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Energy has always been central to creating a trade and investment bloc through the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. If a TTIP agreement can reduce wide differences in energy prices between Europe and the U.S., Europeans will pay less for energy, while American energy producers will finally be able to profit from the recent energy boom by selling at competitive market prices. Trying to artificially hold down prices has heavy costs for domestic producers, encourages consumption, and dampens energy production over time.在通过《跨大西洋贸易及投资伙伴协定Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, 简称TTIP)建立贸易和投资联盟的磋商中,能源问题一直是关键所在。如果TTIP能够缩小欧洲和美国之间巨大的能源价格差异,欧洲人在能源上的花费将会减少,而美国能源生产商最终也能够通过具有竞争力的市场价格从最近的能源热潮中获利。试图人为压低能源价格将令国内生产商付出沉重代价,同时会刺激能源消费,而在长期内抑制能源生产。Yet recent events in Ukraine and Russia have made clear that creating a trans-Atlantic energy market is about more than economic efficiency. Energy cooperation has become an indispensable pillar of the Western security community, which has played a central role in maintaining peace in Europe for more than 60 years.Reuters但最近乌克兰和俄罗斯的冲突清楚表明,建立一个跨大西洋能源市场不仅仅具有经济意义。能源合作已经成为西方安全同盟一个不可或缺的柱,而该同盟在维护欧0多年来的和平中发挥了关键作用。Today the European Union produces only a small portion of its energy needs, importing about 80% of its oil and some 60% of its gas. More than a third of this oil and 30% of the gas is of Russian origin. Only four countries in the EU-Portugal, Spain, Ireland and Sweden-are able to do without any Russian gas. By reducing European energy dependency on Russia, both the U.S. and Europe will be better able to defend and promote their values-while capturing the immense gains from greater economic integration between the worlds two largest economies.当前,欧盟只有小部分能源是自产的,大0%的石油和60%的天然气需要进口。超过三分之一的进口石油和30%的进口天然气来自俄罗斯。欧盟成员国中只有四个国家能够完全不依靠俄罗斯的天然气,它们是葡萄牙、西班牙、爱尔兰和瑞典。通过减少欧洲对俄罗斯的能源依赖,美国和欧洲都能更好地保护及宣扬自己的价值观,同时获取世界两大经济体之间实现经济进一步一体化所带来的巨大好处。During a visit to Washington this month, I could sense a new enthusiasm for focusing on ways to significantly increase American energy exports to Europe. Lifting U.S. export restrictions would be the first step, but we must also speed up infrastructure development, especially for liquefied natural gas.在本月访问华盛顿期间,我可以感觉到对专注于如何大幅增加美国对欧洲能源出口的一股新热情。取消美国的出口限制将是第一步,但我们还必须加快基础设施的发展,特别是液化天然气的基础设施。The main constraint seems to be time. Six LNG terminals approved by the Obama administration still need approval from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission before construction can begin. It could be years before shipments of LNG can make their way across the Atlantic. And then there is the TTIP. While talks are on track, this ambitious project might take two or three years to complete.主要制约因素似乎是时间。已获奥巴马政府批准的六个液化天然气终端在开工建设之前,仍需获得美国联邦能源监管委员Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)的批准。美国的液化天然气运到大西洋另一边的欧洲可能需要数年时间才能实现。此外,还有TTIP问题。尽管谈判正在步入轨道,但这项宏大的项目可能需要两三年的时间才能完成。Given recent events in Ukraine, we dont have time to wait for the full trade agreement. Instead, Europe and the U.S. should begin work immediately on a separate charter setting out the main steps for creating a trans-Atlantic energy market. This energy charter could be agreed on and signed in months, having a quick impact on the increasingly critical security crisis.