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2018年02月22日 16:52:50 | 作者:京东新闻 | 来源:新华社
During my thirty-plus years working abroad for the CIA, the unspoken truth among case officers like me was that you#39;d have to be nuts, as the citizen of another country, to be a spy for a foreign intelligence service. In recruiting an agent or #39;asset,#39; we were asking him to ignore the instinct of self-preservation, to break the laws of his own country─to become a traitor. And we were asking him to trust that no leak or mole would ever expose him.我在海外为中央情报局(CIA)工作的三十多年中,在我这样的情报官员看来,一个不言而喻的事实就是:作为另外一个国家的公民,为一家外国情报机构充当间谍,你必须得做一名混蛋。在招募特工或“线人”时,我们要求他要无视保全自我的本能,要违反自己国家的法律──做一名叛国者。我们要让他相信,任何泄密事件或特工人员都不会暴露他的身份。Today, there are still secrets that need stealing, and the consequences of detection remain dangerous. Moscow#39;s recent expulsion of an alleged CIA officer was dramatic, but such moves are among the lesser costs of espionage gone awry.如今,仍然有需要窃取的机密,被发现的后果依然危险。莫斯科最近驱逐一名所谓的中情局官员的行为引人瞩目,但是这样的事情只能算是为间谍活动的失败付出的小小代价。How, then, does a case officer persuade someone to become a traitor? There is no definitive handbook. The process is as complex as human relationships. If possible, a friendship should develop between the case officer and the prospective agent; bonds of trust must be established. But beneath the surface, there is the CIA officer#39;s constant and often uncharitable assessment of the target#39;s aspirations, fears and desires. You must know what motivates the potential recruit so that you can better exploit his vulnerabilities and, in the end, put him in the right frame of mind for your #39;pitch.#39;那么,情报官员如何劝说一个人当叛国者呢?肯定没有现成的教材。整个过程与人际交往一样复杂。如果可能的话,情报官员应该与未来的特工发展友谊;信任的关系必须建立。但是在表面之下,这位CIA官员会对目标人选的抱负、恐惧和欲望进行持续的、而且经常是铁面无情的评估。你必须了解潜在招募对象的动机,这样你才能更好地利用他的弱点,最终让他对你的“行动计划”持一种正确的心态。In making this assessment, the CIA relies on four basic human motivations, described by the acronym MICE: money, ideology, conscience and ego. Some agencies in the U.S. intelligence community, perhaps not realizing that MICE is aly a plural word, insist on adding an S to the end for sex. But sexual entrapment is not a reliable recruitment technique. A blackmailed agent tends to be resentful, brooding, prone to disloyalty and the fabrication of intelligence. Other countries, most infamously Russia, have used sexual entrapment in intelligence operations without compunction.在进行评估的时候,CIA依据的是缩写为MICE的人类四个基本动机:金钱(money)、意识形态(ideology)、良知(conscience)和自我意识(ego)。美国情报界的一些机构也许没有意识到MICE一词已经是复数形式的单词了,坚持要在后面加一个S,用来代表“性”(sex)。不过色诱陷阱不是一个可靠的招募手段。一个受到胁迫的特工往往会感到忿恨、郁闷,容易叛变和制造假情报。其它有些国家(最臭名昭著的就是俄国)就在间谍行动中毫无顾忌地使用了色诱陷阱。The relationship with an agent motivated by money is straightforward: #39;We give you cash, and you steal secrets.#39; Consider the case of the aircraft mechanic in a North African country who, in 1974, reported that six new export models of the Soviet MiG 23 fighter had been delivered to his military air base. He was willing to photograph every detail of the planes and proposed being paid per frame, as long as the images were of value.