眼皮手术好不好Some of the best moments in World War II movies occur when, during a battle at sea, a periscope pokes up from the water, surveying the ocean terrain. 二战题材的电影中一些可赞的片段是,海上作战的时候,一个潜望镜从水中穿出,用以测量海洋地形。Cut to a submarine gliding through the depths. Torpedoes away, and the enemy battleship is doomed. How do these amazing vessels rise and sink so quickly to specific depths? 镜头切换到潜水艇潜到水下。然后发射鱼雷,敌军战队注定会失败。这些神奇的军舰是如何实现快速上升下沉到特定的深度?Although submarines are sophisticated machines, their ability to rise and sink is based on the elementary principle of buoyant force. 尽管潜艇是很复杂的机器,但它们上升下沉所依据的却是浮力的基本原理。Say you fill your bathtub with water and put a rubber gym ball on the surface of the water. 将浴缸填满水然后在水面上放一个橡胶健身球。It floats because the air-filled ball is less dense than the surrounding water. 它会在水面上漂着因为充气球的密度小于水的密度。But poke a hole in the ball and as water displaces the air, the overall density increases until the ball is heavy enough to sink to the bottom. 但在球上戳一个洞,用水代替健身球中的空气,其整体密度会变大,一直到该球重的足以落到水的底部。A submarine works in much the same way, with one major exception: a sub can alter its buoyancy by manipulating overall density. 海底工作大致是相同的,但有一点例外:通过操控整体密度,潜水艇能够改变其浮力。Submarines come equipped with tanks that can be filled with various levels of water and air. 潜艇都配备蓄水池,贮备着不同的水量和空气。When a sub floats on the surface, its tanks are filled mostly with air, which makes the sub less dense than the surrounding water. 但潜水艇浮在水面的时候,它的蓄水池里大部分都是空气,这样可以使得潜水艇的密度小于水的密度。When the crew wants to make the sub sink they open valves to allow just enough water to flood the tanks and make the sub sink to a specific depth. 若工作人员想要使潜艇下沉,他们可以打开阀门,让足够多的水流入蓄水池,然后使其下沉到一个特定的深度。Of course the sub must be able to rise again after filling its tanks with air. 当然将蓄水池充入空气,潜艇会再次上升。To that end submarines carry tanks of compressed air that can be used to displace water from the tanks and increase buoyancy.最后潜艇会携带带有压缩空气的蓄水池,用来替换蓄水池中的水,增加浮力。201308/251983厦门地区市第一人民医院预约挂号电话 Smartphones in China中国的智能手机市场Taking a bite out of Apple分苹果一杯羹Xiaomi, often described as China’s answer to Apple, is actually quite different有中国的苹果之称的小米实际上跟苹果很不一样。Sep 14th 2013 | BEIJING |From the print editionIT FEELS more like a rock concert than a press conference as the casually dressed chief executive takes to a darkened stage to unveil his firm’s sleek new smartphone to an adoring crowd. Yet this was not the launch of the new iPhone by Apple on September 10th, but of the Mi-3 handset by Xiaomi, a Chinese firm, in Beijing on September 5th. With its emphasis on snazzy design, glitzy launches and the cult-like fervour it inspires in its users, no wonder Xiaomi is often compared to its giant American rival, both by admirers and by critics who call it a copycat. Xiaomi’s boss, Lei Jun (pictured), even wears jeans and a black shirt, Steve Jobs-style. Is Xiaomi really China’s answer to Apple?小米的发布会比起新闻发布会更像是一场摇滚音乐会。打扮随意的首席执行官登上深色的舞台向粉丝们揭开其公司最新的时尚智能手机。然而,这不是9月10日苹果的新iPhone发布会,而食中国公司小米9月5日在北京举行的小米3发布会。凭借其时尚的设计,炫目的发布会和用户被激发出的疯狂的热情,小米难免经常被崇拜者和批评者同美国的竞争对手苹果作比较,批评家称其产品为山寨货。小米的老板,雷军(如图),甚至穿着类似乔布斯风格的牛仔裤和黑色短袖。