连江县检查精液价格时空信息

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月26日 10:23:15
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Surging investment in artificial intelligence is giving the US an early advantage in the race to dominate a new era of robotics, according to investors and experts in an industry that is set to become one of the most strategically important.人工智能领域的投资者和专家称,该领域的投资飙升让美国在主宰机器人新时代的竞争中抢占先机,该领域即将成为最具战略重要性的行业之一。Recent advances in AI, particularly in a technique known as deep learning, have shifted robotics from its core industrial market into areas such as self-driving cars, fuelling debate over the benefits and threats posed by the rise of the robots.最近人工智能领域的进步(尤其是在所谓深度学习的技术上),让机器人从核心的工业市场转向自动驾驶汽车等领域,这激起了有关机器人崛起所带来的好处和威胁的辩论。As the technology extends its reach beyond factory production lines, the US and China are poised to take the lead from Japan and Germany, which dominate traditional industrial robotics.随着这种技术扩大到工厂生产线以外,美国和中国将从主宰传统工业机器人的日本和德国手中夺走领军地位。Investment in the sector in the US more than doubled to 7m last year, according to CB Insights, a venture capital research firm. That is helping drive global growth of 17 per cent a year, according to research group IDC, whichprojects the robot market will almost double from bn to 5bn by 2019.根据风投研究机构CB Insights的数据,去年,美国在人工智能领域的投资增加逾一倍,至5.87亿美元。据研究机构IDC的数据,这帮助推动全球投资每年增长17%,该机构预测,到2019年,机器人市场的规模将从710亿美元增加近一倍,达到1350亿美元。“The most interesting things are in Silicon Valley or the US,” said Dmitry Grishin, a Russian internet entrepreneur and investor who has raised a 0m fund to invest in robot and other hardware start-ups. As low-cost robots move into more consumer and business uses, such as drones, China’s hardware manufacturing expertise will also make it a more significant player, he added.俄罗斯互联网创业者和投资人德米特里#8226;格里申(Dmitry Grishin)表示:“最有趣的事情发生在硅谷或美国其他地方。”他筹集了一1亿美元的基金,用于投资机器人和其他创业型硬件企业。他补充称,随着低成本机器人转向更多消费和商业用途(例如无人机),中国在硬件制造方面的专长将令其成为一个更重要的参与者。Beijing’s booming demand for automation as it tries to claw its way up the manufacturing value chain has also fuelled efforts to build a local robot sector. However, most industry executives say it will take years for China to match technology from companies in Japan and other established manufacturers.此外,随着中国努力攀爬制造业价值链,中国对自动化日益旺盛的需求一直推动其努力打造本土机器人行业。然而,多数行业高管表示,中国要赶上日本公司以及其他老牌制造商的技术还需要数年之久。The threat from new AI and cloud technologies has prompted a scramble among established players not to get left behind. Japan’s Fanuc, the world’s largest maker of industrial robots, has announced plans to start connecting its 400,000 installed machines by the end of this year, to collect data about their operations and improve their performance.来自新的人工智能和云技术的威胁,促使老牌参与者纷纷行动起来以免落后。全球最大工业机器人制造商日本发那科(Fanuc)宣布计划,将在今年底之前开始将其40万台已安装机器联网,以收集操作数据并改善机器性能。Japan’s manufacturing lead over the US should sustain its edge in industrial robots, said Junichi Hasegawa, chief strategy officer at Preferred Networks, a Japanese deep learning company that counts Fanuc — whose machines are all painted bright yellow — among its investors. “We can’t fight with information stored on the cloud, but the yellow robots are everywhere in the world and they gather data. If you ask whether Google can do the same, the answer is no,” he said.日本深度学习公司Preferred Networks首席运营官长谷川顺一(Junichi Hasegawa)表示,日本在制造业相对于美国的领先地位,应该会撑其在工业机器人领域占据优势。该公司的投资者包括发那科(发那科生产的机器人都被涂成亮黄色)。他表示:“我们竞争不过存储在云上的信息,但黄色机器人遍布全世界,他们会收集数据。如果你问谷歌(Google)是否也能这么做,是否定的。”While US internet companies such as Google and Facebook have led the investment in deep learning, Silicon Valley has seen a wider start-up boom in AI and robotics. A collapse in the price of components, thanks to smartphone growth, has made it cheaper to launch robot companies, investors say.