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2019年07月16日 10:16:56来源:搜索报

Robots will replace a growing number of jobs in industries including automotive and electronics in the next few years, particularly in east Asia, according to new research.一项新研究显示,未来几年,机器人将取代自动化和电子产品等行业越来越多的工作岗位,尤其是在东亚地区。Worldwide sales of industrial robots rose 23 per cent last year and are on course to double by 2018, driving radical change in many manufacturing sectors, Boston Consulting Group said.波士顿咨询集团(G)表示,全球工业机器人销量去年增长23%,到2018年将翻一番,这将令很多制造业领域发生彻底变革。Although robots have been used in industry for decades, recent advances in technology have cut their costs and increased their capabilities, as a new generation of reprogrammable, multipurpose machines comes into service.尽管机器人在工业中的使用已有几十年时间,但最近科技的进步降低了机器人成本并提升了其性能,此际新一代可再编程的多用途机器人正投入使用。The prices of industrial robots have been falling steadily, dropping about 14 per cent in the past four years to 3,000 for a typical system, while capabilities have been expanding.工业机器人的价格一直在稳步下降,过去4年已累计下跌14%左右,至13.3万美元,同时性能一直在提升。Some robots are even cheaper: the Baxter robot from Rethink Robotics has a listed base price of ,000, making it accessible to smaller companies that might have found it difficult to invest in earlier generations.一些机器人的价格甚至更低: Rethink Robotics的Baxter机器人基础定价为2.5万美元,让那些可能很难投资于之前几代机器人的较小公司也能买得起。Five countries — China, the US, Japan, Germany and South Korea — are expected to account for about 80 per cent of investment in industrial robots over the coming decade.预计中国、美国、日本、德国和韩国5国将占到未来10年工业机器人投资的80%左右。Advanced robots are set to cut costs and raise productivity, reducing employment in manufacturing in developed countries, while raising the skill levels demanded of the staff that remain.先进的机器人旨在降低成本并提升生产率,从而减少发达国家制造业就业,同时提高现有员工所需的技能水准。They are also likely to make labour costs a less significant factor for manufacturers making decisions about where to invest.它们还可能会在制造商在做出投资目的地决定时,让劳动力成本的因素不那么重要。About 200,000 industrial robots were shipped last year, G estimates, up from 163,000 in 2013, and in three years#39; time the number could rise to 400,000.G估计,去年工业机器人销量达到20万台左右,高于2013年的16.3万台,到2017年,这一数字可能会升至40万台。In the manufacturing sectors that are the most ily automated, including cars and other transport equipment, computers and electronics and electrical equipment, about 85 per cent of tasks can be performed by robots, according to G.在最容易实现自动化的制造业(包括汽车和其他运输设备、电脑、电子产品和电器设备),约85%的工作可能会由机器人完成。Those sectors are likely to use the most robots over the coming decade, but other areas such as chemicals and metals are also likely to see increasing adoption of the newer, more flexible machines.未来几十年,这些行业使用的机器人可能会最多,但化工和金属等其他行业使用这种更为新颖灵活的机器的做法可能也会越来越多。The uptake of industrial robots will vary between countries as well as between industries, depending on factors including wage costs and labour regulations that could limit employers’ ability to replace workers with robots. G expects the fastest adoption will come in South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand, which have heavy concentrations of the industries that are capable of high levels of automation, higher labour costs than some of their low-wage competitors, and limited employment protections that would prevent job cuts.工业机器人的使用情况将会因国家和行业的不同而不同,这取决于很多因素,包括薪资成本以及劳动力监管规定——这些规定可能会限制雇主用机器人取代员工的能力。G预测,韩国、台湾和泰国将是最快使用机器人的国家,这些国家拥有大量能够实现高度自动化的行业,劳动力成本高于一些低薪资竞争国家,而且就业保护有限(就业保护将阻止裁员)。Other relatively rapid adopters are expected to be China, Japan, the US, the UK and Canada.预计其他使用工业机器人相对迅速的国家将是中国、日本、美国、英国和加拿大。The countries likely to be slowest to embrace the new robots include more heavily regulated economies of Europe including France, Italy and Spain, as well as Brazil and India, according to G.G称,最慢接纳新一代机器人的国家可能是那些欧洲监管较严的经济体,包括法国、意大利和西班牙等,还有巴西和印度。 /201502/359373。