小米真的是中国的苹果吗?Xiaomi sold 7.2m handsets last year, in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, earning revenues of 12.6 billion yuan (.1 billion). Apple sold 125m smartphones globally, earning about billion of its 7 billion sales. But since it was founded in 2010, Xiaomi has grown fast. A recent funding round valued it at billion, more than Microsoft just paid for Nokia’s handset unit. That made Xiaomi one of the 15 most heavily venture-backed mobile start-ups ever, says Rajeev Chand of Rutberg, an investment bank. In the second quarter of 2013 Xiaomi’s market share in China was 5%, says Canalys, a research firm—more than Apple’s (4.8%) for the first time.去年小米在中国大陆,香港和台湾一共售出了7200万台手机,收入达126亿人民币(约合21亿美元)。苹果在全球卖出了1.25亿台手机,销售额为1570亿美元,收入达到800亿美元。但是由于小米始建于2010年,小米的增长速度极快。最近的一轮融资,小米估值达100亿美元,超过微软刚刚买下的诺基亚手机部门。投资Rutberg的Rajeev Chand表示这使得小米成为全球目前为止最值钱的15个手机公司之一。Yet “we have never compared ourselves to Apple—we are more like Amazon,” says Lin Bin, Xiaomi’s co-founder, who once worked for the Chinese arms of Microsoft and Google. Apple sells its iPhone 5 for around 0 in China and has the industry’s highest margins. Xiaomi offers its handsets at or near cost: the Mi-3, its new flagship, costs 2,000 yuan (0). Xiaomi sells direct to customers online, rather than via network operators or retail stores, which also keeps prices down. Crucially, its business depends on selling services to its users, just as Amazon provides its Kindle ers at low prices and makes its money on the sale of e-books. The idea is to make a profit from customers as they use the handset, rather than from the sale of the hardware, says Mr Lin.然而,曾在微软和谷歌工作过的小米联合创始人林斌表示,我们从没有跟苹果对比,我们更像是亚马逊。苹果的iPhone5在中国的售价约为860美元,是行业中利润率最高的手机。小米提供的手机接近成本,新旗舰米3售价为2000元(330美元)。小米通过线上商店直接卖给消费者,而不是通过网络运营商或零售商店,这也压低了价格。最重要的是,它的业务依赖于将务卖给用户,就像亚马逊提供低价的kindle阅读器,通过卖电子书赚钱。林先生表示,这个想法是通过用户对手机的使用赚取利润,而不是通过硬件销售。Xiaomi’s services revenues were 20m yuan in August, up from 10m yuan in April. It is a classic internet business model: build an audience then monetise it later, as Google and Facebook did, notes Mr Lin. Selling games, custom wallpapers and virtual gifts may not sound very lucrative, but China’s internet giants have found a huge market for virtual goods: the biggest, Tencent, sold billion-worth of them last year.小米8月份的务收入为2000万,从四月的1000万增长至此。林先生指出,这是一种典型的互联网商业模式:吸引听众然后套现,谷歌和facebook也是这么做的。售卖游戏,自定义壁纸和虚拟礼品听起来没那么利润丰厚,但是中国的互联网巨头们找到了虚拟物品的巨大市场:最大的腾讯去年卖出了50亿美元的虚拟物品。Another big difference is their openness to user feedback. Apple takes an almost Stalinist approach to its handsets, limiting user customisation in favour of a “we know best” design philosophy. Xiaomi is more guided by its users, releasing a new version of its MIUI software (based on Google’s Android operating system) every week in response to their suggestions. In some cases Xiaomi asks users to vote via weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter, on whether particular features should be included or how they should work—a form of democracy its American rival would never countenance.另外一个很大的不同是他们对待消费者反馈的态度。苹果对自己的手机采取的几乎是斯大林式的方法,限制用户定制,用一种我们知道什么是最好的设计哲学。小米更以用户为导向,每周发行一个新版本的MIUI软件(基于谷歌的安卓操作系统)响应用户的建议。有些时候,小米会通过微投票征求用户的建议,这是其美国对手绝对不会赞同的民主工作形式。