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ANNCR: The National Cancer Act – Today on Congressional Moment During the first 30 years of the 20th century, America became a safer and healthier place. Living conditions improved, causing many diseases to almost disappear. One exception to this pattern was cancer, and in 1937 Congress established the National Cancer Institute. By 1970, cancer had become the nation's second leading cause of death. Texas Senator Ralph Yarborough sought to make its conquest a national priority. He led a group of medical experts, cancer advocates, and business leaders who explored the issue. They became commonly known as the "Yarborough Commission." The Yarborough Report became the blueprint for the National Cancer Act, which was signed into law in 1971 by President Richard Nixon. The National Cancer Act provided additional funding for the National Cancer Institute, establishing 15 new cancer research centers, local cancer control programs, and an international cancer data research bank. Its passage received a boost when popular columnist Ann Landers encouraged a flood of mail from her ers, urging representatives to vote for the bill. The goal for a simple cure for cancer remains elusive. But scientific knowledge about cancer continues to grow. New techniques for detection, diagnosis, and treatment are constantly emerging, as a result of efforts of Congress and the American people.08/82262The.First.EmperorQin Shi Huangdi remains a controversial figure in Chinese history. After unifying China, he and his chief adviser Li Si passed a series of major economic and political reforms. He undertook gigantic projects, including the first version of the Great Wall of China, the now famous city-sized mausoleum guarded by a life-sized Terracotta Army, all at the expense of many lives. To ensure stability, Qin Shi Huang outlawed Confucianism and buried many scholars alive. All books other than those officially decreed were banned and burned in what is known as the great Confucian purge. Despite the tyranny of his autocratic rule, Qin Shi Huang is regarded as a pivotal figure....07/77588Economics focus经济聚焦Degrees of democracy民主的程度More education does not necessarily lead to greater enthusiasm for representative politics 受教育程度越高并不一定对代表制政治产生更大的热情Jun 23rd 2011 | from the print editionON JUNE 20th Zine el-Abedine Ben-Ali, Tunisia’s former ruler, was sentenced in absentia to 35 years in prison. Many trace the origins of the popular rebellion that forced him from office to frustration over the treatment by the police of a young man with few job prospects. That combustible mixture of authoritarianism, unemployment and youth has played a big role in sparking many of the popular uprisings across the Middle East and north Africa that followed Tunisia’s. But some argue that increased education should also take credit for the Arab spring. 6月20号,前突尼斯总统Zine el-Abedine Ben-Ali在其未出席的情况下被判35年监禁。许多人探求这场大规模的反抗的根源,由于警察部门过分的对待一个没有就业前景的年轻人导致的反抗迫使他从当政者变为了阶下囚。即突尼斯之后,包括独裁主义、失业和年轻人的易冲动的混合体在中东和北非引起许多大规模的暴动。但是一些人认为增加的教育也应该为这场阿拉伯承担责任。Many of the countries where disaffection with strongmen rulers has spilled over into revolt have seen their education levels rise sharply in recent decades. Young people in these countries are far better educated than their parents were. In 1990 the average Egyptian had 4.4 years of schooling; by 2010 the figure had risen to 7.1 years. Could it be that education, by making people less willing to put up with restrictions on freedom and more willing to question authority, promotes democratisation?许多由于对强硬领导人不满情绪涌出而导致起义的国家,其教育水平在近几十年中有大幅的提升。这些国家中的年轻人受到的教育远好于他们的父母。1990年平均每个埃及人接受4.4年的教育,到了2010年这个数字提升到7.1年。是教育促使民主化么?教育使得人们更少愿意忍受对自由的限制,更愿意挑战权威。201106/142521Russia Accuses Ukraine of Blackmail on Gas Transit俄罗斯和乌克兰的天然气管道之争 Russia and Ukraine have ended 2008 with an escalating dispute over gas deliveries through a key pipeline that supplies much of Western Europe. Each side is blaming the other for the dispute. 