谷歌和Facebook等美国互联网公司一直引领深度学习领域的投资,而硅谷则出现了人工智能和机器人领域的更广泛创业潮。投资者表示,得益于智能手机的增长,零配件价格大幅下跌,这降低了创建机器人公司的成本。So-called “intelligent” robots play to US strengths through new technologies and software culture, they added.他们补充称,通过新技术和软件文化,所谓的“智能”机器人发挥了美国的优势。“At its core, these companies need to be machine vision companies, that get better as they get more data,” said Chris Dixon, a partner at Andreessen Horowitz, a Silicon Valley investment firm.硅谷投资公司Andreessen Horowitz合伙人克里斯#8226;狄克逊(Chris Dixon)表示:“从本质来看,这些公司需要成为机器视觉(MV)公司,获取的数据越多,表现就越出色。”The new entrepreneurs rushing into the field are different from the hardware engineers who historically dominated the field, he added: “They don’t like to use the word robotics — they think of [it] as an electrical engineering mindset, versus#8201;…#8201;autonomy and AI.”涌入该领域的新的创业者与以往一直主宰该领域的硬件工程师不同,他补充称:“他们不喜欢使用‘机器人’这个词,他们认为……相对于自动化和人工智能,(它)是一种电子工程思维。”The new technologies changing robotics are “available today” and advanced enough to have a disruptive impact across other industries, said Steve Jurvetson, an investor in Tesla Motors and SpaceX, companies led by Elon Musk.投资了埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)旗下的特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)和SpaceX两家公司的史蒂夫#8226;尤尔韦特松(Steve Jurvetson)表示,改变机器人的新技术“现在已就绪”,而且相当先进,足以对其他行业产生颠覆性影响。 /201605/446100

Don#39;t forget to wipe before you swipe the next time you are at Tokyo#39;s Narita International Airport.下次到东京成田国际机场的时候,不要忘记在滑手机之前把它擦干净。Toilets at the airport have been equipped with ;toilet paper; that you can use to disinfect your smartphone.该机场的厕所配备了可为智能手机消毒的“厕纸”。Paid for by Japanese mobile giant NTT Docomo, the sheets also include information about the firm#39;s public Wi-Fi networks as well as details about its smartphone travel app.该厕纸由日本移动巨头多克莫公司买单,上面显示了该公司的公共无线网信息及其智能手机旅行应用的详细信息。The bizarre dispensers have been installed in seven restrooms and will remain in place until March next year, local media cited NTT Docomo as saying.据当地媒体援引多克莫公司的话称,已经有7间洗手间安装了这种奇怪的厕纸分发器,这些分发器将保留到明年3月份。Japan is globally renowned for revolutionising its public toilets, many of which are clean, modern and boast very elaborate high-tech features.日本公共卫生间的变革是世界闻名的,该国大多卫生间都十分干净、现代化而且配有精心设计的高科技设施。;There are more than five times of germs on a smartphone screen as compared to a toilet seat,; NTT Docomo said in a post on its official YouTube page.多克莫公司在其YouTube官方主页上发帖称,“智能手机屏幕上的细菌比马桶座上的5倍还多。It added that the special cleaning rolls were ;made to clean screens so foreign tourists could enjoy their travel hygienically;.他们称,这种特殊清洁卷纸是“专门用来清洁屏幕的,可以让外国游客享受卫生的旅行”。In true Japanese fashion, a quirky two-minute instructional demonstrated how to correctly use the sheets, and also the ;shower; or bidet function found in most public toilets in the country.一段两分钟的诡异教学视频用典型的日本风格演示了如何正确使用手机厕纸,以及日本大多数公共卫生间都有的冲洗功能。News of the smartphone toilet paper sp rapidly among Facebook users.关于这款智能手机厕纸的消息在脸谱用户中迅速扩散。;Give your smartphone a wipe while you answer the call of nature,; commented Roger Chen in Singapore.新加坡的Roger Chen道:“在你上厕所时擦擦自己的手机吧。”;What if you#39;re tired and jetlagged and accidentally mix up the smartphone toilet paper with the regular roll,; asked another user.另一位用户则提问道:“如果你在疲惫不堪、倒不过时差时不小心将智能手机厕纸和普通卷纸搞混了怎么办?”Others like Gale Gayol welcomed the move.盖尔.加约尔等用户则对此举表示欢迎。;I need this. I have the habit of wiping my smartphone with tissue and alcohol every night after work,; she said in a Facebook post.她在脸书的帖子上称:“我需要智能手机厕纸。我习惯在每晚下班后用纸巾和酒精擦拭我的手机。”;Don#39;t laugh. Your own toilet experience will always be crappy compared to this,; said Mike Putro. ;Trust the Japanese to think of something so clever.;“不要笑。和这个相比,你们自己的厕所体验真的很烂,”麦克.佩特罗称,“相信日本人想出来的东西一定是很机智的。”;Welcome to Japan, where the way things are designed is pretty amazing in the sense that they seem to have thought of everything,; said another user.另一位用户说:“欢迎来到日本,从某种意义上说,这里的物品设计方式相当了不起,因为他们似乎考虑到了一切事情”。;Even things that you didn#39;t think you needed suddenly become items you just can#39;t live without.;“就连你认为没有必要的东西也会突然变得不可或缺。” /201612/485912

