原标题: 贵州的天伦医院在哪里中华解答
A water buffalo grazes in a lush open field, an egret standing sentinel on its back. A herd of wild cattle bathes in the sunshine along the side of a winding road.一头水牛在葱翠的旷野上吃草,一只白鹭静静地立在它的背上。在一条蜿蜒曲折的路旁,一群野牛在晒着太阳。Two idyllic rural scenes, seen nearly every day.这两幅闲适恬静的郊野景致,几乎每天都可以看到。In Hong Kong.这是在香港。This is a place known for its urban superlatives. There are more skyscrapers here than anywhere on the planet. Most residents live in tiny apartments, many stacked atop sprawling shopping malls, which in turn are piled on top of subway stations. With an area about the size of Luxembourg, Hong Kong is continuously reclaiming land from the sea, making more space for its 7.2 million people.这个地方以美妙的城市景观著称,天大楼比地球上任何地方都多。大多数居民住在十分狭小的公寓内,而这些公寓有很多建在成片的购物中心之上,购物中心又往往建在地铁站之上。因为面积大概只有卢森堡那么大,香港在持续填海造地,好为720万人口创造更多空间。But there is another side to this former British colony. A wild side. Most of Hong Kong is not an urban jungle, but rather a real one, teeming with monkeys, Burmese pythons, barking deer, wild boars and 14 types of venomous snakes (eight of which, including the king cobra, are lethal to humans). About three-quarters of the land here is countryside, mostly mountainous terrain and much of it protected as parkland.不过,这片英国的前殖民地还有另一面——野性的一面。香港大多数地方并不是都市森林,而是覆盖着真正的森林,里面栖居着很多野生动物,包括猴子、缅甸蟒蛇、麂、野猪和14种毒蛇(包括眼镜王蛇在内的八种可以致人死亡)。香港有四分之三的地方是郊野,大多是丘陵,而且有很多作为公共绿地保护了起来。Rice paddies once dotted the lowland areas, where for generations cattle and water buffalo plowed the swampy land. By the 1970s, when Hong Kong’s economic boom and soaring land prices made farming less attractive and uneconomical, most of the work animals were abandoned.那些低洼区域也曾点缀着片片稻田,人们用黄牛和水牛世代耕种着松软的湿地。至上世纪70年代,香港经济开始繁荣,土地价格飙升,务农变得越来越没有吸引力,又缺乏经济价值,大多数农畜遭到遗弃。They seem to have done just fine.不过,它们似乎过得也不错。As many as 1,000-odd feral bovines — mostly cattle but also water buffaloes — remain. While many make their homes deep inside the country parks, others live near people, grazing at bus stops, occasionally raiding gardens and blocking traffic.目前香港有1000多头野牛——大多数是黄牛,也有水牛。尽管它们当中很多在郊野公园深处找到了自己的家,但也有一些聚居在靠近人类的地方。它们会在出租车站附近吃草,偶尔还会突袭花园或造成交通堵塞。This month, an immense, horned water buffalo surprised students by running alongside them in a cross-country race. For many residents venturing outside the city’s urban core, cattle are the first wild animals they encounter.本月,正进行越野赛跑的学生,就意外地碰上一大群长角的水牛跟着他们一起跑。对于很多到城市核心区域之外的地方游玩的居民来说,牛往往是他们首先看到的野生动物。Animal-rights advocates say the cattle have helped bring a sea change in attitudes toward wildlife in recent years, both among the populace and the government. A decade ago, the animals’ future looked uncertain as developers, especially on Lantau Island, home to the city’s airport and Disneyland, pushed the government to remove them to clear land for new houses.动物权益倡导人士表示,最近几年,因为牛的存在,不管是民众还是政府,对野生动物的态度都大为改观。10年前,动物们的未来显得并不确定,因为开发商,尤其是香港机场和迪士尼乐园所在的大屿山岛上的开发商,竭力促使政府除掉野生动物,腾出地方建造新项目。Many cattle, which are not a protected species, were slaughtered, and the herds on the island were on the verge of being eliminated, said Ho Loy, who leads the Lantau Buffalo Association.大屿山爱护水牛协会负责人何来(Ho Loy)表示,由于牛不是保护物种,当时有许多被屠宰,岛上的牛群濒临灭绝。“It was just like a war,” said Ms. Ho, whose group seeks to preserve the island’s cattle and buffalo.“就像一场战争,”何来说。她领导的团体致力于保护大屿山的黄牛和水牛。Now, the Hong Kong government agency in charge of managing wildlife is working to preserve the cattle, monitoring their health, tagging them, tracking some with GPS collars, and performing selective sterilizations to keep their numbers in check. Since the agency, the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, set up its cattle management team in 2011, more than 300 animals have been sterilized, it said in an emailed response to questions.现在,负责管理野生动物的香港政府机构正努力保护牛群,检测它们的健康状况,给它们做标记,带上有GPS定位功能的项圈以追踪其活动。他们还会有选择地给牛做绝育,以控制种群规模。这一部门名为香港渔农自然护理署。通过邮件回答采访问题时,护理署表示,自2011年成立牛只管理队以来,他们已经给超过300头牛做了绝育。Volunteer groups like Ms. Ho’s, as well as similar organizations in other parts of Hong Kong, work closely with the government and the public to protect the animals and handle complaints.诸如大屿山爱护水牛协会这样的志愿团体,以及香港其他地区的类似机构,还和政府、公众紧密合作,保护动物,处理投诉问题。The beasts’ higher profile has given rise to a new breed of residents: urban cowgirls.野牛受关注程度的提高还催生了一种新的居民类型:都市女牛仔。Karina O’Carroll, 32, is one of them. As a founder of Sai Kung Buffalo Watch, she takes calls from the public at all hours, responding to reports of cattle blocking roads, and protests from people annoyed by piles of steaming cow patties. All in an effort to maintain bovine-human harmony.32岁的拉琳娜·欧卡罗尔(Karina O’Carroll)就是其中一员。作为西贡野牛观察(Sai Kung Buffalo Watch)机构的一名创始人,她会接听公众的来电,在接到有关野牛堵塞交通的报告,或被一堆堆热气腾腾的牛粪惹恼的人们的抱怨时,加以解决。这些都是为了实现人畜和谐共处。“We have gone to pick up poo to appease people,” she said, explaining to them that “it’s the best thing for your gardens and your plants.”“为了安抚人们的情绪,我们有去捡牛粪,”她说,还会向他们解释,“对你家的花园和植物来说,牛粪是最好的东西。”Ms. O’Carroll does not have a lasso. She has found that the best way to shoo cattle off the road is to jingle some car keys — they will move away from the sound. Failing that, splash them with water. And though she does not carry a six-shooter, she does on occasion fire antimaggot medication at their hindquarters.欧卡罗尔不用套索。她发现把牛从道路上赶走的最好的办法,是用车钥匙发出叮当的响声。它们听到那种声音就会离开。如果这个办法行不通,可以向它们撒一些水。尽管不曾用左轮手对付过这些动物,但她偶尔会向它们的臀部及后腿上喷防蛆剂。“They don’t like the sound of sprays,” she says. “You’ve got one shot, and then they’re gone.”“他们不喜欢喷雾器的声音,”她说。“你只要喷一下,它们就走了。”Ms. Ho is more of a cow whisperer, talking to the animals in a soothing voice to make them move off the roadway, out of harm’s way.何来则更像是一个牛语者,会以柔和的声音和动物们说话,让它们离开道路,免受伤害。Both women are helped by scores of volunteers, as interest in the cattle grows. The government now sees the animals as less of a nuisance and more of a tourist attraction.随着人们对牛群的兴趣增大,不少志愿者前来帮助二人做这些工作。政府现在更多地把这些动物看做吸引旅游的元素,而不是把它们当作麻烦。“The department recognizes that the cattle and buffalo are part of the heritage of rural Hong Kong and that it brings pleasure to visitors and locals alike to see these animals in a natural environment,” the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department says on its website.