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2019年10月20日 03:36:41来源:光明常识

  • Am I coming to the US to engage in prostitution? Do I belong to a clan or tribe? Do I have tuberculosis or infectious leprosy? 我是不是来美国从事卖淫的?我是不是一个宗族或者部落的成员?我有没有患肺结核或者是传染性麻风? I have just renewed my five-year US visitor’s visa after truthfully answering “no” to the above and many other questions. 在给我的五年期美国旅游签续签的时候,我如实地对上述问题以及很多其他问题做出了否定回答。 At the US London embassy the ticket-based queueing system was well organised, there was free coffee, the consular staff who interviewed me were good-humoured and my passport was returned with a fresh visa just three days later. 在伦敦的美国大使馆,人们有序排队,有免费的咖啡,和我面谈的领事馆工作人员态度和蔼,三天之后我就拿到了带有新签的护照。 But as I filled in the application form before my embassy appointment, I wondered what the point was of asking “Do you seek to engage in terrorist activities while in the ed States?” when those who plan to do so will surely click “no”. 但在来大使馆面签之前填写申请表的时候,我真的不知道问“你在美国的时候是否会寻求从事恐怖活动?”这种问题有什么意义,因为那些策划恐怖活动的人肯定会选“否”。 Why are some of the questions so imprecise? For example, on the form I had to fill in (as a journalist, I require a particular type of visa), I was asked if I had ever been responsible as a government official for “particularly severe violations of religious freedom”. What does particularly severe mean? Are mild violations of religious freedom acceptable? 为什么有些问题如此含糊?比如说,在我需要填写的申请表中(作为一名记者,我需要办理特定类别的签),我被问及是否曾经作为政府官员“组织特别严重的违反宗教自由的活动”。“特别严重”是什么意思?轻微违反宗教自由就可以接受吗? Or take an example from the Electronic System for Travel Authorisation (Esta) form that visitors with a US visa waiver complete (this includes tourists from many European and some other countries): “Have you ever been arrested or convicted for an offence or crime involving moral turpitude?” 再来看美国免签游客需要填写的旅游许可电子系统(Esta)表格(面向多个欧洲国家和其他一些国家的游客),上面有一道这样的问题:“你有没有因为道德败坏行为或犯罪而被捕或被判刑?” What is a crime involving moral turpitude? Does agreeing to accept someone else’s speeding points count as moral turpitude when an opinion poll by the AA motoring organisation suggested 300,000 people in the UK had done that? 什么是道德败坏罪?超速之后拿别人的分数顶算不算道德败坏?英国汽车协会(AA)的一项民调显示,英国有30万人都这么做过。 And, finally, how did US visa application forms come to be such a curious agglomeration of questions? 最后,美国签申请表怎么会有这么多奇怪的问题? My first query – whether miscreants are likely to answer incriminating questions truthfully – is one nearly every visa applicant asks. “Clients constantly say: ‘Are you kidding? Does anyone answer ‘yes’?’” says Kehrela Hodkinson, a London-based US immigration lawyer. 我的第一个疑问:邪恶分子有没有可能如实回答关于犯罪的问题?这也是几乎每个签申请者会问的问题。在伦敦工作的美国移民律师科瑞拉#8226;霍德金森(Kehrela Hodkinson)说,客户经常问“你开玩笑吧?鬼才会回答‘是’呢!” It is also the easiest mystery to solve. The point of asking these questions is that, if you answer them untruthfully, you have obtained a visa by fraud or misrepresentation and can be deported if you are found out, either on this visit, or if you subsequently win the right to live in the US. 这个疑问很容易解答。问这些问题的意图在于,如果不如实回答问题,就相当于通过欺骗或者误导获得签,一旦被发现就可能遭到驱逐,不管是在此次旅行中,还是以后获得美国居住权的时候。 My query about the imprecision of some of the questions has a less precise answer. There have been many academic discussions – and even an entire book – on what moral turpitude is. 对一些语义不清晰的问题,我就不能准确地解释了。关于什么是道德败坏,有过很多学术讨论,甚至有一整本书都是讲这个的。 