“The word hacking is like feminism. It has got too much baggage attached.”“hacking这个词就像女权主义。它已附带了太多包袱。”Of all the things Cal Leeming told me — and he told me a lot of hair-raising stuff about banks’ security flaws — this was one of the things that stayed with me. He does not call himself a hacker, although he almost exactly embodies the stereotype of one. Pale, introverted and with an innate talent for technology, he went to prison for stealing credit card details and now, after turning his life around, runs his own security company. He calls himself a software engineer.凯尔#8226;利明(Cal Leeming)曾告诉我许多关于安全漏洞的可怕事情,然而上面这句话让我尤其难以忘怀。他并未称自己是一名黑客——尽管他几乎是人们对黑客固有印象的完美化身。面色苍白的他性格内向,拥有与生俱来的技术天分。他曾因窃取信用卡资料而入狱。如今,华丽转身后的他运营着自己的安全公司。他把自己称为一名软件工程师。Back in the 1950s, when the word “hacking” first emerged in connection with an MIT computer club, it simply meant tinkering with computers and was a badge of honour. But when the press began writing about hackers in the 1980s it was usually in the context of criminality, and that link has stuck. For a while there was an attempt to differentiate between hackers and crackers. “Peaceful, law-abiding coders who built things called themselves hackers. Hackers built things, we said, and crackers broke things,” wrote J M Porup, a hacker-turned-tech-reporter in a piece on website Motherboard. But this distinction is not often made clear.上世纪50年代,“hacking”一词最早出现在与麻省理工学院(MIT)一个电脑俱乐部有关的语境。当时它只是指鼓捣电脑,带有荣誉勋章的涵义。然而,上世纪80年代,当媒体开始报道“hacker”(黑客)时,其语境通常是犯罪行为,这种联系已经固化。有那么一段时间,曾有人企图将黑客和“溃客”(cracker)区分开来。由黑客转型的科技报道记者J#8226;M#8226;泼卢浦(J M Porup)在Motherboard网站上撰文写道:“那些安分、守法、爱动手做东西的编程者自称黑客。我们说,黑客是做东西的,而溃客是砸烂东西的。”不过,这种区分往往并不被人认真对待。Calling yourself a hacker can even be dangerous, as Corey Thuen, a software developer found out in 2013 while in dispute with a former employer. The Idaho District Court ordered Mr Thuen’s hard drive to be seized and copied for evidence, a fairly serious privacy intrusion and not routine legal practice. Part of the justification was that Mr Thuen described himself as a hacker.正如软件开发者科里#8226;休恩(Corey Thuen) 2013年在与前雇主的纠纷中所发现的,自称黑客甚至可能会有危险。爱达荷州地区法院(Idaho District Court)下令没收并复制休恩的硬盘作为据,这是相当严重的剥夺隐私行为,并不是常见的司法实践,而其理由之一就是休恩自称黑客。“The tipping point for the Court comes from evidence that the defendants — in their own words — are hackers,” wrote the judge. “By labelling themselves this way, they have essentially announced that they have the necessary computer skills and intent to simultaneously release the code publicly and conceal their role in that act.”法官写道:“法庭做出决定的关键要点,源自被告——用其自己的话来说——是黑客的相关据。通过以这种方式标榜自身,他们实质上已宣布自己拥有必要的电脑技能和意图,能够在公开发布相关代码的同时,隐藏自己在这一行动中所扮演的角色。”The case was eventually settled out of court, but the idea that calling yourself a hacker implies some kind of evil intent remains troubling. Opinions were mixed when I asked the FT’s Tech Meets Money Facebook group about hacking. “It implies fast and cheap with disregard to convention or rules. Sometimes that’s good and sometimes not so much,” said Daniel Priestley, a London-based entrepreneur.该案最终以庭外和解收场,然而那种自称黑客就隐含着某种罪恶意图的观念依然令人不安。当我在英国《金融时报》“当高科技遇到资本”(Tech Meets Money)的Facebook群里问到有关hacking的问题时,人们的看法各不相同。伦敦企业家丹尼尔#8226;普里斯特利(Daniel Priestley)表示:“这个词暗示着快捷和廉价,无视惯例或规则。有时候这很不错,有时候就不太好了。”Above all, “hacker” is now a confusing term. Everyone, from a member of a Russian criminal gang stealing credit cards to online political activists and the 14-year-old kid who tinkers with computers, is a “hacker”, yet each one of them has very different motivations and resources.