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郑大二附院祛疤多少钱许昌/市黑脸娃娃多少钱Books and arts文艺Bookreview书评Civil liberties公民自由Robocops机械战警Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarisation of Americas Police Forces. By Radley Balko.《战警的崛起:美国警力军事化》RADLEY BALKOS writing has long been by people who care about civil liberties.Radley Balko长期以来撰写公民自由类的文章,对这方面感兴趣的读者一定有所耳闻。First for the Cato Institute, a libertarian think-tank, then for his own blog, “The Agitator”, now part of the Huffington Post, he has written about criminal-justice policy, with a focus on police abuses: not corruption so much as the excesses that have become inherent in ordinary policing.他先供职于有美国自由者智囊团称号的卡托研究所,然后专心撰写自己的客“煽动者”。现在,他是赫芬顿邮报的一名记者,撰写罪犯公正政策类的文章,主要切入点为警察的虐待问题,相对于腐败来说,这个问题是一般执法中固有的问题,而且十分普遍。Mr Balko manages to avoid the clichés of both right and left, and provokes genuine outrage at the misuse of state power in its most brutal and unaccountable form.Balko成功地绕过了左派或右派的陈词滥调,激起民众对公共权力滥用的深刻愤慨。这种渎职行为是极为残酷且无法量化的。Heavily armed police raiding the homes of unarmed, non-violent suspects on the flimsiest of pretexts, and behaving more like an occupying army in hostile territory than guardians of public safety.全副武装的警察闯进手嫌疑犯的家里,这些人无缚鸡之力,仅仅是因为警方臆想的罪责就被当做凶残的恐怖分子一样。这些警察全然没有公共卫士的形象。“Rise of the Warrior Cop”, Mr Balkos interesting first book, explains what policies led to the militarisation of Americas police.Balko第一本有意思的书名为“战警的崛起”,书中介绍了什么样的政策导致了美国警察的军事化。To his credit, he focuses his outrage not on the police themselves, but on politicians and the phoney, wasteful drug war they created.他在书中表示,他并不对警察本身感到愤怒,而是对政治家和制造了无用的毒品战的骗子们感到愤怒。After the obligatory backward glances to the colonial era—in which the sort of social shaming possible only in small, homogeneous communities obviated the need for standing police forces—and the American civil war, Mr Balkos story really begins with the Supreme Courts 1963 ruling in Ker v California, which allowed the police to enter someones home without a warrant and without knocking or announcing themselves.作者必要地回顾了一下殖民地时期,在当时,战警的现象还只是存在于小而均匀的社区中,为的是消除常规警力的必要。同时,书中还回顾了美国的内战时期。而Balko真正要记叙的则是从1963年最高法院的建立开始的。当时的最高法院坐落于加州,法院允许警察不经批准进入居民家中,他们甚至不需要敲门或提前通知。That was the first in a long series of rulings that gutted the Fourth Amendments protection against unreasonable searches and seizures.这是漫长统治时期中第一个破坏第四修正案中保护无正当理由搜查和逮捕条款的做法。The social upheaval of the 1960s caught the attention of ambitious politicians and led them to focus on crime.1960年的社会动荡使得雄心勃勃的政治家们开始关心并关注犯罪。Daryl Gates, then a rising star in the Los Angeles Police Department, created Americas first SWAT team in 1965.达瑞尔盖兹,当时为洛杉矶警察局轰动一时的新星,他于1965年首创了美国第一特警队。Richard Nixon ran successfully for president on a law-and-order ticket in 1968, bolstered by a “Silent Majority” which, in Mr Balkos view, “began to see a link between drugs, crime, the counter-culture and race”.理查德?尼克松因宣扬严肃法纪,在“沉默的大多数”的持下,于1968年成功当选总统,在Balko看来,也正是那时,当权者看到了“毒品、犯罪、反文化、种族和犯罪的联系”。Ronald Reagan made Nixons drug policies tougher.罗纳德?里根上台后,继续强化尼克松的毒品政策。He dramatically increased both federal involvement in combating drugs and asset forfeiture, which allows law enforcement to seize goods and property believed to be used in crime or, more controversially, purchased with the proceeds of crime.他在抗击毒品和财产没收中大大增加了联邦的干涉权,这就允许执法能够掌握牵涉到犯罪的商品和财产,更乃至犯罪过程中获得的财物。This gave the police an incentive to find connections between property and drug activity, often at the expense of more serious crimes.这更加激励警察们去寻找财产和毒品活动之间的联系,而这样的寻找往往伴随着更多的恶性犯罪。As Mr Balko notes, “Closing a rape or murder case didnt come with a potential kickback to the police department. Knocking off a mid- or low-level drug dealer did.”