鉴于最近的乌克兰局势,我们没时间等待达成完整的贸易协定。欧洲和美国应该立即开始研究一项单独的协议,制定创建跨大西洋能源市场的主要步骤。双方可能在几个月后就能达成共识并签署能源协议,从而对日益严重的安全危机产生迅速的影响。A trans-Atlantic energy charter should have four main chapters. First, it would immediately lift American export restrictions for oil and gas sold to Europeans. As President Obama recently put it, American natural gas will go into the open market, so this is no gift to Europeans.跨大西洋能源协议应当包括四个主要部分。首先,它会立即取消美国对于向欧洲出售油气的出口限制。正如美国总统奥巴马最近所说的,美国天然气将“进入公开市场”,因此这并不是免费给欧洲人的礼物。Second, the U.S. would commit to an ambitious program of energy infrastructure directed at creating the terminals and transport facilities to exploit the new energy market. The U.S. Energy Department could scrap individual reviews for LNG export facilities in favor of a single, en-masse approval, and recommend to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission that it expedite all energy-charter projects.第二,美国将会致力于一个宏大的能源基础设施项目,旨在打造相应的接收站和运输设施以开拓欧洲这一新的能源市场。美国能源部(U.S. Energy Department)可能取消逐一审批液化天然气出口设施,代之以统一的全体审批,并建议美国联邦能源监管委员会(Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 简称FERC)加快所有与能源协议相关的项目。Third, Europeans would make a similar commitment to infrastructure development. Europe aly benefits from a high number of gas terminals, but cross-border gas pipelines and electricity interconnections are still lacking.第三,欧洲可能同样致力于基础设施开发。欧洲已经受益于数量众多的天然气接收站,但仍缺乏跨境天然气管道以及电网。There is no point in going ahead with a trans-Atlantic energy charter without simultaneously completing the EU internal market in energy. For example, the Iberian Peninsula has the potential to become a major alternative supply route of gas from across the Atlantic to the rest of Europe.如果不同时完善欧盟内部的能源市场,推进跨大西洋能源协议就会毫无意义。例如,伊比利亚半岛有可能成为横跨大西洋向欧洲其他地区供应天然气的主要替代供应线路。Finally, the EU would have to make a genuine effort to bring its environmental and state-aid standards closer to American practice. We understand that Americans would be frustrated if there were a blanket ban on shale-gas extraction in Europe (and few countries have a ban now), especially if it is combined with government support for local energy producers. Both sides need to compromise, and Europeans are y to deliver.最后,欧盟还必须切实采取措施,让其环境和国家补助标准接近美国的做法。我们深知,如果欧洲出台针对页?气开采的整体禁令(现在有少数国家有此禁令),美国人将会感到失望,尤其是如果政府对当地能源生产商还有扶持的话。双方都需要妥协,而欧洲已经做好了准备。Rarely has there been such a perfect alignment of economic, security and foreign policy goals. Energy planning is not unlike investing in financial securities, where diversification is used to manage risk under a variety of unpredictable outcomes. A trans-Atlantic energy market would be deep enough to withstand almost all conceivable supply-and-demand shocks. It would boost confidence and investment in energy and the overall economies.经济、安全和外交政策目标很少像这样完全契合。能源规划与投资金融券并无不同,面对众多不可预知的结果,人们会采用多元化的办法来管理风险。跨大西洋的能源市场将会足够深厚,能够经受住几乎所有想得到的供求动荡。它将会提振人们对于能源的信心、加大能源投资,同时还将提振整体经济。But energy infrastructure is enormously expensive, and investors will not take a more integrated market seriously unless we send a clear message that a new era of American and European energy planning has begun. Such a message would also reach another set of watchers: Countries that like to use their energy supplies in ways that run counter to American and European interests will see their influence wane. A trans-Atlantic energy charter is our best option and our best tool in the face of an increasingly uncertain future.但能源基础设施的成本极高,而且投资者不会重视一个更加一体化的市场,除非我们发出明确信号,表明美国和欧洲能源规划的新时代已经开启。这样的信号还会影响到另外一群观察者:想以违背欧美利益的方式运用其能源供应的国家会发现它们的影响力减弱。面对越来越充满不确定性的未来,跨大西洋能源协议是我们最好的选择,也是我们最好的工具。Mr. Macaes is Portugals secretary of state for European affairs.(本文作者是葡萄牙欧洲事务部长) /201404/290496。