最重要的是,如今“黑客”是个令人迷惑的词汇。从窃取信用卡资料的俄罗斯犯罪团伙成员,到网上政治活动人士,以及鼓捣电脑的14岁孩子,都是“黑客”,然而他们每个人做事的动机和手头拥有的资源极为不同。At the same time companies hold “hack days” and “hackathons” during which they brainstorm business ideas, women’s magazine hints and tips column have been rebranded as “lifehacks” and the people who used to be called advertising executives refer to themselves as “growth hackers”.与此同时,企业举办“黑客日”(hack day)和“黑客松”(hackathon)之类的活动,其间借助“头脑风暴”捕捉业务上的创意;女性杂志的提示技巧栏目已被重新包装为“生活破解”(lifehack);而那些过去被称为广告主管的人如今自称“增长黑客”(growth hacker)。Catherine Bracy, director of community organising at Code for America, even argues anyone can be a “civic hacker”, helping governments to re-energise democracy. Under this definition Benjamin Franklin, inventor and one of the founding fathers of the US (who never filed a patent because he believed all human knowledge should be free) is an archetypal hacker — even though the word had something to do with cutting down trees in his day. The term is maddeningly imprecise.“为美国编程”(Code for America)社区组织总监凯瑟琳#8226;布雷西(Catherine Bracy)甚至提出,任何人都可以成为“公民黑客”,帮助政府为民主体制重新注入活力。按照这样的定义,发明家、美国的开国先贤之一本杰明#8226;富兰克林(Benjamin Franklin)就是典型的黑客——尽管在他的年代这个词的含义和砍树有关。他从来不申请专利,因为他认为人类所有的知识都应该免费。简言之,“黑客”一词的含糊程度令人发狂。The battle over the word mirrors the behind-the-scenes struggle of the internet, between those who push the boundaries of what is possible and the institutions that want to secure cyber space for their own purposes.围绕这个词的斗争折射出了互联网幕后的斗争:一方是那些致力拓展可能性界限的人,另一方是出于自身目的想要确保网络空间安全的机构。Hackers are a problem because, if anything, they are a bit too democratic for many people’s taste. In her essay on Phreaks, Hackers and Trolls, academic Gabriella Coleman likens internet disrupters to the tricksters of mythology. Folkloric figures like Loki and Anansi are the agents of change, but they are also unsettling, frightening, even grotesque. Hackers will take technology forward but they may not be thanked for it.黑客之所以成为问题,是因为(如果说有任何不正常的话)他们对许多人来说有点民主过头了,令人难以接受。在名为《电脑怪人、黑客和山精》(Phreaks, Hackers and Trolls)的论文中,学者加布里埃拉#8226;科尔曼(Gabriella Coleman)将互联网颠覆者类比成神话里恶作剧的妖精。洛基(Loki)和阿南西(Anansi)这类民间故事中的人物是变革的推动者,但他们也令人不安、让人害怕、甚至古怪狰狞。黑客会促进技术进步,但他们也许不会因此受到感谢。For example, hackers were some of the earliest believers in open-source software — making computer code freely available to be viewed and improved on by anyone. This used to be a troubling concept for companies, which had based businesses on protecting their intellectual property.比如,有些黑客是开源软件的最早信徒,这类软件免费公开源代码,让任何人可以查看并作出改进。过去这对企业是个令人不安的概念,因为这些企业的业务建立在保护知识产权的基础上。Linus Torvalds, inventor of the Linux open source operating system, was for a time the bête noire of business. He was described in 2001 as “cancer” by Microsoft’s then chief Steve Ballmer. But a recent survey found some 78 per cent of companies who had responded ran at least part of their business on open source software. Even Satya Nadella, Microsoft’s new chief, has said he “loves Linux” and is moving part of the company’s Azure platform to run on the system. There is a sense of karma about this but 15 years can be a long time to wait for acceptance.开源操作系统Linux的发明人林纳斯#8226;托瓦兹(Linus Torvalds)一度被商界视为“眼中钉”。2001年他曾被时任微软(Microsoft)首席执行官史蒂夫#8226;鲍尔默(Steve Ballmer)称为“癌症”。然而,最近一次调查表明,回应调查的企业中,大约78%在开源软件上运营至少一部分业务。就连微软新任首席执行官萨蒂亚#8226;纳德拉(Satya Nadella)也表示“喜爱Linux”,正在将微软Azure平台的一部分迁移到Linux系统上运行。这种峰回路转有点宿命感,不过15年等来的接受,时间上可能长了一点。It is not just Linux that is worthy of redemption. Today Cal Leeming is many things: a businessman, a film-maker, a devoted father and a charity volunteer. A loaded word like “hacker” risks obscuring these other facets. It is no wonder he doesn’t use it.值得救赎的不仅仅是Linux。今天,凯尔#8226;利明身兼多重身份:商人、电影制片人、全心投入的父亲以及慈善事业的志愿者。而类似“黑客”这样含义丰富的词汇可能掩盖上述其他方面的身份。难怪他不使用这个称号。 /201606/448770

