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来源:问医常识    发布时间:2019年11月22日 07:24:19    编辑:admin         

7 days a week, and run the clock shifts, a small army of 750 workers toils to keep the trains running.每周7天,而运行在时钟转换,有750名工人掌控着列车,让它行进。Its serious business.这是件严肃的事情。The cars carry millions of lives every day and each life rests in these hands. 列车每天携带数以万计的生命,每一个鲜活的生命都在在这双手的掌控之中。The transit system has 6500 cars, the largest fleet in the world.交通系统有6500辆车,这是世界上最大的车队。Each year, the entire fleet logs 558 million kilometres, nearly 4 times to the distance from the earth to the sun. 每年,整个车队行驶记录为5.58亿公里,是地球到太阳近4倍的距离, Todays car, a self-propelled model of Mass Transit, the biggest and safest car ever to ride these rails。今天的车,自行轨道的交通工具,最大的且最安全的列车总是务于这些铁轨。The newest model is 15.5 meters long and weighs 32 tons. 最新的列车长15.5米、重32吨。Its main components: a passenger cab and two steel trucks. 它的主要组成:一个客运列车和两个钢铁卡车。It draws power through 4 contact shoes, 2 on each side but interconnected.通过4个连接的导片供给能量,每一边都有2个,而且相互联系。When one shoe touches the electrified third rail, all four are hot.当一个导片触及电力第三轨道,所有四个都会发热。Power flows to four 115-horsepower motors, powerful enough to accelerate a sports car from 0 to 100 in 4 seconds. 功率流向四个导片达到115马力电机,强大到在4秒内足以让一辆跑车从0到100迈。With power on, the motors push off at full strength, the trains speed is controlled by resisting the push of motors.随着有了能量,电机充满力量推动,火车的速度控制是通过给予电机推进一定阻力。To stop the train, resistance increases. 想要停止火车,必须使阻力增大。Only within the last 5 meters does the motorman activate the brake shoes it has. 在仅5米中马达管理器就会激活刹车片。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/173914。

Would you eat a y meal from the fridge rather than cook from scratch? Have you been doing internet shopping rather than going to the stores? What cant you be bothered to do?您是否情愿吃冰箱里的即食食品,也懒得亲自下厨做饭呢?您是否更乐于网上购物,而懒得去逛街?还有什么其他您懒得去做的事情呢?A study into how lazy British people are has found more than half of adults are so idle theyd catch the lift rather than climb two flights of stairs.Just over 2000 people were quizzed by independent researchers at Nuffield Health, Britains largest health charity. The results were startling.一项关于“英国人有多懒”的调查发现,超过半数以上的成年人非常懒惰,就算住在二楼,他们宁肯坐电梯也懒得去爬那两段楼梯。有超过两千人接受了英国最大的健康慈善机构——纳菲尔德健康中心的独立调查员的调查,调查结果令人大吃一惊。About one in six people surveyed said if their remote control was broken, they would continue watching the same channel rather than get up. More than one third of those questioned said they would not run to catch a bus. Worryingly, of the 654 respondents with children, 64% said they were often too tired to play with them. This led the report to conclude that its no wonder that one in six children in the UK are classified as obese before they start school.调查显示,如果遥控器坏了,大约六分之一的人宁肯继续看原来的频道也懒得起身去换台。超过三分之一的被调查者称,他们不会跑着去赶一班公交。令人担忧的是,654名有孩子的受访者中有64%的人声称他们经常由于疲惫而懒得陪孩子们玩。调查报告最后总结道,难怪英国每六个学龄前儿童就有一个患有肥胖症。Dr Sarah Dauncey, medical director of Nuffield Health, said: ;People need to get fitter, not just for their own sake, but for the sake of their families, friends and evidently their pets too.If we dont start to take control of this problem, a whole generation will become too unfit to perform even the most rudimentary of tasks.”纳菲尔德健康中心的医疗顾问萨拉·当西士说,“人们的生活有必要变得更健康,这不仅仅是为他们自身考虑,也是为他们的家人、朋友、当然还有他们的宠物考虑。