俄罗斯和乌克兰两国以不断升级的争吵度过了2008年,两国的争论围绕着通过一条主要管道向西欧提供天然气的问题。双方都认为争论的责任在对方。A spokesman for the Russian gas giant, Gazprom, held up a letter at a Moscow new conference on New Year's Eve that he says was signed by the head of Ukraine's gas company. He says the letter threatened to cut off supplies flowing through a pipeline that supplies Western Europe with 25 percent of its gas. 俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的发言人新年前夕在莫斯科举行的新闻发布会上展示了一封信,他说这封信是乌克兰天然气公司的负责人签署的。这位发言人说,这封信威胁要切断通过一条输送管道向西方提供的天然气供应。这部分天然气占西欧天然气消费总量的百分之25。Gazprom's deputy chief, Alexander Medvedev referred to the Ukrainian letter as blackmail and unprecedented in the history of the international energy business. He added that Ukraine would be violating a contract it signed to continue deliveries to Western Europe through the end of 2010.  俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的副总裁阿列克山德尔·麦德维杰夫把乌克兰方面的这封信说成是勒索,并且在国际能源交易史上还没有先例。他补充说,乌克兰违反了它签署的一份向西欧输送天然气的合同,这份合同2010年末到期。Medvedev says Ukrainians did not respond when asked directly why they do not want to honor the contract. He says Ukrainians insist there is no contract, even after they are shown signatures and laws, simply because they do not want an agreement. 麦德维杰夫说,乌克兰对于俄罗斯方面有关为什么不遵守合同的直接提问没有做出答复。他说,乌克兰方面坚持认为并不存在这份合同,甚至俄罗斯向乌克兰方面出示了签名和文书之后,他们还坚持这种说法,因为他们只是不想承认这份协议。A spokesman for Naftohaz, the Ukranian gas company, told VOA that its obligation extends only to a contractual framework for gas transit valid through 2013. However, Valentyn Zemliansky says agreement on specific issues is reached on an annual basis. 乌克兰的NOFTOHAZ天然气公司的发言人瓦兰亭·泽姆连斯基对美国之音说,他们公司的义务只涉及到有关输送天然气的合同框架,协议框架在2013年到期。但是他表示,双方在具体问题上的协议是每年都需要更新的。Zemliansky says additional agreements cover the volume and quality of gas, as well as transit costs, and he notes that an agreement on these items for has not been signed. 泽姆连斯基说,一些补充协议涉及天然气的数量和质量,以及运输成本。他指出,有关这些问题的年协议还没有签署。Senior Gazprom officials have made conflicting statements about the status of Ukrainian payment of its billion debt to Gazprom. Gazprom chairman, Alexei Miller, says the funds have yet to appear in company accounts. That statement came a day after Ukraine announced it had paid its obligations for November and December deliveries. However, a deputy to the Gazprom chairman, Alexander Medvedev, says payment has in fact been received. 俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的高层官员在乌克兰向俄罗斯的这家公司偿还20亿美元债务的问题上说法不一。俄罗斯天然气公司董事长阿列克赛·米勒说,这笔钱还没有出现在公司的账面上。就在他说这番话的前一天,乌克兰宣布它已经付了11月和12月输送天然气的费用。然而,俄罗斯天然气公司的副总裁麦德维杰夫说,乌克兰方面的付款已经收到了。Gazprom Chairman Alexei Miller has said there must be an agreement for Russia to have a legal basis to continue gas deliveries to Ukraine after January 1. 俄罗斯天然气公司董事长米勒说,俄罗斯方面必须有一个以法律为基础的协议才能够在1月1号之后继续向乌克兰输送天然气。Gazprom has been seeking to increase Ukraine's price for gas in the New Year to 8 per 1,000 cubic meters, more than double the current rate.  俄罗斯天然气公司一直寻求在新年后把乌克兰的天然气价格涨到每千立方米418美元,几乎是现有价格的两倍。In 2006, Western European consumers noticed a drop in gas pipeline pressure after Russia cut supplies to Ukraine in a similar mid-winter payment dispute.  2006年,西欧消费者注意到,俄罗斯在进入冬季之后和乌克兰在付款问题上发生了类似的争吵,然后俄罗斯切断了对乌克兰的天然气供应,输气管道的压力出现下降。Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin has warned that Ukrainian relations with Russia and the European Union will suffer serious consequences if Kyiv disrupts supplies to Western Europe. 俄罗斯总理普京警告说,如果基辅中断对西欧的天然气供应,乌克兰同俄罗斯以及同欧盟的关系将面临严重后果。