  日本女性、冰岛男性寿命最长Japanese girls born last year can expect to live to an average age of 85.8 years, making them the longest-lived in the world, according to figures released by the government on Thursday.Their male compatriots fare less well, with a life expectancy of 79 years, second to Icelandic men at 79.4 years, the Health Ministry said.Japan's women have topped the world's longevity ranks for 22 consecutive years, something researchers have attributed to their healthy diet and tight social ties.Improved treatment of the ageing population's three biggest killers -- cancer, heart disease and stroke-- has helped push life expectancy to record highs, a ministry official said.After the Japanese, Taiwanese women are the world's second longest-lived at 84.6 years, then Spanish and Swiss women at 83.9 years, the report said.The Guinness Book of World Records lists Japan's 114-year-old Yone Minagawa and 111-year-old Tomoji Tanabe, as the world's oldest person and oldest man, respectively.But increasing life expectancy and a scarcity of babies in Japan have fuelled concern about how the world's oldest society will fund its pension requirements. 据日本政府本周四公布的统计数据,日本女性的平均预期寿命为85.8岁,是世界上寿命最长的人群。据日本卫生省介绍,日本男性的平均寿命为79岁,仅次于冰岛男性的79.4岁,位居世界第二。日本女性的平均寿命连续22年名列世界之首,一些研究人员认为,这主要归功于她们健康的饮食和紧密的社会联系。据日本卫生省官员介绍,癌症、心脏病和中风是老年人健康的三大杀手,这三大疾病治疗手段的进步使人们的预期寿命达到新高。统计报告显示,台湾女性的平均寿命为84.6岁,位居世界第二;其次是西班牙和瑞士女性,为83.9岁。据《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》记载,目前世界上寿命最长的人和寿命最长的男性分别是日本114岁的皆川米子和111岁的田锅友时。但日本预期寿命的不断延长和新生儿数量的不足引起了有关这个世界上老龄化最严重的国家将如何解决其养老金问题的担忧。 /200803/32265

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  Sales of the Apple Watch more than halved in the second quarter, with new figures from researcher IDC suggesting chief executive Tim Cook’s first significant product is failing to live up to expectations.Apple Watch第二季度的销量下滑了一半以上。研究公司IDC的新数据表明,苹果公司(Apple)首席执行官蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)上任以来推出的首款重要产品或有负众望。The sharp decline is highly unusual for a new Apple product so early in its life and will compound Wall Street concerns about the company’s overall growth prospects this year.对于一款刚推出不久的苹果新产品而言,销量急剧下滑的情况极为罕见。这将使华尔街对该公司今年整体增长前景的担忧进一步加深。The iPhone posted nine years of uninterrupted growth from its launch in 2007 until the first quarter of this year, when unit sales fell 16 per cent to 51m.自从2007年面世后,iPhone的销量连续9年保持增长,直到今年第一季度销量下滑16%至5100万部。IDC said yesterday that Apple sold 1.6m of its watches in the second quarter of 2016, down 55 per cent compared with 3.6m in the same period last year. The drop dragged down the entire smartwatch market despite rapid growth from Samsung, up 51 per cent to 0.6m watches, and Lenovo’s Motorola brand, up 75 per cent to 0.3m.IDC昨天表示,2016年第二季度苹果共售出160万块Apple Watch,与去年同期360万块相比下滑了55%。Apple Watch销量下滑拖累了整个智能手表市场,尽管三星(Samsung)以及联想(Lenovo)旗下托罗拉(Motorola)品牌的智能手表销量都大幅增长,前者增长了51%至60万块,后者增长了75%至30万块。“Despite a down quarter, Apple remains far and away the market leader in smartwatches,” said IDC analyst Ramon Llamas, with traditional watchmakers such as Casio, Fossil and Tag Heuer’s recent attempts to break into the wearable-tech market making only a limited impact.“尽管季度销量下滑,但是苹果在智能手表市场仍然遥遥领先,”IDC分析师雷蒙#8226;利亚马斯(Ramon Llamas)称。卡西欧(Casio)、Fossil以及豪雅(T Heuer)等传统手表制造商最近尝试打入可穿戴科技市场的举动只带来了有限的影响。“Every vendor faces similar challenges related to fashion and functionality, and though we expect improvements next year, growth in the remainder of 2016 will probably be muted,” Mr Llamas added.“每个厂商都面临着与时尚和功能性相关的类似挑战,尽管我们预计明年会有所改善,但是2016年接下来的增长可能会放缓,”利亚马斯补充称。Apple has not released any sales figures for the Apple Watch since it first went on sale in April 2015.自从Apple Watch于2015年4月上市以来,苹果从未公布过任何有关该产品的销售数据。