正如Balko 说的,对警局来说,结束一宗强奸案或谋杀案并没有潜在利益可图,打击一起中低等的毒品交易商才是利益之源。Financial incentives also came through drug-war grants and, after the attacks of September 11th 2001, homeland-security grants that allowed police departments to buy surplus military hardware of dubious utility.资金激励的来源也正是这些毒品案,2001年9月11日的毒品案告破后,警局用获得的本土安全的奖金购买了一大堆不知道什么用的军事硬件。Fargo, North Dakota, has received m in grants to buy goodies such as an armoured truck with a rotating turret—used “mostly for show, including at the annual city picnic, where police parked it near the childrens bouncy castle”.法戈,北达科他州获得了800万美元的奖励,购买了设有旋转炮的装甲车等物品。多数被用来显摆,无论是一年一度的城市野餐还是其他地方,他们一定会停在孩子的充气城堡边。Mr Balko is adept, in “Rise of the Warrior Cop”, at finding outrageous examples of SWAT-team misuse, such as deploying heavily armed police to break up small-stakes poker games, raid fraternity parties suspected of serving alcohol to underage patrons and arrest barbers for operating without licences.Balko是个内行,在“战警的崛起”一书中找到了大量特警队滥用职权的案例。例如,他们调用全副武装的警察来取缔小赌注的扑克赛,因为怀疑慈善晚会向未成年人提供酒类而突袭晚会,以无照经营的名义逮捕理发店员。But he is too dismissive of arguments that stricter policing may have helped produce the remarkable drop in Americas crime rate.但是他严重忽视了一点,就是在这样严苛的政策下,美国的犯罪率确实有了显著下降。Thanks to his book, Americans will be more aware of the costs of those methods.也正是因为他的这本书,美国人更加注意到了这些方法带来的副作用。But they—and he—should also consider possible benefits.但是他和这些人都应该考虑到这些政策也是有所裨益的。 /201404/285513濮阳市自体脂肪填充多少钱 郑州/哪家整形医院比较好

郑州人民医院激光去胎记多少钱Todays program is about an effect that not only have we all witnessed, but have participated in. Havent we all been on an elevator and noticed that just about everyone stops talking when they get on? Why do we do that? You can be having a perfectly pleasant conversation with someone, and as soon as you get on an elevator, you just feel like youd better shut up. Then, as soon as the doors open, everyone resumes conversation.今天的节目是关于一个我们不仅曾经目睹过,而且亲身体验过的现象。当我们都在电梯上的时候,你有没有注意过电梯上升时所有人都停止了说话?为什么我们会这么做?你或许正在和某人进行非常愉快的交谈,而当你走上电梯的时候,你立刻感觉到你最好闭上嘴。随后,当电梯门打开的时候,大家又恢复了交谈。Primatologists, or people who study primate behavior, have a term for this. Its called the “elevator effect,” though it doesnt occur only on elevators. It happens whenever a group of primates, like humans, is brought into a situation where escape is temporarily impossible.研究灵长类行为的灵长类动物学家有一个术语来描述这个现象。它被称之为“电梯效应”,尽管它不仅仅发生在电梯上。它常常发生在一群灵长类动物身上,比如人类,当他们被带入一个暂时不可能逃脱的位置时。Its thought to be a kind of safety mechanism: as long as nobody talks, nobody is going to risk getting in a fight when theres no way to sp out. The elevator effect keeps a lid on potential problems before they start.这被认为是一种安全机制:只要没有人说话,就不会有人在无处可逃时试图冒险卷入一场战斗。电梯效应使得潜在的问题在爆发之前得到抑制。Even though they rarely if ever ride elevators, chimpanzees demonstrate the elevator effect as well. When chimps are temporarily crowded together into small areas, they will minimize their vocalizations–that is, nobody speaks–and avoid eye contact. The amount of scratching the chimps do, however, goes up.尽管黑猩猩几乎从来不乘坐电梯,它们也同样验了电梯效应。当黑猩猩们暂时拥挤在一个很小的空间时,它们会使它们的声音最小化--也就是说,没人说话--并且避免眼神的接触。然而,黑猩猩抓挠的次数却增多。Since scratching is a sign of stress in chimps, we can imagine what they are feeling: something like what we feel in a crowded elevator, with everybody carefully staring at the lighted numbers and no one saying a thing. I havent noticed if we scratch more.因为抓挠是黑猩猩感受到压力的标志,我们可以想象它们的感受:就像我们在拥挤的电梯中的感受一样,每个人都小心的盯着亮灯的数字,没有人说话。我从未注意过我们是否也挠来挠去的。 /201305/240660河南红蓝光去痘效果 周口市光子嫩肤价格

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