  • To really learn, fail — then fail again!想学到更多?那么就放肆的失败吧!On a spring morning, Hogan had given each of her students a tool kit containing a plastic foam dinner plate, a balloon, a small plastic stirrer straw, a sharp pencil and masking tape.一个春天的早上,Hogan给她的学生每人分发一个工具箱,里面包括一个塑料泡沫餐盘,一个气球,一个塑料搅拌吸管,一个削尖的铅笔和一个胶条。She instructed her young inventors to use the parts in any way they wanted to make racing cars from the foam plates. They also were charged with figuring out how to propel those cars great distances across the floor. The kit#39;s balloon would be a key component of these ;rocket; racers.她指导学生们开动脑筋使用她们想到的任何方法去利用泡沫盘制作一个赛车。并且他们还负责让小赛车在地上驱动行驶。毫无疑问,气球变成了推动赛车行驶的主要元素。Kids in many classrooms across the ed States are learning science in much the same way. Instead of explaining things to kids from the front of a classroom, teachers are beginning to instead ;guide from the side.; They are nudging kids to become Edisons - tinkerers who learn by doing.美国的小孩在科学课上几乎使用同样的方法学习,即老师先不给孩子们讲解原理,而是从侧面入手,让他们自己动手操作。这样可以培养出更多的爱迪生---一位乐于实践的思想者。A big take-home lesson from such projects is that there may be no one single right answer to a problem. There may instead be many. Along the path to discovering this, kids were being encouraged to propose theories - and then test them.这样可以带回家的实验项目是不限定正确的,因为也许有很多。在这条寻求之路上,学生们可以提出自己的理论然后进行验。Along the way, many students will fail. Often, they#39;ll fail many times. Perhaps not several thousand times (like Edison). But along the way they may just find out that by analyzing why something went horribly wrong, they#39;ve learned a lot. And they can take ownership of that learning, knowing that they earned it from hard-won experience.在这条路上,许多学生会失败,而且不止一次,当然可能不会像爱迪生那样失败上千次。但只有通过去分析错误的原因,他们才会学到更多,才能取得某个知识的拥有权,才能真正体会到通过多次试验才能得到来之不易的结果。译文属 /201506/378504。
  • A few weeks ago, I awoke one morning at 7 a.m. to a flood of messages in my email inbox. All 48 messages linked to a new that had gone viral overnight. In the , Robert Downey Jr., star of the Iron Man movie franchise, presented a customized 3-D printed bionic hand to a boy named Alex Pring, one year younger than my son.几个星期前的一天早上,我7点钟起床后发现,电子邮箱里收到了大量新函件。这48封信都附上了同一个链接,是一段在网上迅速传播的新视频。视频中,《钢铁侠》(Iron Man)系列电影的主演小罗伯特·唐尼(Robert Downey Jr.)把一个特制的3-D打印仿生手臂交给了一个名叫亚历克斯·布林(Alex Pring)的男孩。他比我的儿子小一岁。Each email said the same thing: “This is amazing! Immediately thought of you.”这些邮件都包含同样的内容:“太棒了!让我立刻想到你了。”My 8-year-old, Thaddeus, was born without his right hand. And as a mother wanting every opportunity for her child, I had started exploring prosthetic options for him when he was a toddler.我8岁的儿子撒迪厄斯(Thaddeus)生来没有右手。作为一个想要为孩子争取一切机会的母亲,在他还是一丁点大的时候,我就开始为他探索可以选择的各种假肢。Since he qualifies for state disability, Thaddeus has been lucky to receive access to an excellent team of doctors, occupational therapists, prosthetists, and state-funded basic hand models. When he turned 5, he was overjoyed to be fitted for his first prosthetic: a Hosmer model arm that he wore with a holster and that offered a pincher “hand” grip. He looked like some mini noir-novel detective, wearing the holster over his Pokemon T-shirt. When he shrugged his shoulders, the pincher hand mechanically opened and closed.