“本署认同黄牛及水牛是本港农村生活历史遗产的其中一部分,本地和外地游客亦乐于见到它们在自然环境中活动,”渔农自然护理署在其网站上表示。Cows are far and away the most common wild animal seen in Hong Kong, but encounters with other creatures also take place as the city expands and people venture into the wilderness.牛无疑是香港最常见的野生动物,远远超出其他物种。但随着城市扩大,以及人类的活动范围深入郊野,和其他动物相遇的情况也时有发生。In May, a wild boar entered a shopping mall on Hong Kong Island, rampaging through a children’s store before being tranquilized and returned to the wild. The next month, a 12-foot python had to be removed from a village grave site where it had taken residence. Families hiking in the wilderness have been known to lose a family dog to a python’s stranglehold.今年5月,一头野猪闯进港岛一家商场,在一间儿童商店里横冲直闯,之后被麻醉并送回野外。6月,一座村子不得不从墓地移走了一条盘踞在那里的12英尺长巨蟒。有一家人在旷野徒步时,一只宠物被巨蟒缠绕勒死。Last month, more than a dozen macaque monkeys took over a school playground, forcing students to move inside while animal control officials tried to remove the primates. Eventually one, lured by a banana, was caught in a cage, prompting the others to retreat, local news media reported.上个月,十几只猕猴占领了一所学校的运动场,学生们不得不回到室内,等待管控动物的官员驱散这群灵长目生物。据当地新闻媒体报道,最终一只猴子受不了香蕉引诱,被关进了笼子,其他猴子才撤离了运动场。Hong Kong’s thriving wild fauna stands in sharp contrast to the rest of China. From 1970 to 2010, the population of reptiles and amphibians fell 97 percent in China, while the mammal populations — humans excepted — fell 50 percent during the same period, according to a study released this month by the World Wide Fund for Nature.野生动物在香港的生机勃勃,与中国其他地区形成了鲜明的对比。世界自然基金会(WWF)本月公布的一项研究显示,从1970年到2010年,中国爬行动物和两栖动物的总量下降了97%,而哺乳动物数量——人类除外——在同一时期下降了50%。Cattle here are bucking that trend. Their numbers on Lantau Island have more than tripled in recent years, Ms. Ho estimates.香港的牛群则逆势增长。据何来估计,近年来大屿山的牛只数量增加了两倍多。Feral cattle, which do not meet the government’s definition of wild animals, do not enjoy government protection. In Hong Kong, killing or possessing a wild Burmese python, fox, squirrel, monkey or any bird subjects violators to a fine of as much as ,900 and up to a year in prison.野牛不符合政府对野生动物的定义,并未受到政府保护。在香港,猎杀或拥有野生缅甸蟒蛇、狐狸、松鼠、猴子或任何鸟类会被处以至多10万港元(约合人民币8万元)的罚款、最高一年的监禁。But these days, few people set out to harm the animals, and though Ms. O’Carroll and her colleagues fear that cattle rustlers from mainland China could spirit whole herds away on boats in the dead of night, so far that does not appear to have happened.但现如今,几乎没有人会做出伤害动物的行为,不过欧卡罗尔和同事们担心,来自中国大陆的偷牛贼可能会在夜深人静的时候把整群牛带上船运走。但这样的事情至今并没有出现过。Instead, more people seem to enjoy just having them around as a living reminder of Hong Kong’s bucolic past.更多的人似乎喜欢野牛在周围流连,因为这是一个生动的提醒,令人想起香港昔日的田园风情。“They’re part of our community,” Ms. O’Carroll said. “They have to stay. They were here before a lot of us.”“它们是我们社群的一部分,必须留下来。它们比我们很多人来这里的时间都早,”欧卡罗尔说。 /201511/412021

Chinese manufacturers reported sluggish business for a seventh month in a row, with a PMI ing for February which was worse than expected. 2月份,中国制造业采购经理人指数(PMI)逊于预期,显示出制造业已连续7个月陷于低迷。 The official manufacturing PMI for February came in at 49, compared to economists’ expectations of 49.4. It was 49.4 in January. 2月份的官方制造业PMI为49,比经济学家预期的49.4要低。1月份的制造业PMI为49.4。 The ing means the manufacturing sector has been shrinking for the past seven months. It is the lowest ing since November 2011, when it was also 49. 该读数意味着,中国制造业过去7个月一直处于收缩状态。该读数是2011年11月以来的最低读数,当时的读数也是49。 China recorded its weakest growth in a quarter of a century last year at 6.9 per cent. 去年,中国经济增长率为6.9%,是25年来的最低水平。 On Monday the central bank also opted for more easing, cutting the reserve ratio – or the share of customer deposits that banks must hold on reserve – to boost the availability of cheap credit to consumers and companies. It was also reported than almost 2m Chinese coal and steel workers will lose their jobs because of government policies to cut overcapacity, the majority of them likely to be in state-owned enterprises. 周一,中国央行决定进一步放松货币政策,下调了商业存款准备金率,以便让消费者和企业更容易获得廉价信贷。另有报道称,由于政府出台政策去除产能过剩,将近200万中国煤炭和钢铁工人将失去工作,其中大部分很可能都是国企工人。 The services PMI was 52.7, compared to a previous ing of 53.5. 中国官方务业PMI为52.7,前值为53.5。 The Caixin-sponsored composite PMI for February came in at 48, below expectations for 48.4. It had been 48.4 in January. 2月份,财新(Caixin)中国制造业PMI为48,比预期值48.4要低,1月份的读数为48.4。 The 50-mark separates contraction from expansion. The ing means the sector has been shrinking for a whole year now, and was its lowest in five months. 50为收缩与扩张的分水岭。2月份的财新PMI读数为5个月来的低点,而且意味着中国制造业过去一整年始终处于收缩状态。 The survey also noted that staff numbers declined at the sharpest rate since January 2009, as companies downsized to cut costs and did not replace voluntary leavers. 财新的调查还指出,随着企业压缩规模以节省成本,加上不再填补自愿离职员工的空缺,用工数量降至2009年1月以来最低。 He Fan, economist at Caixin Insight, said: The index ings for all key categories including output, new orders and employment signalled that conditions worsened, in line with signs that the economy’s road to stability remains bumpy. The government needs to press ahead with reforms, while adopting moderate stimulus policies and strengthening support of the economy in other ways to prevent it from falling off a cliff. 财新智库(Caixin Insight)首席经济学家何帆认为,2月财新中国制造业PMI中,产出、新订单、就业等关键分项指标均有所下探,表明中国经济仍处于反复震荡的探底阶段。当前阶段,政府应在继续推进改革的基础上,适度采取经济刺激政策,加大托底政策力度,避免经济出现断崖式下跌,引发经济动荡。 /201603/429557