The toughest anti-smoking legislation in Chinas history came into effect on Mondayin Beijing, with unprecedented fines and a hotline to report offenders butfears of weak enforcement.中国历史上最严厉的禁烟法律周一开始在北京生效,罚款额度之高前所未有,而且还提供电话热线举报违反者,但是人们担心在执行上可能无法到位。The law makes smoking in offices, restaurants, hotels and hospitals illegal, withvenues where the ban is flouted subject to fines of up to 10,000 yuan (,600).该法律禁止人们在办公室,餐馆,酒店以及医院里吸烟,违反该法律的场所最高面万元的罚款。Venues which repeatedly ignore the law could have their licenses revoked, while individuals caught smoking in prohibited zones could be fined as much as 200yuan.一再违反该法律的经营场所可能被吊销营业执照,而那些在禁区吸烟的个人,一旦被抓住,将被罚00元。As well as indoor smoking, the law prohibits lighting up in some open-air spacesdose to schools, hospita Is, and sports venues.除了禁止在室内吸烟外,该法律还禁止人们在靠近学,医院和运动场所附近的露天地带吸烟。A barrier to imposing similar measures across the country is the continued cloutof Chinas state-run toba cco industry, which provides the government with colossal amounts of money 911 billion yuan in taxes ar d profits in 2014, an increase of 12 percent year-on-year.之所以无法在全国实行这样的禁烟措施,是因为中国国有的烟草行业所具有的巨大影响力,该行业为政府提供巨大的税收和利润014年税收和利润就达110亿元,同比増2%。来 /201506/378530。

Beji Caid Essebsi has been sworn in as Tunisias new president, becoming the countrys first freely elected leader since it gained independence from France in 1956.贝吉.卡伊埃塞卜西星期三宣誓就任突尼斯新总统,成为该956年脱离法国独立以来第一位通过自由选举产生的领导人。Mr. Essebsi took the oath of office Wednesday at a ceremony in the parliament where his secular Nidaa Tounes party won the most seats in an October election.埃塞卜西星期三在议会举行的仪式上宣誓就职,他领导的世俗政党在10月议会选举中取得多数席位。The 88-year-old president won a runoff election this month, defeating incumbent Moncef Marzouki, who had served as Tunisias interim president since the 2011 ouster of longtime leader Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali.现年88岁的埃塞卜西本月赢得了决选的胜利,击败了自本.阿里2011年被赶下台以来,一直担任临时总统的马左基。Mr. Essebsi has pledged to move forward with a united Tunisia and said he hopes his election marks the start of a new future for the country.埃塞卜西保带领团结的突尼斯向前迈进,并表示希望他的的当选标志突尼斯新未来的开始。He previously served as a minister in Mr. Ben Alis administration and as an advisor to Tunisias first president, Habib Bourguiba.埃塞卜西在本.阿里政府被推翻后担任总理,并在突尼斯第一位总统哈比布尔吉巴任职期间担任外交部长。来 /201501/352200。

The US economy is growing at its fastest rate in a decade ahead of today’s congressional elections, the kind of uptick that would lift any leader facing voters in struggling Europe or Japan.今日国会选举前夕,数据显示美国经济正经历10年以来最快的增长率,在苦苦挣扎的欧洲或日本,这种增长足以提高领导人在选民中的人气。But Barack Obama and the Democrats are encountering only headwinds as polls point to a sullen US electorate handing the Republicans control of the Senate for the first time in eight years and lifting their majority in the House to the biggest margin in half a century.但巴拉克#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)和民主党(Democrat)所面临的只有逆风,民调显示,愤懑的美国选民8年来将首次让共和党控制参议院,并帮助众议院中的共和党人取得半个世纪以来最大席位优势。