与一名动机是为了挣钱的特工之间的关系很直接:“我们给你现金,你去窃取机密。”北非某国的一名飞机机械师就是一个例子,他在1974年报告说苏联出口的六架新的米格23战斗机(MiG 23)已经交付给他所在的空军基地。他愿意拍下这些飞机的每一个细节,并提出只要这些照片有价值,要按照片数量付他酬金。One night, under a brilliant African moon, he crawled all over the plane, snapping photos. For a final rear-facing shot, he shinnied out onto the shark#39;s nose of the aircraft─and suddenly slid backward off the front. He looked up to discover that he had bent down the hollow nose needle at a twenty-degree angle. Unable to straighten the thing out─and worried that his payment would be jeopardized─he proceeded down the flight line in a panic and bent the five needles on the remaining fighters to match the first. He got his money, but his access was lost, along with his usefulness.一天晚上,在一轮皎洁的月光下,他爬遍了机身拍摄照片。在拍最后一张回视机身的照片时,他爬到了飞机的鲨鱼状机头上面──突然向后一滑,人往后掉了下去。他抬头一看,发现自己让中空的飞机机头向下倾斜了20度。他无法矫正这玩意儿──又担心自己的赏金会泡汤──情急之下他沿着停机线挨个把其它五架战斗机的机头都弄成了向下倾斜的样子,好让它们跟第一架飞机一样。他得到了赏金,但是他也丧失了接近飞机的权力,也就失去他的利用价值。The agent motivated by ideology─or, as often as not, by the traumatic loss of ideology─may develop slowly, sometimes over years. This agent no longer believes in her government. She has been abused by the system and hates the superiors who have ruined her career. Lots of regimes around the world, past and present, take away hope and institutionalize despair: Stalin in the 1950s, the mullahs in Tehran in 2013. A Soviet military officer named Dmitri Polyakov, posted to New York in the 1960s, was refused permission by an implacable Moscow to take his fatally ill son to a U.S. doctor. His ideology faded, his heart hardened and he started to work with the CIA. He is still considered one of the agency#39;s best assets ever.因意识形态原因而当特工的人──或者说是由于意识形态迷失而造成的创伤──可能要慢慢发展,有时需要耗时多年。这种特工不再信任自己的政府。她受到了所在体制的伤害,憎恨那些毁了她事业的上司。无论是过去还是现在,世界上都存在很多这样的政权,在夺去了人的希望之后又植入绝望:1950年代的斯大林(Stalin)政权,2013年的德黑兰毛拉政权。1960年代,一位被派驻纽约的名叫德米特里#8226;波利亚科夫(Dmitri Polyakov)的苏联军官要求把他病入膏肓的儿子送到美国寻求一位医生的救治,遭到了莫斯科方面毫不留情的拒绝。他的意识形态基础丧失殆尽,变得铁石心肠,开始为CIA效力。现在他仍然被认为是中情局有史以来最优秀的线人之一。The agent motivated by conscience bears watching. He may be messianic and looking for ways to atone for his sins, or for the sins of his system─or for all the Evil in the World. The ticking of remorseful conscience may come with age, with too much war or betrayal, or with having driven a tank in Tiananmen Square. Or it may come with enlightenment. Perhaps an Iranian nuclear scientist─rational, humanistic, a man of erudition─will realize one day what it would mean for the Islamic Republic to have nuclear weapons and will emerge from the subterranean centrifuge halls of the Iranian desert with secrets in hand.为良知所驱使的特工值得期待。他也许是救世主式的人物,在寻找为自己赎罪的方式,或者是为了给他所在的体制赎罪──抑或为世上所有的邪恶赎罪。也许随着年龄的增长,也许在经历了太多的战争与背叛之后,抑或是有了在天安门广场上驾驶坦克的经历之后,悔恨会唤起一个人的良知。也有人可能因为顿悟而良心发现。也许某位伊朗的核科学家──理性、具有人本主义精神、学──有一天会意识到这个伊斯兰国家拥有核武器到底意味着什么,于是带着机密从伊朗沙漠中的地下离心实验室里跑出来。The agent motivated by ego is a blessing and a curse. Properly stroked, he can be responsive, motivated and focused. But once the stroking starts, you cannot stop: He will be needy, moody, demanding. Ego is one of the most powerful human motivators, and it encompasses sex, as the Russians knew very well in running their sexual ambushes against targets inside and outside Russia over the years.