如果我们现在还不开始采取措施控制这个问题,整个一代人将会因过度不健康而丧失完成最基本任务能力。”And Scotlands largest city, Glasgow, was shamed as the most indolent city in the UK, with 75% surveyed admitting they do not get enough exercise, followed closely by Birmingham and Southampton, both with 67%.在关于体育运动的调查中,苏格兰最大的城市格拉斯哥有75%的人承认他们缺少足够的体育锻炼,因而格拉斯哥市被评为英国最懒惰的城市。紧邻其后的是伯明翰和南安普敦,均有67%的人承认缺少足够的体育锻炼。 The results pose serious challenges for the National Health Service, where obesity-related illnesses such as heart disease and cancer have been on a steady increase for the past 40 years and are costing billions of pounds every year.调查结果给英国国民健康务体系提出了严重挑战,在过去40年来,像心脏病和癌症这些与肥胖相关的疾病一直呈稳步上升态势,而每年的医疗投入和花费都高达数十亿英镑。原文译文属!201301/222356。

Why Barns Are Red为什么谷仓是红色的?Yaeuml;l: This was a great idea, Don. Its a beautiful day for a drive to the countryside.Don,这主意真的太棒了!今天超适合开着车到郊外兜风!Don: Yep!赞成!Y: Hey, theres a big red barn. An another one, also red. I wonder why so many barns are painted red.看,那里有一个好大的红谷仓哦。哦,还有一个,也是红色的。真想不通,为什么这些谷仓都要被漆成红色的呢?D: I dont have to wonder. Ive known why barns are red since I was little.我倒是不用去想了,因为在我很小的时候我就已经知道各中原因了。Y: Did you grow up on a farm?你是在农场长大的?D: No, I was just a weird kid.那倒不是,我只是个好奇宝宝而已。Y: So, whats the scoop?那,来谈谈你的“独家报道”吧!D: A few hundred years ago European farmers started painting their barns with a mixture of linseed oil, milk, and lime. Believe it or not, the combination made a pretty good paint that protected wood.数百年前,欧洲农民首先使用一种由亚麻仁油、牛奶和石灰混合而成的混合物来粉刷他们的谷仓。信不信由你,这种混合物是很好的涂料,能很好的保护木材。Y: So where does the red come from?那红色又是怎么来的呢?D: Sometimes theyd also add ferrous oxide to the mix.有时候,他们会在混合物中加入氧化亚铁。Y: You mean rust? Why would they add rust to the paint?你是说铁锈?他们为什么会在涂料里加铁锈呢?D: Because rust kills fungi and moss. When they grow on a barn they trap moisture in the wood, which leads to decay. Painting a barn with rusty paint was the best way to keep it strong and dry. After a while, red barns became a tradition in Europe and over here in America. And even though once commercial paints became available, the tradition continued, since red paint was cheap. White is the second most popular color for barns, since at some point whitewash became even cheaper than red paint. But today, youll see barns in many different colors.这是因为铁锈能除掉真菌和苔藓。如果谷仓里长出了真菌和苔藓,会使得木材变得潮湿,导致木材腐烂。粉刷谷仓时在涂料内加入铁锈是保其牢固、干燥的最好方法。没过多久,红色的谷仓便成为了欧洲以及全美的一项传统。其后,油漆开始面向大众,红色谷仓的传统也在延续,因为红色油漆很便宜。除了红色,最受欢迎的便是白色谷仓。当然,原因很简单,有一段时间,白色油漆降价,比红色油漆还便宜呢。现如今,又完全不一样了,你可以看到五颜六色的谷仓! /201210/205818。

Obituary逝者Robert Rines罗伯特·莱恩斯Robert Rines, scientist and Nessie-hunter, died on November 1st, aged 87罗伯特·莱恩斯——科学家、尼斯水怪追寻者——于11月1日逝世,享年87岁Eyewitness evidence may be all very well in a court of law, but it cuts no ice with scientists. Robert Rines knew that perfectly, because he was a scientist himself, and a good one. In his work to develop radar, sonar and ultrasound he performed all the necessary tests and provided all the proofs required. But when a shining grey hump appeared from the waters of Loch Ness, bringing a hectic lump to his throat and causing him to run across the road, jamming first a telescope and then binoculars to his eyes, he was simply a man who knew he had seen a monster. Science trailed uncomfortably behind. 目击者的词在法庭上倒是很好使,但是到了科学家那里却不管用了。罗伯特·莱恩斯深知这一点,因为他自己就是一名科学家,还是名不错的科学家。在研制雷达、声纳和超声波装置的过程中,他不仅做了必要的试验,还提供了必需的实验据。