由于他符合获得国家残疾保险的条件,撒迪厄斯一直有幸接触到一批优秀的医生、职业理疗师、修复师,并能获得国家资助的基本款手臂模型。他5岁的时候,喜出望外地试戴了自己的第一个假肢:霍斯莫(Hosmer)手臂模型。它通过皮套穿戴,可以像手一样夹起东西。他把假肢的皮套戴在宠物小精灵T恤外面,看上去就像是一部黑色小说里的小侦探。当他耸肩的时候,假手可以机械地打开和关闭。With the Hosmer model, Thaddeus learned how to pick up heavy objects, ride a bike with both “hands,” and balance better. But it didn’t last long. The prosthetic was too hot for him to wear even in the winter, and the holster rubbed too hard against his shoulder. It was highly uncomfortable and hard to turn certain ways to get a more realistic grip on items. He abandoned it after a year.凭借着霍斯莫模型,撒迪厄斯学会了如何抓起重物、用双“手”骑自行车,以及更好地保持平衡。但好景不长。即使在冬天,穿戴这个手臂也太热了,而且皮套和肩膀的擦太厉害。它很不舒,也很难转动到特定的位置,获取抓握物品更真实的感觉。他一年之后放弃了它。Last fall, a professor friend of mine and I started exploring the more affordable and customizable world of 3-D printed prosthetics, which held huge promise for Thaddeus. He saw some of the robot-like pieces and immediately got excited.去年秋天,一个教授朋友和我一起开始探索费用较为合理的特制3-D打印假肢。这种技术很有希望解决撒迪厄斯的问题。看到了一些像机器人似的零部件之后,他立刻兴奋了起来。My friend and I picked out a blueprint that matched my son’s specific needs and slowly started working on it in our spare time. He had access to his college’s 3-D printing lab. It would be manual, not electronic, to start. And it would be a long road, but held a huge price difference of versus ,000, and a lot more design options that kids would like: cool colors, superhero aesthetic additions, breathable materials, even lights.朋友和我选择了一个符合我儿子特殊需求的设计,在空闲时间慢慢开始了这项工作。他可以使用同事的3-D打印实验室。一开始的工作要靠手工完成,而不是电子设备。完成这个任务需要很长时间,不过其间的价格差距是50美元对5000美元,而且提供了孩子喜欢的更多设计选项:酷炫的颜色、超级英雄的美学元素、可呼吸材料,甚至还带有灯光效果。When I mentioned this project to friends and family, our community rejoiced and begged us to keep them updated on the process. We printed out the initial pieces and kept going.当我对朋友和家人提到这个项目时,他们都很兴奋,恳请我们随时报告进展。我们打印出了最初的零件,并在稳步推进。Three-D printed prosthetics for children hold great potential — and they’ve received great press. Hundreds of designs are uploaded every day and shared across the Internet. A “Handomatic” web app [link to: ] exists on the ever-growing e-Nable volunteer site; simply enter your measurements and generate your own customized files to print pieces on a local 3-D printer and start the process. Caught up in the waves of technology, I became an evangelist for 3-D technology and medical design.3-D打印的儿童假肢有很大潜力——它们也得到了媒体的积极报道。每天有数百个假肢的设计方案在网上传播和分享。在不断扩张的e-Nable志愿者网站上,有一个叫做“Handomatic”的网页版应用:只需要输入你的尺寸,生成自己的定制档案,就能在本地3-D打印机上打印出零部件,开启这个过程。我被这样的科技浪潮淹没,成为了3-D技术和医疗用品设计的狂热信徒。Local journalists had privately reached out to me, asking for an exclusive human interest piece on Thaddeus and his new 3-D prosthetic once it was finished and fitted. Family had brought it up on vacations. Friends had constantly messaged me on Facebook.本地的记者私底下联系我,希望能在撒迪厄斯的新3-D假肢完成和试戴以后,让他们写一篇关于他和假肢的温情的独家文章。家人会在度假时提起此事。朋友也经常在Facebook上给我发消息。Later that morning, when I showed Thaddeus the Robert Downey Jr. and Alex Pring , I aly had visions of him learning how to cut steak with a knife in his new robotic fingers. “Isn’t this great?” I said, smiling. “That’s going to be you very soon!”那天上午晚些时候,我向撒迪厄斯展示了小罗伯特·唐尼和亚历克斯·布林的视频。我早已开始想象他是如何用新机械手指来学着切牛排。“是不是特别棒?”我微笑着说。“你很快也能那样!”We were sitting on the couch, and he turned toward me. “I’ve been thinking about it,” he said. “And I don’t want a new hand.”我们当时并排坐在沙发上,然后他转过身来。“我一直在思考这件事,”他说。“我不想要一只新的手。”