There is no statutory definition of the term. It is up to judges and the Board of Immigration Appeals to decide what it means, Mary Holper of Boston College Law School says in an informative paper. When deciding whether to deport someone, judges have to assess whether the crime in question offends the “moral standards generally prevailing in the ed States”. This, Prof Holper says, “casts judges in the role of God”. 这个词没有法定的定义。波士顿学院法学院(Boston College Law School)的玛丽#8226;霍尔波(Mary Holper)在一篇颇具启发意义的论文中说,它的意思取决于法官和移民上诉委员会(Board of Immigration Appeals)。在决定是否要驱逐某个人的时候,法官必须判断其所犯的罪是否违反了“美国的主流道德标准”。霍尔波教授说,这“让法官扮演了上帝的角色”。 In cases over the years, fraud, theft and many sexual offences have been classed as involving moral turpitude. Assault has been, too, “when the offence has an aggravating factor such as a deadly weapon”, Prof Holper says. 多年来,欺骗、盗窃以及很多性犯罪都被归为道德败坏行为。霍尔波教授说:“如果犯罪过程中有使用致命武器等加重情节的因素,”攻击也算是道德败坏罪。 As for severely restricting religious freedom, the US Commission on International Religious Freedom, a statutory body, says only one person has ever been barred on those grounds: Narendra Modi, tipped by many to be the next Indian prime minister, for his alleged complicity in the deadly 2002 anti-Muslim riots in his home state of Gujarat. (He denies responsibility.) 至于严重限制宗教自由,法定机构美国国际宗教自由委员会(US Commission on International Religious Freedom)指出,到目前只有一个人因为这个原因没被放行,他就是很多人认为有望出任下一届印度总理的纳伦德拉#8226;莫迪(Narendra Modi),原因是他被控参与了2002年在他的家乡古吉拉特邦爆发的反穆斯林严重骚乱(他对此表示否认)。 The reason US visa forms seem such an odd accretion of questions is that is what they are. They have been added to over the decades to confront whatever danger the US was dealing with at the time. 美国签申请表之所以看起来像是很多奇怪的问题堆积而成的,原因就是它们本来就是这样的。这些问题几十年来不断累积增多,以应对美国在各个时期面临的风险。 Prof Holper points out that “moral turpitude” was introduced into US immigration law in 1891. Questions about issues such as prostitution go back to before visas existed, as do many health questions. Officials at Ellis Island used to keep visitors out because they had tuberculosis, says Muzaffar Chishti of the US-based Migration Policy Institute. 霍尔波教授指出,“道德败坏”是1891年引入美国移民法的。关于卖淫等一些方面的问题在签存在之前就有了,很多健康方面的问题也是如此。美国移民政策研究所(Migration Policy Institute)的穆扎法尔#8226;齐矢堤(Muzaffar Chishti)说,埃利斯岛(Ellis Island,原美国移民局所在地)的官员曾拒绝有结核病的游客进入。 Are the visa forms an effective way of keeping undesirables out of the US? “If we’re interested in keeping people who mean to do us harm out, it’s not very effective,” Mr Chishti says. Biometric screening, databases and finger printing are far more useful, he says. 签申请表是不是将不良分子拒于美国之外的一种有效方式呢?齐矢堤说:“如果我们不想让有意伤害我们的人进入美国,这种方式就不是很有效。”他认为,生物筛选、数据库以及指纹图谱要有用得多。 /201312/268160。
  • Prosecutors on Thursday brought a string of criminal charges against one of China#39;s most controversial magnates, a man once known for his mink coat and black Ferrari. Now he faces allegations of murder, illegal firearm rackets and #39;Mafia-style conspiracy.#39;中国检察机关周四对四川汉龙集团(Sichuan Hanlong Group)原董事长刘汉提起刑事公诉,曾以一身貂皮大衣和黑色法拉利轿车闻名的刘汉是中国最具争议的富豪之一。他被指控犯有故意杀人罪、非法买卖和持有罪、组织、领导、参加黑社会性质组织罪。Liu Han, the former chairman of mining company Sichuan Hanlong Group, was among 36 people charged by prosecutors at the Xianning City Intermediate People#39;s Court, said Zheng Jiwei, research office director of the Xianning municipal people#39;s procuratorate, confirming a report by the official Xinhua news agency. Mr. Liu#39;s brother, Liu Wei, was also among those charged by the prosecutors in central Hubei province.湖北省咸宁市人民检察院政研室的郑继伟实了新华社的报道。包括刘汉在内的36人已在咸宁市中级人民法院被提起公诉,刘汉的弟弟刘维也是被告之一。