MANITOWOC, Wis. —— In the tourism office here, where workers are accustomed to cheery inquiries about Manitowoc County’s best jogging paths and beach views, the questions have suddenly turned dark: How could you possibly promote tourism in such a corrupt town? Why would anyone visit here?威斯康星州马尼托瓦克县——这里旅游局的工作人员早已习惯了各种兴致勃勃的查询:哪里是马尼托瓦克最好的慢跑小路?哪里又是最美的沙滩?但是近来这些询问却忽然变成了令人压抑的质问:如此腐败的一个小镇,你们怎么还可能想吸引游客来旅游?怎么会有人想到这里来游玩?Fury — by telephone, email and on social media — has also flooded the Manitowoc County Sheriff’s Department, the Manitowoc City Police Department, Manitowoc City Hall and pretty much anywhere else with the name Manitowoc attached to it.马尼托瓦克县警局、马尼托瓦克市警察局、马尼托瓦克市政厅,以及所有带有马尼托瓦克这个字样的部门,都被愤怒的电话、电子邮件和社交媒体所淹没。Even the Manitowoc County Historical Society’s executive director, Amy Meyer, has taken to answering the phones so that volunteers — better prepared for gentler inquiries about the region’s history of shipbuilding and its claims to creating the ice cream sundae — do not have to hear “all that yelling, cussing and swearing.” A recent post on the historical society’s Facebook page , “Too bad your history includes ruining two innocent peoples’ lives.”马尼托瓦克县历史协会的志愿者们本来准备好回答的,是该地区的造船史,或者圣代冰淇凌究竟是否是他们发明的这一类问题。为了不让他们听到所有那些“叫嚷、咒骂和脏话”,历史协会执行董事艾米·迈耶(Amy Meyer)只好亲自上阵接听电话。最近,在历史协会的Facebook网页上甚至贴出了这样一个帖子,说:“你们的历史糟透了,你们毁掉了两个无辜之人的生活。”The release last month of a Netflix documentary series, “Making a Murderer,” about a decade-old murder case, has upended this county of about 80,000 along Lake Michigan.上个月,Netflix播放了一个系列纪录片《制造谋杀犯》(Making a Murderer),讲述了一个10年前的谋杀案。它彻底搅乱了这个密西根湖边县城里8万人的生活。Ten years ago, when I first came here, Steven Avery, the county resident now at the center of 10 Netflix episodes over more than 10 hours, had been arrested on suspicion of murder a few days before.这个10集纪录片总长达10个多小时。主人公是本县居民史蒂芬·艾佛里(Steven Avery)。10年前,我第一次来到这里时,艾佛里先生刚在几天之前因为涉嫌谋杀被逮捕。Mr. Avery’s past was what drew me to Manitowoc in November 2005: For months, he had been held up in Wisconsin as a symbol of everything wrong with the justice system, having served 18 years in prison for a sexual assault that DNA evidence later linked to a different man.那是2005年11月,我正是为了艾佛里先生的事而来。他曾经因为一桩性侵案蹲了18年的监狱,但是新的DNA据表明案犯另有其人。那几个月里,在威斯康星州他简直成了司法系统所有过失的代名词。After Mr. Avery was released in the sexual assault, and as he was pursuing a million lawsuit against the county officials who had wrongly sent him to prison, he was charged in the murder of Teresa Halbach, a 25-year-old photographer who had come to take pictures at his family’s auto salvage yard for Auto Trader magazine.艾佛里先生从性侵案获释之后,开始追诉县政府官员误判的责任,提出了3600万美元的补偿要求。恰当此时,25岁的摄影师特雷莎·海尔巴赫(Teresa Halbach)来到他的废车场为汽车贸易杂志《Auto Trader》拍照,却被人杀害。艾佛里先生因此再次以谋杀罪遭到起诉。Back then, as I drove to the county seat and along the stark, rural stretches closer to the salvage yard, I found a close-knit community in mourning over a young woman’s death and an array of Avery supporters stunned by the turn of events.那时,我沿着废车场附近荒凉的乡间小路驱车前往县城,在那里等着我的是一个人际交往十分密切的社区。人们都沉浸在那个年轻女士之死的悲痛之中,而那些持艾佛里先生的人则为事件的突然转折而大感震惊。A pair of graduate student filmmakers in New York the article I wrote and devoted the next decade to what became the Netflix series. In the end, Mr. Avery and his nephew Brendan Dassey, 16 at the time of Ms. Halbach’s death, were convicted in the killing — an outcome that some who watched the series were convinced was one more example of the justice system’s failure.两个在纽约学习摄影的研究生看到了我的报道之后,花了10年的时间,制作了这个Netflix系列纪录片。艾佛里先生和他当时16岁的侄子布兰顿·达西(Brendan Dassey),最终在这个谋杀案中被判定为有罪。对于一些看过这个Netflix纪录片的人来说,这个结局再一次明了我们这个司法体系的失败。Here, many of the people who had watched the case play out in real time with intensive local news media coverage largely considered it settled. But with a far broader audience now ravenously consuming the filmmakers’ take and raising pointed questions about whether those convicted were guilty, and whether the local authorities planted evidence and mishandled the investigation, a barrage of social media posts and calls is forcing Manitowoc to look back.当时,当地媒体对这个案子作了详尽的报道,因此,许多居民亲历了此案从头至尾的过程。对他们来说,这个案子已经尘埃落定了。然而,电影人的视角引起了更为广泛的观众对此案的热切关注。他们提出了许多尖锐的问题:这些被定罪之人是否真的有罪?当地权威机构是否有制造假或者调查处理不当之嫌?汹涌而来的社交媒体及电话迫使马尼托瓦克县重新审视这个案件。“We lived through this 10 years ago,” Jason Ring, the president of the Manitowoc Area Visitor and Convention Bureau, said from a counter covered in maps and brochures.“10年以前我们就亲身经历了这个案子。”马尼托瓦克地区旅游会展局局长杰森·林(Jason Ring)站在铺满地图和旅游手册的柜台之后说道。“We made our judgment, and the trial came to an end, and locally most people were in support of that,” Mr. Ring said. “Now it’s back — by no choosing or no doing of anyone in this community.”“我们已经做了判决,这案子已经结了。本地多数居民对案件结果也没有什么争议。”林先生说,“现在,由不得我们,这个案件却又重新被翻出来了。”“So that’s the first point of injustice,” he added. “That we have to live through it again.”“我们不得不再次经历一遍这件事情,”他接着说,“这就是头一点不公平的地方。”In downtown Manitowoc, the county seat, the talkative, curious people I had come upon a decade earlier were no longer surprised — or the least bit pleased — to see yet another reporter. Many avoided any talk about “Making a Murderer,” or simply spotted my notebook and walked away. The mayor declined to be interviewed. Business owners refused to discuss it: One said she had online about a call for a protest in the town, and she was worried about safety.10年前,在马尼托瓦克市中心,县政府所在地,我遇到的人对我的出现都充满好奇,很愿意和我交谈。而今,我只不过是接踵而来的众多记者之一。人们对我的到来毫不惊奇,且大感不快。很多人根本不愿意谈论《制造谋杀犯》,更有甚者,有人一看到我的手提电脑就转身走开。市长谢绝了我的采访。商户们拒绝讨论这个话题。一个商人告诉我,她在网上看到有人提议在市中心举行示威抗议,她对自己的安全表示担忧。“Look, we lived this whole thing like a juror,” Suszanne Fox, who lives not far from here, told me as she ate a burger at the Fat Seagull. “He was guilty as sin.”“你看,我们几乎和陪审团成员一样,从头到尾经历了这个案子的审判。”住在附近的苏珊娜·福克斯(Suszanne Fox)在肥海鸥餐馆一边吃汉堡一边对我说, “他绝对是有罪的。”Many viewers of “Making a Murderer” do not agree. Hundreds of thousands of people signed petitions asking President Obama to pardon Mr. Avery and Mr. Dassey, to which the White House has responded that the president cannot issue pardons in state cases. And Gov. Scott Walker has long pledged to issue no pardons while in office.看过《制造谋杀犯》的许多观众却不会同意这个说法。成百上千的观众在给奥巴马总统申请赦免艾佛里先生和达西先生的请愿书上签了名。白宫回答说:因为这是州立案件而非联邦案件,总统无权赦免。而州长斯科特·瓦克尔(Scott Walker)则早已宣布,只要他在州长办公室一天,就不会签发赦免令。The series left viewers with unrelenting questions: Did Mr. Avery’s civil lawsuit for his wrongful sexual assault conviction motivate the Manitowoc County authorities to plant evidence against him in the second case, for murder? How was it that an old sample of Mr. Avery’s blood, which was found in the victim’s car, appeared to be tampered with while in the care of the authorities? Should Mr. Dassey, at his young age and with a limited intellect, have been questioned alone by investigators? Was his appointed lawyer working against his cause?这套系列片给观众留下了一些无法释怀的问题:艾佛里先生对马尼托瓦克县提出了性侵案错判的民事诉讼,这是否引起了县当局在之后的谋杀案中制造假的动机?