Analysts have estimated that it sold 12m units in its first year, more than the iPhone during its initial 12 months on sale, but below many observers’ initial expectations for the first launch into a new hardware category since Mr Cook took over as Apple’s chief executive.分析师预计,Apple Watch在上市第一年的销量为1200万块,超过了iPhone在上市头12个月的销量,但是并未达到很多市场观察者对库克接任苹果CEO之后推出的首款新硬件产品的预期。Apple declined to comment on IDC’s figures, ahead of its earnings report next week.苹果拒绝就IDC的数据置评。该公司将于下周公布财报。The Apple Watch, a revamped Apple TV and new Apple Music service have so far failed to offset the declines in iPhone and iPad sales, which Tuesday’s figures are expected to show have continued in recent months.迄今为止,Apple Watch、新款Apple TV以及新推出的Apple Music务都未能弥补iPhone和iPad的销量下滑——下周二公布的数据预计将显示最近数月这两款产品销量继续下滑。 /201607/456275

  Imagine a therapy that supposedly cures most ailments and for which almost 100 per cent of all the published studies conclude is effective — in other words, a panacea which has been tested but never faulted by science. This can only mean that the treatment in question is a miracle cure which is useful for every single condition and in every single setting. Would we not all love to know such a therapy?想象下一种可以治愈大多数疾病的疗法,几乎所有发表的研究中得出的结论都是有效的,换句话说,这是一种久经检验但从未被科学质疑过的灵丹妙药。这只能意味着我们提到的这个治疗是一种奇迹,它对不同情况下的每一种病症都有效。我们不是都会喜欢这种疗法吗?Simple common sense tells us, however, that such miracle cures cannot exist — unless, of course, we consider the wide range of treatments that fall under the umbrella of Traditional Chinese Medicine.然而,常识告诉我们,这种奇迹是不可能存在的——除非,当然啦,我们认为中医治疗覆盖的范围是很广泛的。Take acupuncture, for instance. Most traditional acupuncturists will try to convince you that acupuncture is a veritable panacea, a treatment that works for anything and everything ranging from acne to zoster. In case you find this hard to believe, go on the internet and try to find a single condition for which acupuncture is not claimed to be effective.以针灸为例。大部分传统针灸师会试图说你,针灸是一个名副其实的万能药,治疗的范围,从痤疮到带状疱疹。如果你不信,上网去搜搜病例看看针灸是不是声称很有效。What is more, acupuncture trials hardly ever generate negative findings — at least those that originate from China. We and others have shown that Chinese trials of acupuncture as good as never suggest that acupuncture does not work. This has led to the bizarre situation where one does no longer need to the paper reporting a new Chinese study because one aly knows what it shows, namely that acupuncture is effective. If that is so, one does not even need to conduct the study, since one aly knows the outcome before the research has started.更妙的是,针灸试验没有产生任何负面的结果——至少那些源自中国的信息是这么说的。我们和其他一些人于是明白了中国的针灸实验是从来不会认为无效的。如果这样的话,你何必还要进行研究呢,在研究之前已经知道结果了啊。Perhaps you think the ‘Western’ scientists who disclosed this baffling phenomenon are chauvinists who, for one reason or another, want to discredit Chinese science. In this case, you would probably want to wait for a team of Chinese researchers repeating our investigations.也许你认为西方科学家质疑这一令人困惑的现象是因为沙文主义或其他啥原因好抹黑中国。在这种情况下,你可能想等待一队中国研究人员复核下我们的调查。Wait no more.不用在等了。Chinese researchers identified all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture published in Chinese journals. A total of 840 RCTs were included in their assessment, and 838 of them (99.8 per cent) reported positive results. Only two trials (0.2 per cent) reported negative results. The authors concluded: ‘Publication bias might be a major issue in RCTs on acupuncture published in Chinese journals … which is related to high risk of bias. We suggest that all trials should be prospectively registered in international trial registry in future.’中国研究人员确认了中国期刊上发布的有关针灸的所有随机对照试验。共有840个随机对照试验及评价,其中838例(99.8个百分点)报道结果有效。只有两个试验(百分之0.2)报告结果无效。作者得出的结论是:在中国期刊发表关于针灸随机对照试验结果的主要问题是太偏颇了……很明显的先入为主(认为有效)。我们建议,以后所有实验都应该提前在国际实验注册备案。