The state#39;s charges could have been ripped from a pulp novel on Cosa Nostra. The group allegedly built a criminal network that spanned from Beijing to Sichuan province in the west, Guangdong province in the south, and 10 other provinces and cities, Xinhua said. In an investigation covering #39;hundreds of thousands of kilometers,#39; authorities recovered a cache consisting of #39;three grenades, 20 firearms of various types, 677 bullets, [and] 2,163 steel-ball bullets,#39; Xinhua said.据新华社报道,负责侦办此案的公安民警辗转四川、北京、广东等十余个省市,行程数十万公里,追缴军用手榴弹三枚、各类20、子弹677发,钢珠弹2,163发。The trail of destruction killed nine people, it said. The Hubei court declined to comment on the case or to disclose Mr. Liu#39;s counsel. The Liu brothers couldn#39;t be reached for comment. Liu Wei also goes the name Liu Yong, official reports say.检方表示,刘汉等人的犯罪行为共造成九人死亡。咸宁市中级人民法院对此案不予置评,也未透露刘汉辩护律师的信息。记者未能与刘氏兄弟取得联系。据官方报道,刘维又名刘勇。The charges against Liu Han cap a career marked by excess. In 2012, he drew media attention for an abortive .3 billion plan to blast the top off a hill in Nevada in search of molybdenum, a metal used to strengthen steel.针对刘汉的指控将给他张扬外显的事业画上句号。2012年,他曾计划在内华达州开展一项13亿美元的项目,进行山顶爆破、开采钼矿。计划虽然流产,但他因此吸引了媒体的关注。钼是一种可加固钢铁的金属。Mr. Liu#39;s company, which also owns hydropower dams and natural-gas distribution networks, sought to pay .4 billion for Australia#39;s Sundance Resources Ltd., which owns iron-ore mines in Africa. The deal fell apart last March after police said they had detained Mr. Liu on suspicion of harboring Liu Wei, whom police suspected of murder. A warrant issued at that time detailed Liu Wei#39;s involvement in a 2009 gangland-style triple killing at a teahouse in the brothers#39; hometown of Guanghan in Sichuan province.刘汉的公司还拥有水电大坝和天然气输配网络。该公司曾拟斥资14亿美元收购澳大利亚的Sundance Resources Ltd.,后者拥有非洲铁矿石矿产。此项交易去年3月份宣告失败,因警方之前表示,已经拘留了刘汉,理由是其涉嫌窝藏谋杀嫌犯刘维。当时公布的一份明材料详细描述了刘维参与2009年一起黑社会性质的谋杀案的情况。这起谋杀案发生在刘氏兄弟家乡四川省广汉市的一个茶馆里,当时有三人被杀。The Xinhua report said the charges against the gang of 36 include #39;participating in a crime syndicate, intentional homicide, intentional assault, illegal detention, obstruction of official work, extortion, opening an illegal casino, illegal trade in firearms, illegal possession of firearms and ammunition, illegal businesses, bid-rigging and the intentional destruction of property.#39;新华社报道,针对这36人团伙的指控包括参加黑社会性质组织、故意杀人、故意伤害、非法拘禁、妨碍执行公务、敲诈勒索、开设非法场所、非法倒卖、非法拥有弹药、非法经营、串通投标以及故意毁坏财物。In his hour of reckoning with China#39;s judicial machine, one of Liu Han#39;s es may come back to haunt him. In an interview with The Wall Street Journal in 2010, he said, before blazing away in his Ferrari: #39;Liu Han always wins. Liu Han never loses.#39;在他接受中国司法机关审判时,人们可能会想起刘汉曾说过的一句话。刘汉曾在2010年接受《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)采访。在接受采访后驾驶他那辆黑色法拉利飞奔而去之前,他曾说:刘汉从来都是赢家,刘汉从不失手。Criminal cases normally take about a month to go to trial after charges are filed, but some may take longer, Mr. Zheng of the prosecutors#39; office said.咸宁市人民检察院政研室的郑继伟说,刑事案件一般会在起诉后的一个月左右审理,但有些案件需要的时间可能会长一些。 /201402/277074。
  • In an announcement to the Tokyo Stock Exchange on Tuesday, Japan’s NSK Ltd said the National Development and Reform Commission had ordered it to pay a penalty of Rmb174.9m (.5m) for violations of China’s Anti-Monopoly Law. The company, which makes bearings and other car components, was the first to confirm it has been fined by the NDRC for alleged antitrust infractions.日本精工株式会社(NSK Ltd)周二向东京交所(Tokyo Stock Exchange)宣布称,中国国家发改委(NDRC)命令其缴纳罚款1.749亿元人民币(合2850万美元),原因是违反中国反垄断法。这家生产轴承等汽车配件的公司,是第一家实自己因涉嫌违反中国反垄断法而被国家发改委罚款的公司。Another Japanese components manufacturer, NTN Corp, also said on Tuesday that it had been told to pay Rmb119.2m as part of the NDRC investigation.