“But why?” I was devastated. All that time, research and enthusiasm. He was throwing away a chance to have a five-fingered hand? He was quiet for a moment, then started to explain his three reasons.“为什么?”我极度震惊。我们耗费了那么多的时间、研究和热情。他要放弃拥有一只有五个指头的手的机会?他沉默了一会,然后开始解释自己的三个理由。First of all, he said, he didn’t want to lose his sense of touch. “I don’t want to lose the way things feel.” This caught me off guard. I hadn’t thought of how much he could physically feel at the tip of his wrist, how stifled it was under something else like plastic.他说,首先,他不希望失去触觉。“我不想放弃对事物的感知。”这让我猝不及防。我从没想过他用手腕尖端可以拥有多少身体上的感知,而在外面套上塑料这样的东西又会多么地压抑。“I can figure out how to do stuff my own way.” It was true. Thaddeus had figured out how to leverage his arms, feet and neck to open jars, marker and pen caps, and even play baseball. “My brain just works different because of my hand, and I think that’s a good thing.”“我能找到自己的做事方式。”这是真的。撒迪厄斯已经知道如何平衡手臂、双脚和脖子来打开罐子、记号笔和笔盖,甚至还能玩棒球。“因为我的手,我的大脑也在以不同的方式运行。我觉得这是好事。”I nodded in agreement.我点头表示赞同。“And my friends like me just the way I am,” he said. If he started wearing a new hand, he explained, it would draw more attention to him — the kind he didn’t want. “I don’t think kids would be my friend because of me. They would just want to play with my robot hand.”“朋友们也喜欢我的本来面目,”他说。他解释道,如果开始穿戴一只新的假肢,他就会受到更多关注——而他不想要那样的关注。“我觉得,小朋友们就不会因为我本人而要和我做朋友了。他们肯定只会想和我的机械手玩。”“So, is that O.K.?” he asked. “That I don’t want a hand?”“那么,这样没问题吧?”他问道。“我不想要机械手的事?”I hugged him tightly. For eight years, I had focused on only what was lost with my son. What was missing. What was less than, and what was separated from him. And during that time, he had seen what was there to stay for his lifetime — an arm that simply ended at the wrist — and the possibilities that could grow from that, even if those possibilities didn’t have five fingers. As a mother, I had wanted to add to him, because I wanted the best for him.我紧紧地抱住了他。八年来,我关注的一直是儿子失去的东西,他缺失的部分,他的弱点,以及他无法得到的一切。而在同样的时间里,他却看到了会与自己相伴一生的东西——一只止于腕部的手臂——以及随之而来的各种可能性,即便这些可能性中不包含五根手指。作为一名母亲,我总想给他增加一点什么,因为我希望他凡事能得到最好的。That morning, I finally saw that he was perfectly whole.但在那天上午,我终于懂得,他本来就是个完美的健全人。 /201505/376117。
  • Everybody loves disruption, except the people who are being disrupted. As Uber, the app-based ride-hailing service, has sp rapidly from its San Francisco home to cities around the world, it has repeatedly faced resistance from incumbent taxi operators, who are often politically influential. Regulators and legislators from Brussels to Beijing have moved to restrict Uber’s operations.每个人都热爱破坏,除了那些受到破坏影响的人。随着基于应用的叫车务优步(Uber)迅速从其大本营旧金山扩张至全球各地,它也不断面临来自通常拥有政治影响力的现有出租车运营商的抵制。从布鲁塞尔到北京的监管者和立法者已开始对优步的运营加以限制。Some of the fiercest opposition has come in Europe, where the culture clash between the remorseless competition of the US tech industry and the locals’ respect for tradition and deference to established interests is especially stark. While Uber’s operations give rise to legitimate questions about safety and congestion, the public interest issues used as pretexts for cracking down on the company are often spurious. The proposed new restrictions in London, which would put Uber at a competitive disadvantage against the city’s black cabs, are a case in point.优步面临的一些最强烈的反对来自欧洲,在那里,美国科技业的冷酷竞争与当地对传统的尊重和对既得利益的顺从之间的文化冲突尤其明显。尽管优步的运营引发了关于安全性和交通拥堵的合理问题,但那些被用作打击优步之借口的所谓公众利益问题常常站不住脚。伦敦新提出的限制就是一个典型的例子,这些限制使优步相对于伦敦的“黑色”出租车陷于不利的竞争地位。