For many years I, too, had been inclined to give my Chinese colleagues the benefit of the doubt and assumed that publication bias — the phenomenon where negative results tend to remain unpublished — might be the explanation. If so, trial registration would indeed be the answer. But think of it: publication bias might provide a reason for a preponderance of positive findings but it cannot truly explain that close to zero per cent of negative results see the light of day. There must be other factors involved.多年来我一直致力于给我的中国同事灌输质疑的好处,以及发表的文章一边倒——也可能是负面的情况根本没有被报道出来。如果是这样的话,实验前在国际实验注册备案是个不错的办法。再回过头来看看,公布的实验结果一边倒的表示有效,负面效果几乎为零,对此没有个清楚明了的解释。肯定还有其他因素。One obvious explanation could be that many or most of the Chinese studies are — dare I say it? — dodgy to the point of being fraudulent. This allegation seems so outlandish that I would never have voiced it, unless there is some pretty solid evidence to back it up.一个明显的解释是中国的很多研究或者说绝大部分研究——我为啥这么说呢?——他们(的实验)不可靠且不诚实。如果没有确凿的据,我绝对不会发出这样粗鲁的指控。A recent survey of Chinese clinical trials has revealed fraudulent practice on a massive scale. China’s food and drug regulator carried out a year-long review and concluded that more than 80 per cent of clinical studies are ‘fabricated’. The investigators uated data from 1,622 clinical trial programmes of drugs awaiting approval by the regulator. Much of the data were found to be incomplete, failed to meet analysis requirements or were untraceable. Some institutions were suspected of deliberately hiding or deleting records of adverse effects, and tampering with evidence that did not meet expectations. ‘Clinical data fabrication was an open secret even before the inspection,’ an unnamed Chinese hospital director was ed as saying. Contract research organisations seem to have become ‘accomplices in data fabrication due to cutthroat competition and economic motivation’.最近对中国临床实验的调查显示了他们有大规模的欺诈行为。中国食品药物监管部门进行了长达一年的回顾总结,百分之80以上的临床研究数据为“捏造”的。研究人员评估了1622个等待监管机构批准的临床试验方案的数据。大亮的数据被认为是不完整的,不符合要求或无法进行追踪分析的。甚至一些机构涉嫌故意隐瞒或删除不利影响的记录,并篡改据以符合预期结果。一位不愿透露姓名的中国医院主任说:“在审核前,“制做”临床数据已经就是个公开的秘密了”。合同研究组织,由于激烈的竞争以及经济利益,成为了数据造假的共犯。CRO----合同研究组织,20世纪80年代初起源于美国,它是通过合同形式为制药企业、医疗机构、中小医药医疗器械研发企业、甚至各种政府基金等机构在基础医学和临床医学研发过程中提供专业化务的一种学术性或商业性的科学机构。The human rights activist Mai Ke went one step further, claiming that there is an ‘all-pervasive culture of fakery’ across all products made in the country. ‘It’s not just the medicines,’ he told Radio Free Asia. ‘In China, everything is fake, and if there’s a profit in pharmaceuticals, then someone’s going to fake them too.’人权专家Mai Ke进一步补充道“在这个国家的产品制造业中有一种无处不在的造假文化,不仅是药物,”他告诉自由亚洲电台“在中国,啥都有假货,如果药品有利可图,就有人会去造假。”Crucially, he stressed that the problem also extends to Traditional Chinese Medicines: ‘It’s just harder to regulate the fakes with traditional medicines than it is with Western pharmaceuticals, which have strict manufacturing guidelines.’最重要的是,他强调,这种现象也蔓延到了中医药:“比起西医传统的中医药监管起来难度要高的多,因为西药有严格的生产标准。”Academic ethics is an underdeveloped field in China; this leads to a culture that is accepting of academics manipulating data. ‘I don’t think that the 80 per cent figure is overstated,’ another Chinese insider commented.学术道德是中国一个欠发达的领域;这导致了一种文化,对学者操纵数据比较宽容。另一位中国内部人士说,我认为80%的数字没有夸大。Considering data fabrication on such an epidemic scale, it seems much easier to understand the above-mentioned phenomenon, where nearly 100 per cent of Chinese acupuncture studies generate positive findings. Such trials heavily pollute the worldwide evidence, particularly because the Chinese trials constitute a major chunk of the current evidence base in this area.考虑到这样大规模的数据造假,上述针灸实验近乎百分百有效的现象就不难理解了。这些实验数据严重污染了世界范围内的数据库,尤其是现有的这类大部分由中国实验数据构成的数据库。If we agree that data fabrication has seriously detrimental effects, we must ask what we can do about it. I feel we have little choice but to distrust the evidence that originates from China. At the very minimum, we must scrutinise it thoroughly and sceptically. Whenever it looks too good to be true, we ought to discard it as unreliable.如果我们都赞同数据库造假会导致严重的影响,我们必须思考下能做些什么。我们的选择不多,除了质疑中国的实验数据。至少,我们要详细的深入检查和质疑。无论何时,什么东西看起来好得不像话了,我们就应该把它当做不靠谱的东西抛弃掉。 /201702/494399