由检方保管的在受害人汽车中找到的艾佛里先生的血样,为什么似乎被人动了手脚?达西先生当年年幼并且智力有问题,在律师不在场的情况下,被调查方单独询问是否合理?官方指派给达西先生的律师,是否完全没有代表他的利益?But Ken Kratz, who prosecuted the cases against Mr. Avery and Mr. Dassey, said the series was one-sided and omitted significant pieces of evidence, including DNA from Mr. Avery on the latch under the hood of Ms. Halbach’s Toyota RAV4, found in the Averys’ auto salvage yard.这个案子的公诉人肯·克拉兹(Ken Kratz)认为,这个系列片是片面的,它漏掉了许多重要的据,其中之一是哈尔巴赫女士的丰田RAV4车盖挂钩上的艾佛里先生的DNA。这个丰田车当时是在艾佛里废车场找到的。“It’s not a documentary at all; it’s an advocacy piece,” Mr. Kratz said in a telephone interview from New York, where he said he was being put up at the Waldorf Astoria while taking part in television newsmagazine interviews in the wake of the Netflix series.“这根本不是什么纪录片;它是一个宣传片。”克拉兹在一个电话访谈中这样说道。他说在这个Netflix系列片上映之后,他被安排在纽约华尔道夫酒店(Waldorf Astoria),接受各种电视杂志的访谈。Since the trial, Mr. Kratz went into private practice after a text messaging scandal in 2010 and a prescription drug addiction in which, he said, he “pretty much lost everything.” His business line now rings endlessly. “I guess it’s a concerted effort to shut down my office,” he said.自那个案件以后,克拉兹先生于2010年卷入一场手机短信丑闻。后来,又因对处方药成瘾,用他自己的话说,他“几乎失去了一切”.他不再担任公职,而是开办了自己的私人事务所。现在,他的业务电话整天响个不停。他说:“看来他们是合起伙来想让我关张呀。”Sheriff Robert C. Hermann of Manitowoc County, who was the undersheriff at the time of the Avery case, said his office had gotten emails and voice mail messages calling the department corrupt.马尼托瓦克县警长罗伯特·C·赫尔曼(Robert C. Hermann)在艾佛里案时是副警长。他说他的办公室收到了一些电子邮件和电话留言,指责警局的腐败。“It’s not how Manitowoc wants to be put on the map,” Sheriff Hermann said. He said he had few regrets, though he wished, given all he knows now, that only officials from a nearby sheriff’s office, without Manitowoc’s perceived conflicts, had held any role in the investigation.“我不希望公众这样看待马尼托瓦克。”赫尔曼警长说。他认为他们并没有做错什么。尽管现在看来,当时这个案件如果全部交给在公众眼中没有利害关系的隔壁警局来调查就好了。The filmmakers, Laura Ricciardi and Moira Demos, say they believe their series accurately portrayed the essential arguments the prosecutors made. The point, they said in a telephone interview, was to look at the Manitowoc cases as a window into the American justice system.导演劳拉·里恰尔迪(Laura Ricciardi)和莫伊拉·德莫(Moira Demos)相信她们的片子准确传达了公诉方的基本论。在电话访谈中她们表示,本片的目的是通过马尼托瓦克案件这个窗口来审视美国的司法系统。“We have empathy for Manitowoc because we know that people have been reaching out in unkind ways and posting things about the city and the county,” Ms. Ricciardi said. “That’s an unfortunate response, because we have always wanted the series to be constructive, not destructive.”“我们能体会马尼托瓦克人的心情,我们知道他们受到了一些不友好的对待,在网上也收到了一些对他们县市的攻击。” 里恰尔迪女士说,“这真是很遗憾,我们本意是希望这套系列片带来的反应是建设性的,而非破坏性的。”Mr. Avery, now 53, and Mr. Dassey, now 26, have not seen the series, their lawyers said. Prisoners do not get Netflix. But as Mr. Dassey awaits a federal court decision on claims that his confession was coerced and that he had a right to a lawyer who would mount a defense, Netflix viewers have barraged him with letters of support, said his lawyer, Laura Nirider of the Center on Wrongful Convictions of Youth at Northwestern University.据律师说,现年53岁的艾佛里先生和26岁的达西先生没有看过这套纪录片。监狱犯人是看不到Netflix的。达西先生提出了一项申述,声称他的自首是被逼迫的,他当时有权让律师在场。他目前正在等待联邦法院对这一申诉的判决。达西先生的律师劳拉·尼里德尔(Laura Nirider)说,他收到了大批来自Netflix观众的持信件。尼里德尔目前在西北大学(Northwestern University)青年冤案中心工作(Center on Wrongful Convictions of Youth)。“He is incredibly hopeful for the first time that when people hear the name Brendan Dassey, they don’t think of a murderer, they think of someone who has been wronged,” she said.“他有生以来头一次充满了无限的希望,相信当人们听到布兰顿·达西这个名字时,想到的不再是一个谋杀犯,而是一个被冤枉的人。”她说。And a new lawyer, Kathleen T. Zellner, well known for taking on wrongful conviction cases, has since signed on to handle Mr. Avery’s next legal step.艾佛里先生也新请了一名律师凯瑟琳·T·泽尔纳(Kathleen T. Zellner),来处理他的下一步法律事务。泽尔纳女士以处理冤案申诉而闻名。At the auto salvage yard, along dead-end Avery Road, tiny, jittery dogs watch from a green trailer where Dolores Avery, Mr. Avery’s mother, says she is too tired for more interviews. Years ago, I sat with her, her husband and a brother in the living room here as they insisted that Mr. Avery was being railroaded for a second time.在艾佛里路尽头的废车场里,一群小在绿色的拖车里不安地张望。艾佛里先生的母亲多洛雷斯·艾佛里(Dolores Avery)表示,她已经无力再做更多访谈了。多年前,我曾经和她、她的丈夫和一个兄弟一起坐在客厅里,那时他们坚称,艾佛里先生再次受到了不公平的审判。Standing in her doorway this month, Ms. Avery, a constant presence in the series, said she hoped people now saw “the crooked things the county has done” to her family.现在,在纪录片中多次出现的艾佛里女士站在自家门廊,表示她希望大家终于能看到这个县对她家人所做的“一切不公”。But all the renewed talk, the calls for interviews from around the world? “I’m too old for this,” she said. “It’s too much.”但是,对于旧话重提以及追逐而来的全球记者的采访要求,她又有什么感觉呢?她说:“我实在是太老了。受不了这些了。”Recently, tourists have been spotted on the property, with its row after row of forgotten, snow-topped cars, stopping in front of the yellow and black Avery’s Auto Salvage amp; 24 Hour Towing sign to snap selfies.近来,在她家地盘上时常能见到一些旅游者。他们在那些成排的、白雪覆盖的废弃汽车前流连,在黄黑相间的“艾佛里废车场,24小时拖车”的标志前驻足自拍。 /201602/426532Premature deaths from air pollution are costing the global economy .1tn annually, or roughly twice the economic output of the UK, with more than half of that burden falling on China and other developing economies in Asia, according to a study.根据一项研究,空气污染导致的过早死亡每年给全球经济带来5.1万亿美元的代价,大约两倍于英国经济产出,而其中逾半负担落在中国和亚洲其他发展中经济体身上。The estimates released yesterday by the World Bank for the first time put a welfare cost on the toll from indoor and outdoor air pollution and highlight how it has soared over the past quarter of a century, as developing economies have rapidly industrialised.世界(World Bank)昨日公布的估计首次对室内和室外空气污染造成的人类福祉代价进行了估算,并突显出,随着发展中经济体迅速工业化,这项代价在过去四分之一个世纪出现飙升。They also illustrate the scale of the environmental challenge confronting those countries as they seek to address chronic air pollution.这些估算还展示了相关国家在寻求应对长期空气污染时面对的环境挑战的艰巨性。An estimated 5.5m lives were lost to diseases associated with air pollution in 2013, the latest year for which global data are available. 据估计,2013年(可获得全球数据的最近一年)有550万人死于与空气污染有关的疾病。More than 90 per cent of the premature deaths occurred in developing countries, with young children especially badly affected.90%以上的过早死亡病例发生在发展中国家,幼童受到特别严重的影响。