但是当一个灰色发亮的圆丘突出于尼斯湖面之时,他就只是一个兴奋的水怪目击者了——兴奋得喉咙都哽住了,径直朝那个方向跑去,眼睛紧贴着单筒望远镜观瞧,后又换上双筒望远镜。科学在这个时候不情愿地退居到了次席。What he saw on that day in June 1972 he described as well as he could. It was a hump about 25 feet (8 metres) long, covered with rough dark-grey hide like an elephant’s back. The creature it belonged to ploughed against the current for a while, and then disappeared. It had presumably returned to its haunts in the murky, peaty depths of the lake. But Mr Rines’s life was upside down. The star lecturer in innovation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the founder and president of the Academy of Applied Science, now had a myth on his hands. He determined to substantiate it with all the cash he could raise and all the expertise he could muster, because the alternative was ridicule, or worse. Galileo sometimes sprang to mind.他那天看到的那一幕——即1972年6月的一天——他尽自己所能地描述了下来。那是一个大约25英尺(8米)长的圆形突出物,背部呈黑灰色、粗糙、好似象皮,逆着水流翻搅了一阵子之后,就消失了。假定的情形是它回到了它幽暗、满是泥沼的老巢。但同时,莱恩斯的生活却有了180度的大转弯。这个麻省理工学院讲授“创新”课程的明星讲师,这个应用技术学院的创始人兼院长,现在有了一个萦绕心头的谜题。他决心筹集所有能够筹到的钱,集合所有能够获得的技术,来实水怪的存在,因为说水怪不存在的说法便是荒谬的说法,要比说水怪存在更糟糕;他的心头有时会浮起伽利略的形象。He could have refused to believe his eyes, of course. Plenty of others suggested that he had really seen a tree trunk, a huge eel, a seal, an otter, an upturned boat or a ripple of wind on water. The creature had appeared at dusk, an illusory time of day. More pertinently, Mr Rines was aly primed to see something in the loch. The year before he had taken part, half-sceptically, in experiments with underwater microphones that had picked up “bird-like chirps” in the deeps, and he had even had a perfume concocted to draw shy Nessie to his boat. His favourite ing then was Constance Whyte’s “More than a Legend”, which argued for the creature’s existence with testimony from witnesses she knew. With her, he agreed that this was “a really super ‘whodunit’”—a murder in which “the witnesses have seen the corpse, but cannot produce it.” Perhaps he could.当然,他本可以拒绝相信眼前看到的一切。很多人都认为他看到的其实是别的东西,如一段树干、一只巨大的鳗鱼、一只海豹、一只水獭、一只翻了的小船,或是风在水面上掀起的一道波浪。而且这只生物是在傍晚时分出现的,这是一天当中容易引发错觉的时候。并且莱恩斯已经预备自己会在湖上看到什么东西。前一年,他半带着怀疑参加了一项科学实验,用水中麦克风收集水下深处“鸟叫似的啾啾声”,他甚至合成了一种香水来吸引害羞的“小尼斯”来到他的船边。他那时最喜欢读的书是康斯坦斯·怀特的《不只是传说》,该书用她从目击者那里得来的词来肯定水怪的存在。莱恩斯同意她的讲法——这是“一本真正超级无敌的‘whodunit’式的侦探小说[这个类型的侦探小说只有到了结尾才知道谁是凶手。——译者]”;在这场凶案中,“目击者看到了被害人的尸体, 却拿不出据来。” 也许他能。Instead he produced some famous photographs. They were taken in August 1972 by an underwater camera triggered by a sonar beam, and seemed to show a diamond-shaped flipper attached to a large underbelly. Everything was greenish and grainy, and the unretouched prints looked more like the lake-bed with a flurry of stirred-up sand. But they were published in Nature, and on the strength of them hearings were held in Parliament and a Latin name, Nessiteras rhombopteryx, was attached to the creature by Sir Peter Scott, a prominent naturalist. It was said to be a sort of plesiosaur, somehow stranded in the loch from 65m years ago. Sir Peter, better known for geese, painted a picture of a pair of them plumply swimming.他在1972年8月用水下声纳摄影机拍摄了几张很有名的照片,上面显示的似乎是水怪巨大的下腹部,一个钻石状的菱形鳍状肢附在其上。这些未经处理的图片整体呈暗绿色,颗粒感很重,看起来更像是搅起一阵沙浪的湖底。尽管如此,《自然》杂志刊登了这些图片,国会专门为此举行了听会,著名的物学家彼得·斯科特爵士还为它起了一个拉丁语学名:Nessiteras rhombopteryx(具有菱形鳍的尼斯巨兽)。据说这是蛇颈龙的一种,六千五百万年前由于某种原因在此搁浅。