That would sharply boost the morale of a Republican party that has been portrayed as stuck in an ideological cul-de-sac in recent years, reliant on a declining voter base of ageing white men.这将大幅提振共和党的士气。该党近年被描绘成陷入意识形态死胡同,依靠人数不断下降的老年白人选民持。The broader mood of the electorate favours neither side, however. At the moment when the US is taking back its traditional position as the locomotive of the global economy, Americans themselves remain gloomy about their country’s, and their own, prospects.然而选民对两党的整体情绪都不怎么样。就在美国恢复其作为全球经济的火车头的传统地位之际,美国人却仍对自己的国家和他们自己的前景感到悲观。“I think voters are anti the Democrats; I don’t think they are for the Republicans,said Michael Barone, of the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative Washington think-tank.华盛顿保守派智库——美国企业研究所(American Enterprise Institute)的迈克尔#8226;巴罗(Michael Barone)说:“我认为选民抱有反民主党的情绪,我不认为他们持共和党人。”The benchmark polls that track voter sentiment with a simple question about whether the country is on the right or wrong track have now been in deep negative territory since the administration of George W. Bush.用一个简单的问题(美国正处在正确还是错误的轨道上?)来追踪选民情绪的基准调查,目前深陷自乔治·W·布什(George W Bush)政府以来的负值区间。For a nation that has prided itself on its inveterate optimism and the belief that each generation would be better off than the last, negative sentiment about the future is the new normal.美国人曾自豪于其根深蒂固的乐观精神,坚信每一代人都会过得比上一代人更好,但如今美国人对未来的负面情绪成了新常态。The partiescampaigns, as well as a flood of often anonymous donations from wealthy business leaders on both sides, have reinforced the cynicism with a tidal wave of negative advertising.两党的竞选活动,以及富裕商界领袖对两党作出的往往匿名的大量捐款,都以铺天盖地的负面广告,强化了人们的怀疑心态。This midterm election will cost bn, according to the Centre for Responsive Politics, a record amount for a non-presidential year. In the small, highly contested state of Iowa, one local television ran about 20 political ads in a row.根据响应性政治中Center for Responsive Politics)的数据,本次中期选举将耗资40亿美元,创下非总统选举年的纪录。在地域不大,却是两党争夺重点的爱荷华州,当地一家电视台连续播出了约20个政治广告。On his rare appearances on the campaign trail, Mr Obama has tried to counter the negative mood. “Despite all the cynicism, America is making progress,he said at a rally in Connecticut for the governor’s race.奥巴马在此次竞选期间罕有的几次露面中试图对抗负面情绪。他在康涅狄格州一次州长竞选的集会上说:“尽管有这么多怀疑情绪,但美国正取得进展。”来 /201411/340801。

BJ to impose odd-even rule北京将会实施单双号限行Beijing will temporarily implement an odd-even license plate scheme from Aug 20 to Sept 3 to ease traffic during the IAAF World athletics championships and the parade to celebrate the victory in the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggresion.为了缓解国际田联世界田径锦标赛和纪念抗战胜利大阅兵期间的交通问题,80日,北京将实行单双号限行。Eighty percent of government vehicles in Beijing will be kept off the road during that period.在此期间,政府车辆停驶比例达80%。Public vehicles, including buses, taxies and police cars, are not covered by the scheme.包括公交车、出租车和警车在内的公共车辆不受限行影响。The capital will increase the number of buses with shorter intervals and improve subway capacity during that period.限行期间,北京将增加车辆、加密车次、提高地铁运力。The car ban is expected not only to give Beijing a more free flow of traffic, but also improve the air quality.车辆限行预期不仅能舒缓交通,还能改善空气质量。Jobs which raise dust at construction sites will be suspended during the period to ensure clear skies.为保蓝天,建筑工地上引起扬尘的工作也将在活动期间暂停。来 /201508/392231。