Exposure to air pollution increases a person’s risk of illnesses such as lung cancer, stroke, heart disease and bronchitis. 暴露于空气污染会增加一个人患病(如肺癌、中风、心脏疾病和气管炎)的风险。Those diseases, and deaths from them, also carry a rising economic cost according to the study, conducted by the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in Seattle.由世行联手西雅图健康指标和评估研究所(Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation)进行的这项研究显示,这些疾病及其造成的死亡还导致越来越高的经济成本。In 1990 there were .6tn in welfare losses from air pollution globally (in 2011 dollar terms, adjusted for purchasing power parity), with east Asia accounting for about a quarter. 1990年,全球空气污染造成的福祉损失达到2.6万亿美元(以2011年美元计算,经购买力平价调整),东亚占其中大约四分之一。Since then, the rise of China has contributed to a surge in air pollution in east Asia leading to a more than quintupling of the cost for that region to .3tn in 2013.自那以来,中国的经济崛起导致东亚空气污染激增,导致2013年该地区的损失增至2.3万亿美元,达到原有水平的五倍。This extracts a sizeable economic toll. 这造成了相当大的经济代价。In both east Asia and south Asia, the cost of deaths from air pollution was equivalent to more than 7 per cent of regional economic output in 2013.在东亚和南亚,空气污染造成的死亡的成本在2013年相当于地区经济产出的7%以上。Urvashi Narain, who led the World Bank team that assembled the report, said that while there had been some evidence of success globally in reducing household air pollution, the problem of outdoor air pollution was growing.编制报告的世行团队的负责人乌尔瓦什#8226;纳拉因(Urvashi Narain)表示,尽管有一些据显示,全球在减少家庭空气污染方面取得了一些成功,但室外空气污染的问题越来越大。China has declared a war on pollution. 中国已经向污染宣战。We’ve seen action from India as well. 我们也看到印度采取了行动。But at the same time we also see mentions of London and Paris as cities where this concern still exists, she said. It is such a widesp problem.但与此同时我们也看到伦敦和巴黎被列入依然存在这种担忧的城市,她表示,这是一个如此普遍的问题。 /201609/465865

According to a draft of standards published on the Ministry of Transport#39;s website, drivers providing online ride-hailing services are banned from cruising on the street for customers, or queuing at taxi ranks near airports or train stations, unless they have express permission.根据交通部官网近日发布的一项规范草案,提供网约车务的驾驶员不得上街巡游揽客,未经许可不得在机场、火车站附近的出租车候客区排队。Cars engaged in online ride-hailing services should be better equipped than regular taxis, ideally providing wireless Internet, phone chargers and tissues, and ensure a satisfaction rate of at least 80%, according to the draft.草案规定,网约车的设施配置应高于普通出租车,宜提供无线网络、手机充电器和纸巾,并确保乘客满意率在80%以上。Due to safety concerns, the database of the drivers#39; biometric information will be established. It also suggested a minimum 10-minute wait when either driver or passenger is late.由于安全问题,有关司机的生物特征信息数据库也将建立。草案还建议,乘客或司机未按时到达时,等候时间应不少于10分钟。;All these measures are meant to differentiate online ride-hailing services from traditional taxis,; said Cheng Guohua, a researcher from the ministry who participated in the making of the draft, in an interview with Beijing News.该部门负责起草该草案的一名名叫程国华的研究人员在接受《新京报》采访时表示:“所有的这些措施都是意在区分在线约车务和传统出租车。”But some observers are concerned that the new standards will mean that many drivers who currently provide services through online ride-hailing platforms such as Didi and Uber will be unable to do so in the future.不过,一些观察人士担忧新规意味着许多现在通过滴滴、优步等网约车平台提供务的司机今后将无法接单。The draft is now out for public consultation until the end of this month.草案目前正公开征求意见,意见征集至本月末。 /201608/460082Beijing on Thursday released two draft regulations that use a points system to allow people who have worked and lived in Beijing for years to obtain a permanent residential permit, a long-coveted status that will ensure cheaper education and better access to expensive resources.北京周四公布两项草案,拟实行户口积分制度,允许常年在北京工作居住的人们获得永久居住,以获得更便宜的教育资源,更多机会接触到昂贵的资源。If the new rules are approved, the scheme will theoretically give everyone who has lived in Beijing long enough an equal chance to get the much desired hukou, or household registration.若新规定通过,所有长期居住北京的人都将有可能得到北京户口或居住。This would put an end to the existing system, in which mainly employees of government agencies or State-owned enterprises can apply according to an annual a.这将终止现有体系,在这种体制下,政府机构和国企只能按每年固定指标为员工上户。However, analysts said that the drafts, released three days after the city unveiled its 13th Five-Year Plan (2015-20) that vows to limit the population to under 23 million, are actually designed to ensure population control and ;optimize; population structure at a time when the capital city is struggling with congestion and shortages of water and other resources.分析员指出,这两份草案在北京十三五计划出台三天后发布,计划承诺将人口控制在2300万,草案将有效控制人口,优化人口结构。此时,北京正饱受拥挤与资源短缺的危害。The draft, released by the Beijing government on its official website, states that people from outside Beijing can apply for a permanent hukou if they are under 45, have made social security contributions for at least seven years, meet family planning policy regulations and have no criminal record in Beijing.草案由北京政府在其官方网站发布,称申请人参加积分落户应同时符合下列条件:年龄不超过45周岁;在京连续缴纳社会保险7年及以上;符合北京市计划生育政策;无违法犯罪记录。The drafts said that this is an effort to bring convenience to residents in Beijing who come from outside the city, protect their interests, promote the ;harmonious development; of population, resources, environment, economy and society.该草案旨在为来自其他城市的北京居民带来方便,保护其利益,推动人口、资源、环境、经济、社会和谐发展。There has been public outcry online, with many people commenting that the threshold is too high, as many of the points are difficult to obtain. Shanghai and Guangzhou have aly adopted a points-based system. According to the experience of Shanghai and Guangzhou, implementing the points-based system won’t lead to more people hurtling into Beijing, as the standard in Beijing is even higher.网民称该政策门槛过高,很难拿到足够积分。上海与广州已落实户口积分政策。根据上海与北京的经验,积分政策不会促使更多人涌入北京,由于积分政策门槛之高。 /201512/415355Pork prices in China are at record levels even after Beijing pledged to decant some of its reserves on to the market this week in an attempt to tamp down the cost of the staple protein.即便在北京方面本周承诺将部分储备冻猪肉投放市场以平抑肉价之后,中国猪肉价格仍处于创纪录水平。猪肉是中国人摄取蛋白质的主要来源之一。