Apple’s launch this week of the iPhone 5C, a colourful, slightly cheaper version of the iPhone aimed at consumers in China and other developing countries, marks a shift in its strategy as it faces competition from Xiaomi and many other Chinese firms. Apple’s handsets have sold well in developed countries, but those markets are maturing. Global sales of smartphones are growing by 50% a year, notes Canalys, but by 108% a year in China, which now accounts for over one-third of global sales.这周苹果发布了iPhone 5c,一款色版稍便宜的iPhone,这款设备旨在吸引中国和其他发展中国家的消费者,标志着在诸如小米和其他中国公司的竞争下战略的转变。苹果的手机在发达国家非常畅销,但是这些市场相对成熟。Canalys指出,全球智能手机销量每年增长50%,但是在中国增速为108%,占据全球三分之一的销量。For the first time, Apple held an official launch event in Beijing this week, indicating its growing interest in this market. Yet there was widesp surprise at the high price of the 5C, which will cost 3 in China, limiting its appeal among less wealthy buyers. A rumoured deal with China Mobile to distribute the iPhone 5C and subsidise its cost has so far failed to materialise. (Apple also unveiled the iPhone 5S, its new high-end smartphone, which features a fingerprint er for improved security.)本周苹果首次在北京举办了官方发布会,表明其在中国市场的兴趣与日俱增。但是外界对5c的价格普遍感到惊讶,在中国售价高达733美元,限制了其对不太富裕买家的吸引力。传言与中国移动的交易销售iPhone 5c以及补贴方案至今都没有实现。(苹果也发布了iPhone 5s,最新的高端机型,具备指纹识别器,提高了安全性。)Xiaomi the money小米的资金As Apple looks to tap the rapid growth of the Chinese market, Xiaomi is heading the other way. It recently hired Hugo Barra, a Google executive responsible for product development for Android, to develop new products for international markets.随着苹果开始注意挖掘中国市场的快速增长,小米选择了另一条路。最近小米聘请了谷歌安卓产品开发主管Hugo Barra为国际市场开发新产品。Yet Xiaomi and other Chinese firms sell so many games, apps and add-ons in large part because the Chinese government requires handsets to run a neutered version of the Android operating system, without Google’s app store, mail service, maps and other features. That helps Xiaomi sell its own replacement services, an advantage it will lose once it steps outside China. How scared should Apple be, really, of a rival that has yet to prove that its business model will work at home, let alone abroad?然而,小米和其他中国公司销售如此多的游戏,应用和插件很大程度上是因为中国政府要求手机运行一个阉割版的安卓操作系统,不包括谷歌的应用程序商店,邮件务,地图和其他功能。这有助于小米销售期自己的替代务,而这在国际市场上会失去优势。小米的商业模式在国内尚未称得上成功,更不用说在国外了,苹果应该为此感到害怕吗? /201309/257023Science and technology科学技术Marine ecology海洋生态学Welcome to the plastisphere欢迎来到塑料圈What is pollution to some is opportunity to others对有些生物是污染物的塑料对另一些生物却是机会SINCE 2008 geologists have been mulling over the idea of the Anthropocene,自2008年起,地质学家便一直在琢磨人类世这个概念。a proposed new epoch in the history of the Earth that would encompass the years in which people have had profound effects on the planets workings.人类世是新近提出的一个地球纪元,囊括了人类的改造对地球产生深刻影响的时期。Most often, discussion of the Anthropocene revolves around how atmospheric chemistry has changed since the beginning of the industrial revolution.大多时候,对人类世的探讨以工业革命开始后大气的化学性质如何变化为主。Sometimes the effects of new terrestrial ecosystems, in the form of fields, pastures and plantations, are also considered.间或还会考虑对田地,牧场及种植园等形式的新型陆地生态系统产生的影像。To date, though, how the Anthropocene has created new ecosystems in the oceans as well as on land has not been much examined.然而人类世是如何与在陆地上一样在海洋中创造新生态系统的问题迄今为止还未有深入研究。Such ecosystems are, nevertheless, emerging—as Tracy Mincer of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, in Massachusetts, and Linda Amaral-Zettler of the Marine Biological Laboratory, also in Woods Hole, describe in Environmental Science and Technology.