01/60159Harry's visit to troop rehab unitPrince Harry is reunited with a badly injured Royal Marine he trained with before being sent to Afghanistan.Prince Harry has been reunited with a badly injured Royal Marine he trained with before being sent to Afghanistan, every question with that and more today's news. The prince and his elder brother William were touring the Headley Court Rehabilitation Center for injured troops. They met some of the 50 soldiers currently receiving treatment there, among them, 24-year-old Marine Mark Ormrod, who lost an arm and both his legs when he stepped on a mine in Afghanistan. A visit from two royals who talk their language. Soldiers convalescing at Headley Court said the princes were down to earth so much so that the bands are flowed as they lined up for the obligating photo call. Here at the front of **, a comment from one corporal to an amputee, "Prince William even joins in, his suggestion that doubled amputee Marine Mark Ormrod drew a few hand-break turns gets a laugh."But William's boast about his football team's success over the weekend didn't impress his brother. Humors are lighting the mood, but Harry knows more than most what these men have been through. Two soldiers who've stepped on a landmine have been on his untimely flight home from his own tour of Afghanistan. Two injured guys who came back on the plane with us who were essentially comatose throughout the whole way. One who had lost two limbs, a left arm and a right leg. Mark Ormrod was trained with Harry before leaving for Helmand province. He lost both legs and an arm after stepping on a landmine on Christmas Eve. Convalescing here has helped him enormously. It's not a big issue, while I never see someone finishing off themselves, you see them crack on the bottom, smile every day and, get through at it, and then you think, yeah, why not? We are all wanting to get like that, aren't we?. You just crack on certain.The Princes' visit coincides with the fundraising event next month called "City solute", designed to raise enough money for a full-size swimming pool here, a desirable but not essential facility, according to the MAD, so charitable help is needed.It enhances what we do and it really does underline our potential in terms of rehabilitating, the injured soldiers, the sailors and the airmen and rather than, you know, you know if we didn't have the pool. If I had the pool, I could get better quicker and I'll be out of here, and there'll have more space for more serious injuries, I mean,I don't know if you've been told or aware, that there is a waiting list to come in. you know, in this, about month-long.The Princes arrived and left by car today after the last week's quick trip to his girlfriend in an RAF Chinook, Prince Williams....200811/54978

World Economic Forum on Africa Focusing on Global Economic Downturn非洲讨论全球经济危机对非洲影响  Hundreds of political leaders, businessmen and economists have gathered in South Africa for the World Economic Forum on Africa. The three days of discussions in Cape Town this year are focused primarily on the world economic downturn and how to lessen its effect on African economies.在南非,数以百计的政治领导人、企业界人士和经济学家聚集一堂,参加非洲世界经济论坛。今年在开普敦举行的三天论坛重点讨论世界经济下滑和如何减轻世界经济下滑对非洲的影响。South Africa's President Jacob Zuma Wednesday opened the World Economic Forum on Africa telling delegates that they were meeting in difficult times.南非总统祖马星期三在非洲世界经济论坛开幕式上讲话,告诉各代表团他们是在艰难的时刻开会。He noted that industrialized economies have responded to the world recession and its related job losses with stimulus programs and widened social safety nets. But he said developing nations do not have these resources.他表示,工业化经济体以刺激计划和扩大社会安全网络的方式对世界经济衰退及其相关的失业问题作出回应。不过他说,发展中国家没有这些资源。"For most African countries, that are still highly indebted and dependent on aid for their revenues, the continuation of the current crisis will mean increased starvation, poverty and child mortality," said Mr. Zuma.他说:“对于多数非洲国家而言,它们仍然债台高筑,依赖援助作为收入,当前危机的持续将意味着更多饥饿、贫困和儿童的夭折。”He said African governments should try to cushion African people against the impact of the crisis but added that they should also respond by planning for a recovery.他说,非洲各国政府应该设法减弱这场危机对非洲人民的冲击。他还说,非洲各国政府也应该为复苏进行筹划。Mr. Zuma said the global economic crisis highlighted the need to reform the international financial system and multilateral lending groups like the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.