  Scientists develop non-stick chewing gumScientists have developed a non-stick chewing gum that can be easily removed from pavements, shoes and clothes.The new gum, the result of polymer research at the University of Bristol, could be launched commercially in 2008, its developers said on Friday.If it catches on, the product will solve a major headache for local authorities around the world."The advantage of our Clean Gum is that it has a great taste, it is easy to remove and has the potential to be environmentally degradable," said Terence Cosgrove, a professor of chemistry who helped found a company called Revolymer to commercialize the technology.Today's chewing gums are made from synthetic latex, which is resistant to the weather and is strongly adhesive. The new gum adds a special polymer to modify its properties, making it far less sticky.In two street trials, leading commercial gums remained stuck to the pavement three out or four times, while Clean Gum came away naturally in all cases, Revolymer said.(Agencies) 近日,科学家们研发出一种“不粘口香糖”,这种新型口香糖很容易从街道、鞋子和衣上清除。据该产品的开发商上周五介绍,这种新型口香糖是由英国布里斯托尔大学聚合体研究中心研发出来的,有望于明年上市。如果这种口香糖上市,能为世界各地的政府解决一个大难题。布里斯托尔大学的化学教授特伦斯#8226;考斯格鲁夫说:“我们这种‘清洁口香糖’口味好、易清除、而且具有可降解性。” 他协助成立了一个名叫Revolymer的公司,以实现该项技术的商业化。现在的口香糖是由合成乳胶制成的,这种物质对外界环境具有抵抗性(无法分解),而且粘性很强。新型口香糖中添加了一种能改变其属性的特殊聚合物,从而使它的粘性大大降低。据Revolymer公司介绍,两次街道测试的结果发现,现在市面上四分之三的口香糖都会粘在街道上, 而“清洁口香糖”在任何情况下都能自然脱落。 /200804/33391

  

  

  

  Milwaukee is named 'Drunkest City'   Milwaukee has been ranked by Forbes.com as "America's Drunkest City" on a list of 35 major metropolitan areas ranked for their drinking habits. Several drunk people.   Forbes said last Tuesday it used numbers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to rank cities in five areas: state laws, number of drinkers, number of heavy drinkers, number of binge drinkers and alcoholism. Minneapolis-St. Paul was ranked second overall; followed by Columbus, Ohio; Boston; Austin, Texas; Chicago; Cleveland; Pittsburgh and then Philadelphia and Providence, R.I., in a tie for ninth.   Rick DeMeyer, 28, said last Wednesday as he was celebrating his birthday at G-Daddy B he could understand Milwaukee's ranking.   "I have had people stay with me from London and Chicago, and they can't get over how much we drink," he said. "I guess we do."   But officials at Visit Milwaukee contend that the city has come a long way in ridding itself of its beer-guzzling image.   Milwaukeeans have plenty of other ways to entertain themselves without drinking alcohol, said Dave Fantle, a spokesman for the group. He noted a new convention center and baseball park had been built and the Milwaukee Art Museum expanded in recent years.   "We've gone from Brew City to new city," he said.   (Agencies)  近日,福布斯网站对美国35个主要城市的“酒瘾”进行了排名,结果,密尔沃基当选为“美国头号酒鬼城市”。   上周二,据福布斯介绍,他们请美国疾病控制和防治中心的成员根据五个方面对35个城市进行了排名,这五项内容包括:所在州的法律、饮酒人数、酗酒者人数、严重酗酒者人数及酒精中毒人数。   明尼阿波利斯-圣保罗双城区排名第二,其后依次是俄亥俄州的哥伦布市、波士顿、德克萨斯州的奥斯汀、芝加哥、克利夫兰、匹兹堡,罗得岛州的费城和普罗旺斯并列第九。   上周三,在G-Daddy B酒吧庆祝28岁生日的里克·德梅尔说,他可以理解密尔沃基为什么名列第一。   他说:“跟我在一起的伦敦人和芝加哥人都喝不过我们。我觉得密尔沃基人确实很能喝。”   而密尔沃基旅游局的官员称,为了摆脱密尔沃基的“酒鬼”形象,他们已经做了很大的努力。   旅游局发言人戴维·范特说,除了喝酒外,密尔沃基人还有很多其他的方式。他说,近几年来,密尔沃基市新建了一个会议中心和一个棒球公园,还扩建了密尔沃基艺术物馆。   他说:“密尔沃基已经由一个‘酿酒城市’转型为新城市。”  Vocabulary:   drinking habit: 酒瘾  binge drinker : 酗酒者 /200803/28888

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