彼得爵士还画了一幅两只水怪拖着胖墩墩的身子、在水里游泳的画(和物学比起来,彼得爵士更有名的是他画鹅的画)。Very like a whale非常像鲸鱼Mr Rines thought the Latin moniker had clinched it. But his evidence was still too sparse. During the war he had developed a radar that could detect aircraft at 200 miles through cloud; in 1985 his inventions in sonar helped to find the drowned Titanic in the North Atlantic; during the first Gulf war his technology guided Patriot missiles to their targets. But he was stumped by the gloomy profundities of Loch Ness. Scientist friends from MIT lent their expertise, at arm’s length. The most he heard, from sonar echoes in 1997, was very like a whale. The most he ever fished up—in 2008, on the last of almost 30 trips, when he supposed that the creature was dead and was looking for its carcass—was an old tyre cut about a bit, which could have looked quite humpish on the surface.莱恩斯认为这个拉丁文学名已经抓住了水怪的特点,但是他能够拿出的据还是太少。二战期间,他研制出一种可以透过云层探测200公里以外飞机的雷达;1985年,他的发明的声纳帮助找到了北大西洋的泰坦尼克沉船;第一次海湾战争中,他的专利技术引导爱国者导弹找到了目标。但是他却在幽暗深邃的尼斯湖水面前受了阻。麻省理工学院的科学家朋友给他提供了专业技术,但只是点到为止。他听到最清楚的一次是1997年声纳接受到的回声,类似鲸叫;他从湖中钓出最大的战利品是2008年的一只旧轮胎(那年,他几乎去了30次,钓出轮胎的是最后一次,他当时认为水怪已死,于是寻找它的尸体),被切掉了一点,所以在水面上才呈现圆丘状。Even close family members, taken reverently into the “Nessie room” in his Boston apartment or instructed never to be without cameras on Scottish holidays, could not quite understand his obsession. But as well as being a scientist, Mr Rines was for 50 years a patent lawyer. His appetite for inventions went back to his childhood, when he had devised a fork and spoon that could fit into a penknife. He was pipped on that one, but died with around 100 patents to his name, most of them improvements to imaging things. A visit to his doctor for cataracts gave him his last invention, when he suggested a longer exposure of his eyeball to ultrasound radiation and found, on looking from his window that night, that the lights round Logan Airport were suddenly crystal clear.他很近的亲属甚至也不大能理解他对此的痴迷,要知道莱恩斯曾经很郑重地带他们参观过自己在波士顿公寓的“尼斯水怪展览室”,在苏格兰度假时也告诉过他们千万要记得带照相机。除了是一名科学家,莱恩斯还作了50年的专利律师。他对于发明的喜好可以追溯到童年时代,他那时曾设计过一款能放进折叠刀的叉子和勺子,差一点就申请到专利。但当他去世时,名下却有了100项左右的专利,大多都是对成像设备的改进。他最后一项发明来自一次看医生、治疗白内障的过程中,他建议医生加长对眼球超声辐射时间,结果当晚透过窗户看外面时,他发现洛根机场周围的灯光突然间变得水晶般的清澈。He never saw clearly enough to find Nessie—except on that one day in 1972, when he had been too moved and excited to work the Super-8 camera that shook in his hand. But the founder of the Academy of Applied Science, and the patent lawyer, regularly recognised himself in the inventors, old and young, who came to see him. The streak of craziness; the thrill of the quest; the frequent difficulty of describing what their invention was, how it worked, what it was for; their vulnerability to ridicule, because what they had done or thought was new; and the need to protect that thought, as something interesting and precious in itself. Mr Rines’s generosity and openness to them was no more than he hoped for for himself, as he sat patiently in his waterproofs, waiting, beside a Scottish shore.在寻找尼斯水怪的过程中,他却从没看清楚过——除了1972年的那一天,他由于过分的激动和兴奋,都用不好他那台Super-8型号的照相机了,手不停地抖动。但是这个实用技术学院的创始人,这个专利律师却时常可以在拜访他的年轻和年老的发明家那里看见自己的影子:近似疯癫的性格;探索未知时的激动;描述新发明时常遇到的困难(诸如发明的东西怎么工作,发明的目地是什么);面对嘲笑时的脆弱(因为所做所想都是新东西);还有感觉需要保护新想法的心理(把新想法本身看作有趣的、要珍视的东西)。莱恩斯不会不包容这些性格,他对这些人是敞开的;但是他更希望那个坐在苏格兰的湖边、穿着雨衣、静静等待的那个人——他自己,受到包容。 /201208/196848。