Uber has often not helped its own cause. Concerns about the company’s use of data on customers’ movements, allegations that an executive had talked about smearing unfriendly journalists and complaints about its tax planning have made it harder for Uber to win the battle for hearts and minds.优步却常常自毁长城。人们对该公司利用顾客出行数据的担忧、关于一名高管谈论搞臭不友好记者的指控、以及对其税务筹划的抱怨,使优步更难在这场人心争夺战中取得胜利。It has been seeking to bolster its soft skills by hiring experienced political operators and has sharpened up how it presents its arguments. London is a chance to show that the investment has been worthwhile.优步一直在努力通过雇佣老练的政治操手提升自己的软技能,并已改进了提出论点的方式。伦敦是一次明优步的这些投资物有所值的机会。As in other cities, the proposals of Transport for London, which regulates the city’s taxis, are dressed up as measures to protect public safety. The details of the measures reveal how flimsy those justifications are.与其他城市一样,管理伦敦出租车行业的伦敦交通局(Transport for London)的提议被粉饰为保护公众安全的措施。措施的具体细节表明了这些理由是多么不堪一击。For example, one idea is to make riders wait at least five minutes before being picked up after hailing a ride through Uber or another similar service, even if there is an available driver close by, an obstruction that will provide nothing but irritation for passengers. Another suggestion is that drivers should be allowed to use only one ride-hailing app, which would impede one of the most effective checks on any abuses by Uber: competition between a number of different services.例如,其中一个主意是让通过优步或其他类似务叫车的乘客在被接上之前至少等待5分钟,即使可提供务的司机就在附近。这种障碍除了激起乘客的愤怒什么作用也没有。另一个建议是司机只应被允许使用一种叫车应用,这只会使遏制优步的任何过度行为最有效的方式之一——让多种不同叫车务展开竞争——受到阻碍。In this somewhat random set of ideas, it is hard not to see an attempt by Boris Johnson, London’s mayor, to restore relations with the city’s black cab drivers. Many of them backed him when he was voted into office in 2008, and plenty are natural supporters of his Conservative administration, but his perceived reluctance to clamp down on Uber has led to angry protests against him.在这套或多或少有些随意的想法中,不难看出伦敦市长鲍里斯约翰逊(Boris Johnson)试图与该市出租车司机修复关系的想法。2008年约翰逊当选伦敦市长时很多出租车司机投票持他,而且很多司机是其保守党政府天然的持者,但约翰逊却给人以不愿打压优步的印象,结果招致了愤怒的抗议。Transport for London has opened a consultation on its proposals, and may not adopt any of them. For an ostensibly pro-market Conservative administration, it will be hard to justify restraints on innovation simply because it creates losers as well as winners. Uber has right on its side — consumers, not regulators, should decide which transport options are best for them — but that may not be enough. Its campaign to block the proposals has started well: an online petition had by this weekend received more than 132,000 signatures. But while its business relies on a technological solution for navigating a city’s streets, there is no such fix for finding a route through its politics.伦敦交通局已经就其提议启动了咨询,但或许不会通过其中任何一条提议。对于表面上为亲市场派的保守党当局来说,很难找到合理的理由仅仅因为创新同时产生了赢家和输家就加以限制。优步手握一定的正义——应该由消费者(而非监管者)来决定何种交通方式是最好的——但这或许不够。优步阻挠这些提议的活动已经打下了很好的开局:一项网上请愿到上周末已经收集到了逾13.2万个签名。但是,尽管优步的业务依赖于提供城市街道导航的技术解决方案,但它没有同样的解决方案为自己提供“政治导航”。If it wants to continue to grow in London and around the world, Uber needs to be able to persuade politicians that it is worth facing down the established taxi operators who are resisting change. If vested interests prevent its innovations in service from reaching their full potential, it would count as an enormous missed opportunity.要想在伦敦及全球各地继续增长,优步需要说政客相信,挫败那些抵制改变的现有出租车运营商是值得的。如果既得利益最终阻止优步的务创新实现其最大潜能,优步将错过一次巨大机遇。 /201510/403312。
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