另一家日本汽车配件生产商恩梯恩(NTN Corp)周二也表示,其也因为中国国家发改委的调查,被通知缴纳罚款1.192亿元人民币。“Following an internal investigation into the alleged conduct, NSK has been fully co-operating with the NDRC’s investigation into sales of bearings in China,” NSK said. “We express our sincere regret for the concern this matter has caused our shareholders [and] customers.”精工株式会社表示:“对涉嫌违法行为自查之后,我们一直在全力配合中国国家发改委对我们在中国市场销售轴承的调查。对于此事对我们的股东(和)客户造成的担忧,我们表示诚挚的歉意。”The company added that it had not yet determined if the fine would force a revision of its business forecasts for the current financial year.该公司补充称,其尚未确定此罚款是否将迫使其修订对本财年业绩的预测。Multinational car executives have been bracing for the full results of the NDRC’s investigation, which they expect to be announced as soon as this week.跨国汽车企业已经准备好承受中国发改委的调查,调查结果最早将在本周公布。NSK’s penalty is the third-highest ever assessed by the NDRC. NSK’s penalty is also the first substantial antitrust fine paid in China by a Japanese company.中国国家发改委对精工株式会社开出了有史以来数额第三高的罚单。这也是一家日本公司在中国付的第一笔大额反垄断罚款。Some analysts have argued that while the NDRC’s auto industry investigation will benefit consumers by lowering prices for both vehicles and spare parts, it will also pose challenges for Chinese car brands that have been losing market share to imports and foreign-invested joint ventures.有分析师认为,中国发改委对汽车行业的调查会让消费者受益,汽车以及零部件的价格会降低,但同时也会对中国本土的汽车品牌构成挑战。这些本土品牌本已在同进口品牌和外资合作品牌的竞争中失去了市场竞争力。“Imported and joint-venture cars do enjoy high margins, but the anti-monopoly investigation will further drag down prices and put even more pressure on Chinese car companies,” said Wang Liusheng, automotive analyst at China Merchants Securities.中国招商券汽车业分析师汪刘胜表示:“进口和合资的汽车的确在中国市场收益很高,但是反垄断调查将进一步拉低汽车价格,这会对中国本土的汽车公司造成更大压力。” /201408/322676。
  • It was a modest drop but Taiwan#39;s unemployment rate fell to a six-year low in July, highlighting the economy#39;s resilience despite a slowdown in mainland China.7月台湾失业率小幅下降,至6年最低点,显示台湾经济在大陆经济放缓时仍具弹性。Taiwan#39;s unemployment rate fell from 3.97 per cent in June to 3.95 per cent, just beating estimates and continuing a steady downward trend from an average 4.18 per cent in 2013. This is the lowest jobless rate since June 2008 (see chart).台湾失业率从6月的3.97%下降至3.95%,略胜过预期,为2008年6月以来最低的失业率,也延续了从2013年以来稳步下降的趋势。2013年时,台湾失业率平均为4.18%。The labour force grew by 42,000 last month, a third straight gain, with the number of employed people rising for a fifth month, by 29,000.上月劳动力人口增加4.2万,为连续第三个月上升;受雇人数增加2.9万,为连续第五个月上升。The export-driven economy has been picking up steam in recent months, with GDP in the second quarter expanding by 3.74 per cent from a year ago - the fastest pace since late 2012.近几个月来,出口驱动型的台湾经济一直在提速,第二季度国内生产总值(GDP)同比增长3.74%,为2012年下半年以来的最快增速。Data released last week showed export growth accelerated to a yearly pace of 5.8 per cent in July, from 1.2 per cent in June. Barclays commented on that report: The pick-up was led by continued strong growth to China, with exports to Europe also improving. Export growth to the US slowed surprisingly, but leading indicators suggest this is unlikely to last.上周公布的数据显示,7月台湾年化出口增速从6月的1.2%提高至5.8%。巴克莱(Barclays)对该数据称:“出口提速的首要原因是对大陆出口持续增加,对欧洲出口也在好转。对美出口增速放缓令人惊讶,但先行指标显示,这一趋势很可能逆转。The economy is expected to decelerate in the current quarter, but exports of tech gadgets, including Apple#39;s upcoming iPhone 6, are limiting the downside risks.预计第三季度台湾经济增长将会减速,但一些新科技产品——包括苹果(Apple)公司即将上市的iPhone 6——的出口,将减小下滑风险。 /201408/323593。
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