When it comes to pig meat, China leads the world in terms of both supply and demand. But the swelling ranks of the middle class have put pork on more dinner tables every year — and driven up inflation.在猪肉供给和需求方面,中国都处于世界领先水平。但不断壮大的中产阶层使中国的猪肉消费量逐年上升,推高了通胀水平。In March pork was singled out after prices rose 28.4 per cent year-on-year, contributing 0.64 percentage points to headline inflation of 2.3 per cent.今年3月,猪肉价格如脱缰野马同比上涨28.4%,为2.3%的整体通胀率贡献了0.64个百分点。China, home to the world’s biggest foreign currency reserves, also keeps a trove of other commodities at the y, including oil, grain and pork.中国拥有世界最大外汇储备,同时也大量储备其他大宗商品,包括石油、谷物和猪肉。However, its stocks are seen as negligible compared with annual consumption: last year a US Department of Agriculture report described the market impact of the government’s stock purchasing programme as “insignificant”, noting it “generates more of a psychological effect than an actual market impact”.然而,与中国的年消费量相比,这些储备可忽略不计:美国农业部去年发布的一份报告将中国政府储备收购计划对市场的影响形容为“微不足道”,并指出这项计划“在更大程度上产生的是心理效应,而非实际市场影响”。That is cold comfort for policymakers, as the spot price for a kilo of pork in China has surpassed the 2011 peak thanks to a dearth of breeding sows and growing domestic consumption that have driven record imports of Chinese consumers’ favourite meat from foreign farms.这对政策制定者不是什么安慰。中国猪肉现货价格已经超过了2011年的峰值,能繁母猪存栏量不足和日益增加的国内消费使得中国消费者最钟爱的猪肉的进口量达到创纪录水平。Spot pork prices in China hit Rmb20.9/kg on Wednesday, up 4.5 per cent from the previous week’s starting level of Rmb20 and up 24.4 per cent for the year to date.周三,中国现货猪肉价格达到了每公斤20.9元人民币,较上一周每公斤20元人民币的价格上涨了4.5%,今年迄今涨幅高达24.4%。That is feeding through to shops and diners. The average wholesale price for a kilo of pork in China rose to Rmb26.45 for the week ended Friday, up 0.8 per cent on the week, according to the Ministry of Agriculture. Even that was short of the average price for pork belly meat in 50 Chinese cities compiled by the National Bureau of Statistics, which had hit a record Rmb32.12 as of the week of April 15.猪肉价格上涨直接影响到了商家和食客。根据中国农业部数据,截至上周五,中国猪肉的平均批发价涨至每公斤26.45元人民币,一周上涨0.8%。这还不到中国国家统计局(NBS)汇编的中国50个城市猪五花肉的平均价格——在截至4月15日的那周创下每公斤32.12元人民币的高点。On Tuesday the Beijing municipal government unveiled an unprecedented release of 3.05m kg of frozen pork reserve into the capital’s market over a month starting this Thursday in an attempt to lower prices it said had risen 50.6 per cent month on month, according to state news agency Xinhua.据官方的新华社报道,北京市政府周二宣布,将在从本周四开始的一个月内向北京市场投放305万公斤储备冻猪肉,以图平抑官方所称的50.6%的环比价格涨幅。这是北京市政府首次向市场投放储备冻猪肉。Beijing will also provide subsidies of up to Rmb9 per kg of pork to vendors. Subsidies will also be used to encourage 20 per cent more pigs to be slaughtered during the same period.北京还将向猪肉供应商提供每公斤最高达9元的补贴。同期补贴措施还将被用于鼓励将生猪屠宰量提升20%。The real constraint on policymakers’ ability to rein in prices is the limited breeding capacity of China’s hog farms.政策制定者抑制肉价能力的真正制约在于中国养猪场有限的繁殖能力。By as early as March 2015 the US Department of Agriculture was forecasting China’s swine herd would decline to 420m due to the exit of small-scale operations, a lack of government incentives, high feed prices and disease outbreaks that prompted farmers to cull their herds.早在2015年3月,美国农业部就预测,中国的生猪存栏量将下降至4.2亿头,原因包括小规模养殖户的退出、缺乏政府激励、饲料价格高企以及疾病爆发导致农民屠宰生猪。At last count in January, China’s total stock of sows was just shy of 38m, down from a peak of more than 50m in late 2012.根据今年1月的最新统计,中国母猪总存栏量只有不到3800万头,远低于2012年底逾5000万头的峰值。As a result, imports are surging, up 90 per cent in the year to end-March to a record 286,093 metric tonnes, according to figures from the General Administration of Customs — still a sliver of total pork consumption nationwide, which last year came in at more than 57bn tonnes.其结果是进口激增。根据中国海关总署(General Administration of Customs)数据,在截至3月底的一年里,猪肉进口增幅达90%,达到创纪录的28.6093万吨,但这仍只占中国猪肉总消费量(去年达到5700多万吨)的很小一部分。 /201605/441553

India#39;s capital, laboring under the label of being the world#39;s most polluted city, is trying something new to help clean up its air.深受“世界上污染最严重的城市”这一头衔困扰的印度首都新德里,最近出台新举措净化空气质量。A smartphone application that allows residents to report the presence of construction dust or the burning of leaves and garbage in New Delhi#39;s public parks to authorities was launched Friday.该市于10月21日推出一款智能手机应用,鼓励居民通过此软件向政府机构举报施工扬尘和公园中的树叶垃圾焚烧等污染现象。The ;Hawa Badlo,; or ;Change the Air,; app has two versions. One allows people to take pictures of likely pollutants. The other allows authorities to investigate and act on valid complaints.这款名为“改善空气质量”的应用分两种版本。一种版本为民众版本,可上传污染物图片;另一种版本为官方版本,用来开展调查并处理正当投诉。Over the last few years, New Delhi has struggled with ways to handle the pollution, which becomes especially obvious during the colder winter months as the city#39;s air turns to a gray haze.过去几年中,新德里为应对空气污染采取了多种措施,尤其当较冷的冬季月份来临,整个城市被灰色雾霾所笼罩时,当地政府更是费尽心思。The newest measure, the phone app, was launched by the Environmental Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority, a monitoring group set up on the order of India#39;s Supreme Court in April.新推出的这款手机应用由环境污染(预防与控制)推出,印度最高法院于今年四月份下令成立此监督机构。Over the last two years, the government has tried a slew of measures to control the air pollution, including stricter emission norms for cars and a tax on diesel-fueled trucks that enter the city.新德里政府在过去两年里采取了大量措施控制空气污染,包括出台更严格的汽车尾气排放标准,对进入城市的柴油卡车征税等。New Delhi also has attempted to limit the number of cars during the winter months, when the air quality is at its worst. Twice the city had a two-week period in which cars were allowed on the roads only on even or odd days, depending on the vehicle#39;s license plate number.新德里也曾试着在空气质量最差的冬季限制出行的车辆数量。曾两次实行为期两周的车牌尾号单双号限行政策。 /201610/474209CARDIFF, Wales — With thunderous roars and flashes of blue light, an electric arc furnace at a steel mill in this industrial city melts 170 tons of scrap metal at a time, which is made into reinforcing bars for construction projects across Britain.威尔士加的夫——伴随着雷鸣般的响声和蓝色闪光,在这个工业城市的一座钢铁厂里,电弧炉一次可以融化170吨废铁,将它们制成英国各地建设项目所需的钢筋。The furnace, decked out with all the latest gear, helps keep costs down by relying on local scrap instead of imported materials. It was part of a broad 0 million investment plan to make the steel mill competitive and profitable.