然而正如马萨诸塞州的伍兹霍尔海洋学研究所的特雷西·明瑟以及伍兹霍尔海洋生物学实验室的琳达·阿马拉尔-赛特勒在《环境科学技术》上所说的,这类生态系统正在慢慢浮出水面。The malign effect of floating plastic debris on seabirds, turtles and other sea creatures is well known.漂浮在海洋中的碎片对于海鸟,海龟以及其它海洋生物的有害作用已经广为人知。But, as Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler have discovered, plastic debris also provides a new habitat for organisms small enough to take advantage of it.但是,明瑟和阿马拉尔-赛特勒两位士发现,塑料碎片还为小到足以栖身其上的微生物提供了一块新的栖息地。The two researchers collected pieces of plastic from various sites in the North Atlantic.这两位研究人员在北大西洋上的多个区域搜集了许多塑料片。They then examined each using DNA analysis, and also an electron microscope, to see what was living on it.然后使用DNA分析及电子显微镜对每一块碎片进行了检测,来观查上面有什么生物。Lots of things were. Altogether, they discovered about 50 species of single-celled plant, animal and bacterial life.上面确实有很多生物,他们一共发现了大约50种单细胞植物,动物及细菌生命体。Each bit of debris was, in effect, a tiny ecosystem.实际上,每块碎片都是一个微型生态系统。As with many ecosystems, the bottom of the food chain was occupied by things that photosynthesise.与许多生态系统一样,位于生物链底层的是进行光合作用的生物,These included unicellular algae called diatoms and dinoflagellates, and photosynthetic bacteria known as cyanobacteria.包括叫做硅藻及鞭毛藻的单细胞藻类以及被称为蓝藻细菌的光合细菌。Usually, such creatures swim freely in the ocean.通常情况下,这些生物在海洋中随波逐流,They therefore have to work hard to stay near the surface, where light for photosynthesis is abundant.然而它们必须努力停留在海面附近,以获得充足的阳光进行光合作用。By hitching a ride on a piece of floating plastic, they can stay near the surface without effort.要是能搭上一块浮在水面上的塑料片,它们就能毫不费力地停留在海面附近。Where plants abound, herbivores will not be far behind.植物丰沛之地,食草动物也不会少。These, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found in the form of dinoflagellates, some of which like to snack on smaller creatures to supplement their photosynthesis.明瑟和阿马拉尔·赛特勒两位士发现的食草动物的形式是鞭毛藻类,其中有些会将更小的生物当成点心,作为自己光合作用外的加餐。They also found predators on the herbivores, in the form of ciliates and predator bacteria, which feed on other bacteria.两位士还发现了以这些食草动物为食的捕食者,存在形式是纤毛虫和以其他细菌为食的捕食性细菌。Except for top predators—the type that themselves prey on predators—the two researchers thus discovered a classic web of food chains of the sort familiar from ecology text books.要不是没发现顶层捕食者-捕食其他捕食者的捕食者-两位研究人员便会发现一张那种经常在生态学教科书中见到的典型食物网。And they also, and perhaps most pertinently from the human point of view, found evidence for one other part of such a food web: the decomposers.他们还发现了这种食物网中另一个部分-分解者-的存在迹象,这或许是最为符合人类立场发现。Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so ily.塑料是富含能量的物质,这正是许多塑料都极易燃烧的原因。Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene.所有可以将其中的能量取出食用的微生物都能在人类世中过得不错。Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are aly familiar to experts in the field.该领域的专家已经对能做到这点的陆生细菌及真菌如数家珍。Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler found evidence of them on their marine plastic, too.明瑟和阿马拉尔·赛特勒两位士也在他们的海中塑料上发现了这类微生物的迹象。They noticed many of their pieces of debris sported surface pits around two microns across.他们注意到许多自己手上的塑料片表面上都生有许多约两微米宽的凹点。Such pits are about the size of a bacterial cell.这种凹点差不多和细菌细胞一样大。