祖马说,这场全球经济危机显出,有必要改革国际金融体系和世界和国际货币基金组织这样的多边借贷机构。But he warned against overreacting by raising protectionist barriers and called for renewed efforts to conclude the Doha round of trade talks.不过,他告诫各方不要以增加保护主义壁垒来作出过度反应。他呼吁重新努力,完成多哈回合贸易谈判。Former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan also warned of the harmful effects of the global recession on Africa during the launch of the annual report of the Africa Progress Panel.联合国前秘书长安南在非洲进步小组发表报告期间,也针对全球衰退对非洲所产生的有害作用发出警告。But he said the downturn also provided an opportunity to forge a new relationship whereby Africa drives its own development agenda in partnership with the world community.不过他说,经济下滑也提供了打造新关系的契机,非洲借此机会以跟国际社会合作的关系来推动非洲自己的发展日程。The head of the South African Planning Commission, former Finance Minister Trevor Manuel, welcomed the report.南非计划委员会主任、前财政部长曼纽尔对这份报告表示欢迎。"In the global economy there has to be that inter-mediation," said Manuel. "And indeed with that inter-mediation between wealth and poverty in the world you need to ensure that there are rules that are applied and you need to ensure that there is accountability."他说:“在全球经济中,必须有那种内部调停。的确,由于有了世界上贫富之间的内部调停,你需要确保有必需实行的规则,你需要确保规则要落实,确保有责必究。”The World Economic Forum also released its Africa Competitiveness Report which said that African competitiveness in global markets was hindered by under-developed infrastructure, healthcare, education and financial institutions. The Forum continues with discussions on improving the investment climate in African countries, adapting training for the unemployed to changing job markets and diversifying the exploitation of natural resources in order to ease cyclical downswings.论坛与会者继续讨论改进非洲各国投资环境的问题,为失业人员提供培训,以适应就业市场,以多样化形式利用自然资源,以避免环境的循环恶化。06/73870

French researchers are predicting doom for Planet Earth. They believe neighboring planets could stray out of orbit and collide with the Earth billions of years from now. The B's David Shukman explains their theory.A view of Earth from orbit and a strange question "how long would it last?" Scientists have long known about the violent event that formed solar system. But now they study the movements of our nearest neighbors. Mars, they reckon, could drift uncomfortably close or do this. If we are really unlucky, it can actually collide with us. Literally, the end of the world."So what exactly is this research saying? Well,one key thing that the orbits of the planets which look steady aren't all that regular. Over the years, some start to move pretty wildly.These are the projected tracks. And the odds are that will lead to a very big collision in about threebillion years'time."With that long to go, the researcher involved doesn't look too worried. But amid the old instruments of the observatory in Paris where he works, he has a doom-laden message about the future and what a collision would eventually mean."It would be totally devastating because the relative speed is very high. They go at ten kilometers per second. So it's ten times the velocity of a bullet . And the impact is enormous. Everything will be destroyed on Earth."Until now, the worry has been one of these, an asteroid. It's thought one of them finished off the dinosaurs. Think what a planet would do.But this is just a computer graphic. The calculations may be wrong. The only people who need to react to this research are film producers in Hollywood. David Shukman, B News.We are gonna have to say those might be the most menacing graphics we'd ever used. Watching things collide on the planet that I live on? Can't tell like that very much.It's almost Biblical-financial meltdown, swine flu and now this. What's next, the rain of frogs?But still watch the news. We want you to keep watching.Yeah. Please do. You'll still be here as long as that doesn't happen. 06/74397

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