这座电弧炉拥有各种最新装备,使用当地废钢铁而非进口材料,有助于降低成本。这是一个综合投资计划的一部分。整个计划规模达5亿美元,旨在提升这家钢铁厂的竞争力和赢利能力。But China has stymied the strategy.然而,中国让这个计划搁浅了。The steel mill, owned by the privately held Celsa Group of Spain, just cannot compete with Chinese rivals, which offered products at 20 percent below prevailing rates in Britain. Celsa estimates that Chinese companies at one point accounted for about half of the region’s sales in a certain type of reinforcing bar, up from essentially nothing just four years ago.这座钢铁厂隶属于西班牙私人公司Celsa集团,完全无法与中国对手竞争,因为中国产品的报价比英国当前的市价低20%。Celsa集团估计,在某个时候,该地区销售的某类型钢筋大约一半来自中国公司,而仅仅四年之前它们的份额几乎为零。“It’s nice to have free trade, but it has to be fair,” said Luis Sanz, the managing director for British operations at Celsa.“自由贸易是件好事,但前提是必须公平,”Celsa集团负责英国业务的执行董事路易斯·桑斯(Luis Sanz)说。The steel industry sits at the crux of a major debate playing out across the world economy, one that could soon be intensified by a looming change in the global trade rules.钢铁行业处在一个涉及全球经济各领域的重大争议的核心,而全球贸易规则即将发生改变,这个问题可能也会很快随之愈演愈烈。As China’s economy has slowed, the country’s manufacturers, in varied areas like solar panels, tires, aluminum and shoes, have been in a desperate hunt to maintain sales and avoid layoffs. Looking beyond their borders, many are offering rock-bottom prices to win orders.随着中国经济放缓,该国太阳能组件、轮胎、铝材和鞋等各种领域的生产商正在拼命维持销售,避免裁减人员。放眼全球,为了赢得订单,很多公司报出了最低价格。The heavy discounting has fed a backlash. Politicians like the American presidential candidates Donald J. Trump and Bernie Sanders are railing against free trade, saying the rules hurt domestic workers. Countries are crying foul, claiming that Chinese exporters are dumping goods.这样的大幅折扣引发了抵触情绪。美国总统候选人唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)和伯尼·桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)等政界人士在大力批驳自由贸易,宣称其中的规则给美国劳动者造成了损失。各国纷纷大呼不公,声称中国正在向国外倾销商品。And the dynamics are getting more complicated, as a crucial provision of global trade rules expires in December.随着全球贸易规则的一个关键条款将在今年12月到期,情况正在变得愈加复杂。When China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, the country was labeled a nonmarket economy, at the insistence of the ed States and Europe. The technical designation makes it easier to prove that China is dumping goods in foreign markets, allowing countries to slap tariffs on those products. In March, the ed States imposed a prohibitive 266 percent tariff on certain Chinese steel makers for selling below cost.中国于2001年加入世界贸易组织(WTO)的时候,在美国和欧洲的坚持下,中国被打上了“非市场经济体”的标签。有了这个技术性的说法,要明中国向海外市场倾销商品就变得比较容易,于是各国便可以对这些产品征收关税。今年3月,美国对一些低于成本价销售产品的中国钢铁企业征收了266%的惩罚性关税。Calculating production costs in China is tricky. The true costs are often obscured by politically guided policies that benefit companies, including state-backed loans at below-market interest rates and free land for job-creating factories.计算中国的生产成本是一件颇为棘手的事情。政治导向的政策会给企业带来一些优惠,比如提供低于市场利率的国家扶持贷款、为提供就业岗位的工厂无偿供应土地等等,而这些政策常常会掩盖真实的成本。Given China’s designation in the W.T.O., the ed States, Europe and others can use a proxy country, a locale with a similar level of income and better data like Poland, Thailand or South Africa, to help determine production costs. The proxy countries often have higher costs than China, which has greater economies of scale.由于中国被WTO视为非市场经济国家,美国、欧洲和其他国家就可以使用一个收入水平相同、但数据更准确的地区作为代理国——比如波兰、泰国和南非——来帮助确定产品的成本。这些代理国的成本常常高于中国,因为中国拥有更大的规模经济。China is beginning a global lobbying push to bar the use of proxy countries. Chinese ministers have been meeting with overseas leaders and with executives of businesses that sell to China. The country is calling for W.T.O. members to “acknowledge China’s market economy status” and “to adopt the necessary measures as soon as possible,” the commerce ministry said in a faxed response to questions.中国已经开始在全球开展游说活动,希望停止使用代理国的做法。中国的部长们一直在与外国领导人及在中国销售产品的企业高管沟通。商务部在一份回应问题的传真中表示,中国呼吁WTO成员“承认中国的市场经济地位”,并“尽快采取必要措施”。But the rules are somewhat ambiguous, complicating China’s efforts. The 2001 W.T.O. agreement explicitly authorizes the use of proxy countries through December in cases against China, but it is silent about what happens after that.不过,规则本身有些模糊,给中国的努力增添了变数。2001年的WTO协议明确规定,到今年12月底,针对中国使用代理国的做法将到期,但却没有说之后会怎么样。The Europeans and Americans are skeptical about whether China actually qualifies as a so-called market economy. In a market economy, supply and demand are the guiding forces. In China, the government also plays a major role, dictating investments, strategy, even when a plant can close.中国是否真的有资格获得市场经济的地位?欧洲和美国对此表示怀疑。在市场经济体中,供需才是主导力量。但在中国,政府也发挥了重要作用,能够决定投资和策略,乃至一家工厂什么时候可以关停。China’s policies have helped create extensive overcapacity. China makes 50 percent of the world’s steel, 55 percent of its aluminum and 60 percent of its cement, even as its domestic demand has weakened.对于大量的产能过剩,中国的政策起到了推波助澜的作用。即便国内需求有所减弱,中国出品的钢铁仍占全球产量的50%,铝材占55%,水泥占60%。“They’re nowhere near a market economy, and it’s delusional to think that they are,” said Leo W. Gerard, the president of the ed Steelworkers Union.“他们远非市场经济,以为他们是市场经济纯属幻觉,”美国钢铁工人联合会(ed Steelworkers Union)会长利奥·W·杰拉尔德(Leo W. Gerard)说。The tensions have been palpable in steel.在钢铁行业,形势的紧张显露无遗。Celsa and other Western steel manufacturers got clobbered by the global financial crisis that started in 2008, as demand sank and prices dropped. When the industry started to recover, they faced a growing competitive threat from China.于2008年开始的全球金融危机导致钢铁需求疲软、价格猛跌,令Celsa等西方钢铁生产商遭受了重挫。就在行业开始复苏的时候,它们又面临着来自中国的日益加剧的竞争威胁。In the last three years, Chinese steel exports more than doubled to 107 million metric tons, higher than the annual raw steel production of the ed States. Prices fell steeply, although they have perked up lately on speculation of renewed demand in China.过去三年,中国钢材出口量增加了一倍以上,达1.07亿吨,超过美国一年的粗钢产量。钢价急剧下跌,尽管对中国需求复苏的预测最近带来了一波价格反弹。The result has been a shakeout in steel.其结果就是钢铁行业的重组。Celsa has not turned a profit in seven years. ArcelorMittal, the world’s largest steel maker, announced an annual loss of nearly billion in February, blaming Chinese competition. Since the beginning of last year, ed States Steel has cut 5,000 jobs and warned that thousands of others are at risk.Celsa已经七年没有盈利。