Closer examination showed that some of these pits did, indeed, contain bacteria, and that in several cases these bacteria were dividing and thus, by the perverse arithmetic of biological terminology, multiplying.进一步的检测发现这些凹点中有一部分确实含有细菌,并且在一些样本中,这些细菌还在不断分裂,按照与算术上的称法相反的生物学术语来说,即正在增殖。Though the two researchers have not yet proved the bugs in the pits are actually eating the plastic, that hypothesis seems a good bet.虽然这两位研究人员还未明这些凹点中的细菌确实在以塑料为食,但这一假设似乎颇有成立的可能。And if they are, it suggests plastic pollution in the ocean may not hang around as long as has often been feared.如果这些细菌确实以塑料为食,这说明海洋中的塑料污染物有可能并不会像人们通常担忧的那样一直在海中飘来荡去。Less encouragingly, Dr Mincer and Dr Amaral-Zettler also found cholera-like bacteria in their tiny floating ecosystems.遗憾的是,明瑟和阿马拉尔-赛特勒两位士还在他们的微型漂浮生态系统里发现了类霍乱细菌。Both fish and seabirds act as vectors for cholera, so anywhere that such creatures might pick up cholera bugs is something worth keeping an eye on.鱼和海鸟都会成为霍乱的携带者,所以任何可能会让这类生物带上霍乱菌的地点都值得密切关注。The researchers paint an intriguing picture of the adaptability of nature, and provide another piece of the jigsaw that is the Anthropocene.这两位研究人员为自然适应性描绘了一幅引人入胜的图画,又在人类世的拼图上添上了一块。Conservationists intent on preserving charismatic megafauna have reason to lament the sp of plastics through the ocean.致力于保护受人喜爱的大型动物的环境保护主义者有理由为塑料在海洋散布而痛心疾首。But those interested in smaller critters have been given a whole, new sphere—the plastisphere—to study.但这些塑料却带给那些兴趣在于微型生物体的人一个全新的生态圈-塑料圈-用于研究。 /201310/259341福建厦门双眼皮手术多少钱

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厦门地区大学医院做祛眼袋手术多少钱 But most significant of all, the jaguar has a tell-tale trademark. Instead of going for the neck or snout like most cats do, it kills with a crushing bite through the skull into the brain. This makes the jaguar prime suspect in this case. Even the glyptodonts defences had a fatal flaw. 但最重要的是,美洲虎有一个独特的特点,与大多数猫科动物不一样的是,美洲虎捕猎时不会直接撕咬猎物的颈部或者面部,它会在猎物的头骨上直接给予猎物大脑致命一击。这使美洲虎成为了这个头骨的“首要嫌疑凶手”。尽管雕齿兽的防卫有一个致命缺点。13,000 years ago, another very different kind of hunter reached this warm corner of the continent. Floridas springs have produced an unparalleled record of these first people, examples of their craftsmanship and hunting expertise, including razor-sharp flint spear points. 13000年前,另一批不同的猎人来到了这片大陆的角落。佛罗里达的泉水中记录了第一批人类无可比拟的技艺以及狩猎技巧,例如,带着锋利石头的箭头。The area was rich in flint for making weapons and in animals to hunt. And with the milder climate, these people probably had an easier life than their contemporaries further north. Small clues to their arrival have survived undamaged over 13,000 years—spear points, fishhooks and other glimpses of their daily life showing the versatility of these first inhabitants of the Sunshine State. 这片区域有着足够多的锋利岩石来制造武器,也有着足够多的猎物。当气温回暖后,这些人类的生活可能会比他们北方的同胞们更加舒适。13000年过后,还是能够发现他们来到过这里的痕迹——箭头,鱼钩。他们在这里生活的另一些痕迹表明,这些首批来到“阳光州”的人类技能多种多样。They hunted a wide range of ice age animals and Florida possesses a unique record of one such encounter. The skull of an extinct bison restored here was discovered in one of the rivers. Planted deep in the top of the skull was a flint spear point.这些人类捕杀过大多数的冰河时代动物,对此,佛罗里达拥有一个独特的据明这一事实。在这里保存着一只灭绝的北美野牛的头骨,它被发现于一条河流之中。在头骨的深处,有一个绑着锋利石头的箭头。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201307/250436在厦门仁安医院整形厦门欧菲医院看效果怎么样

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