全球最大的钢铁生产商安赛乐米塔尔(ArcelorMittal)今年2月宣布去年亏损近80亿美元,并将其归咎于来自中国的竞争。自去年年初以来,美国钢铁公司(ed States Steel)削减了5000个岗位,并警告还有数以千计的人面临裁员危险。“Unfairly traded steel imports have reached historic levels in 2015 and 2016, taking almost 30 percent share of the domestic steel market,” Doug Matthews, a U.S. Steel executive, testified in a government hearing last month.“不公平的钢材进口在2015年和2016年达到了历史最高水平,占据了国内钢材市场近30%的份额,”美国钢铁公司的高管道格·马修斯(Doug Matthews)上个月出席一次政府听会时表示。China faces its own share of pain.中国自己也在承受煎熬。Hundreds of steel makers are limping along, overloaded with debt and battered by weak prices. The chairman of Dongbei Special Steel, a large Chinese company, hanged himself in March, days before the company began defaulting on loans.成百上千的钢铁生产商正在艰难地维持经营,沉重的债务和疲软的价格令它们举步维艰。今年3月,大型企业东北特殊钢铁集团出现贷款违约的数天前,其董事长自缢身亡。The global downturn has created a political firestorm. In February, thousands of steelworkers marched in Brussels, the headquarters of the European Union, demanding protection from Chinese products.全球经济下行引发了一场政治风暴。今年2月,数以千计的钢铁工人在欧盟总部布鲁塞尔游行,要求获得保护,免受中国产品的冲击。The issue flared up again when Tata Steel announced plans to sell or close its money-losing business in Britain, prompting calls for an emergency session of Parliament. Tata has managed to find takers for some of its plants, but about 11,000 jobs in Britain remain at risk.这个问题后来又再次爆发:塔塔钢铁公司(Tata Steel)宣布计划出售或关停在英国的亏本生意,以致有人呼吁英国议会就此召开紧急会议。塔塔的部分工厂找到了买家,但英国仍有约1.1万个工作岗位面临风险。“Effective antidumping measures have to be implemented as quickly as possible,” said Wolfgang Eder, chief executive of Voestalpine, one of Europe’s largest steel makers, warning that “many thousands more E.U. jobs are under severe threat.”“必须尽快实施有效的反倾销措施,”欧洲规模居前的钢铁生产商奥钢联集团(Voestalpine)的首席执行官沃尔夫冈·埃德(Wolfgang Eder)警告。“欧洲还有数以千计的工作岗位面临着严重威胁。”The political mess could set up a standoff over the W.T.O. rules, since they are one of the industry’s main defense mechanisms.政治上的困境可能会造成围绕WTO规则的僵局,因为这是该行业主要的防御机制之一。The Obama administration has pressed China to follow through on promises of market-oriented reforms, to help level the playing field. The administration has not taken a public position on whether to repeal proxy country procedures for China, which would require legislation.奥巴马政府一直在向中国施压,要其兑现自己有关市场化改革的承诺,帮助创造公平的竞争环境。至于是否废除针对中国的代理国程序,奥巴马政府并没有公开表态。要实现这一点,需要立法。Getting legislation through Congress is even more difficult than usual this year. Trade is a touchy subject in the presidential election. And the administration’s trade priority is to win congressional approval of the Trans-Pacific Partnership with China’s economic rivals in the region, including Japan and Vietnam.然而,今年要让国会通过立法,难度更胜以往。在此次总统竞选中,贸易是一个棘手的议题。本届政府在贸易领域的优先考虑是让国会批准《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》(Trans-Pacific Partnership)。参与协定的成员国包括日本和越南等中国在地区的竞争对手。Europe, which is just starting to consider the issue, is looking at a compromise, by toughening penalties against China while still conferring market status on the country. Doing nothing “may well create new and serious frictions in our bilateral relationship with China,” Cecilia Malmstr#246;m, the European trade commissioner, said in a speech in March, adding that three million jobs in Europe depend on sales to China.欧洲则刚开始考虑这一问题,着眼于达成妥协,方式是强化针对中国的处罚,同时仍然赋予该国市场经济地位。什么也不做“很可能会在我们和中国的双边关系中制造新的严重擦,”欧盟委员会负责贸易事务的委员塞西莉亚·马尔姆斯特伦(Cecilia Malmstr#246;m)在今年3月的一次发言中说道。她还表示,欧洲有300万个工作机会依赖于向中国销售产品。The two-way relationship is what makes the trade rules so complex.正是这种双向关系使这些贸易规则变得非常复杂。If China does not prevail, some players worry about getting stuck with insufficient and high-cost goods from local factories. “We don’t want locals to go out of business, but we want it to be free and fair,” said Jeffrey Kabel, the chairman of the International Steel Trade Association, a group in London that represents the entire steel food chain, including traders, producers and users. A big worry among customers, he said, is that they “won’t have a choice for buying.”如果中国不能如愿,一些参与方可能会担心自己不得不接受当地工厂生产的数量不足且价格高昂的产品。“我们不希望本地企业破产,但我们希望能实现自由和公平贸易,”国际钢铁贸易协会(International Steel Trade Association)主席杰弗里·卡贝尔(Jeffrey Kabel)表示。这个位于伦敦的组织代表整个钢铁产业链的利益,包括贸易商、生产商和用户。他表示,消费者的一大担心是,他们“不再有权选择购买什么”。On the flip side, the Celsa production line, with its glowing metal rods, employs about 750 people. Mr. Sanz said the plant was not yet y to start layoffs, although the jobs could also not be guaranteed.另一方面,能造出锃亮钢材的Celsa生产线雇佣了大约750人。桑斯表示,这家工厂还没准备开始裁员,不过这些工作也不能确保依然存在。“We want fair competition to see who survives,” he said.“我们希望通过公平的竞争来决定谁能存活下去,”他说。 /201605/441462China has promised to improve the quality of service on its high-speed rail network after a decision was made to adjust ticket prices in the country#39;s southeastern region.在做出要调整东南地区高铁票价这一决定之后,中国有关部门承诺将提高高铁网络的务质量。;The fare adjustment will start from April 21, with a focus on high-speed routes in the country#39;s southeastern coastal areas. Ticket prices will increase or decrease based on passenger flow,; a China Railway officer told the People#39;s Daily Online.中国铁路总公司一名官员向《人民日报》透露:“票价将从4月21日起调整,重点放在东南沿海地区的高铁线路上。票价将根据客流量提高或降低。”According to the officer, high-speed routes in southeastern coastal areas are still using the price standard issued by the Chinese government in 1997, which is much lower compared to that of the region#39;s highways.据该官员表示,东南沿海地区的高铁票价现在仍然在沿用1997年中国政府设定的标准,远低于该地区的高速公路价格。For instance, a trip from Ningbo to Xiamen takes 13.5 hours by bus and costs 312 RMB, while the same trip by high-speed train takes 5.5 hours and costs only 250 RMB.举例来说,乘汽车从宁波到厦门要13.5个小时,花费312元,而高铁只要5.5个小时,却只花费250元。;The price for some high-speed rails will still be cheaper compared to that of highways, even though high-speed rails are more comfortable and faster,; the officer added.该官员表示:“虽然高铁更舒适更快捷,但是某些高铁的价格却比高速还低。”High-speed rails in China#39;s southeastern coastal areas serve over 810,000 passengers every day, with a load factor above 80 percent.东南沿海地区的高铁线路每日务超过81万名乘客,负荷率在80%以上。 /201703/501534

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