因自我意识而有心当特工的人是福也是祸。安抚得好,他会随时响应、积极行动、专心投入。但是一旦开始了安抚,你就无法停止:他会要这要那,喜怒无常,强人所难。自我意识是人类最强大的驱动因素,而且就像俄国人十分清楚的那样,它包含了性在其中,他们这么多年来在俄罗斯国内和国外对目标设置了大量色情陷阱。A case officer also looks for prospects among individuals who seem to be in search of an ego, their spirits stamped flat by purges, cultural revolutions or protracted tax investigations (a favorite tactic of today#39;s Kremlin). In the late 70s, one agent with abysmal self-esteem and a nervous disposition was told (falsely) by his case officer that his intel tidbits had been reported to the White House to rave reviews. His shriveled ego flowered: He now had people who counted on him and admired him! That#39;s all it took for the meek little man to ignore his fears and begin bringing out classified documents─all in the belief that he was personally spying for Jimmy Carter, God help him.情报官员也会在那些看似正在寻找自我的人中间挖掘潜在的特工,他们的精神由于清洗、文化革命或旷日持久的税收调查(克里姆林宫(Kremlin)如今最喜欢用的一种手段)而被践踏摧毁。在1970年代末期,情报官员告知(其实是误报)一名自尊心极强而且有神经质的特工他的零碎情报已经报告给了白宫(White House),受到高度评价。他心中凋谢的自我意识绽放了:现在有人仰仗他、赏识他了!仅此一点就让这个性情温顺的小个子男人不顾心中的恐惧,开始搞出机密文件──深信他是亲手在为吉米#8226;卡特(Jimmy Carter)刺探情报。上帝保佑!The spy game is a perfect subject for examining the human condition. Its practitioners traffic in trust and betrayal, hope and fear, love and hatred. And even now, our intelligence needs multiply─in the rush to understand how Russia will use natural gas to extend its reach, or how soon Iran will have a nuke, or how Beijing plans to achieve hegemony in the Pacific. Case officers around the world continue their work, trying to persuade people to become traitors and deploying tools as old as the trade itself.间谍游戏是研究人性的一个理想课题。干这一行的人在信任与背叛、希望与恐惧、爱与恨之间往来游移。即使到现在,我们的情报工作仍需要加大力度──以求弄清俄罗斯是如何利用天然气来延伸它的触角,伊朗多快会拥有核武器,或者中国如何筹划在太平洋地区赢得主导权。遍布世界各地的情报官员会继续他们的工作,力劝人们充当叛国者,并部署下与这门行当同样古老的间谍工具。 /201306/244466

英语学习专家提醒:英语学习重在运用,要动起来, be active in your study!对于下面的这些资料,请不要仅仅是看闹热,或一时兴起,而是要重在坚持!英语学习没有捷径,只有一步一个脚印!这是关于英语文化陷阱的学习,重点在于运用于真实语境中来领悟其用法! 1. You have matches 最近我有一次机会登上一艘豪华游轮观光。一次, 我在酒吧台拿了两杯鸡尾酒回房间享受,途中遇到一位女士,她看看我后笑着说:“You have matches?”我一愣,回答说:“很抱歉,我十五年前就戒烟了,所以没有火柴。”她立刻会意到我误解了她的意思,好像是有点抱歉的说:“It’s a joke.” 然后,我们就相互尴尬的笑了笑,走开了。事后和朋友在吃晚饭的时候聊天,我趁机向一个美国朋友请教白天的那句话,他解释说:“因为她看你两手都占着,就故意开玩笑跟你要火柴,这是个非常普通的笑话,非但没有恶意,反而是想问你需不需要帮忙。”(摘自《世界日报》) 2. Turn the table 一位亲戚和妻子失和到了要离婚的地步。几天前接到亲戚电话,说他们在走进律师楼之前,先去求助于心理和婚姻问题专家。夫妇俩心平气和地坐下来谈了好多次,互相之间多了一份理解,少了一份猜疑、埋怨,结果化干戈为玉帛。说简单也简单,就这么拯救了这场婚姻。我打心眼里为他们高兴,把这一消息告诉了同样也认识他们的一位美国朋友。这位朋友挺激动的,连连说着“感谢上帝,感谢上帝”,她还补充了一句“He turned the table”。 这话让我心里很不舒,她是指我亲戚动粗吗?我打抱不平说:“不会,不会,他很斯文,很有绅士风度,不会以粗鲁的举动压制对方,不会以高压让对方屈从。” 结果,越说谁也听不懂谁。看着我那一脸不快的表情,朋友突然茅塞頓开了,以另一种方法向我解释。终于让我明白,她是说我亲戚“扭转了局面”,那 “table”和我想到的“桌子”根本无关。 再说远一点, turn the tables (on someone)这个短语也和“桌子”没什么关系, 它的意思是to suddenly take a position of strength or advantage that was formerly held by someone else (反败为胜,转弱为强), 例如: “She played badly in the first set, but then she turned the tables on her opponent and won the match. ”(摘自《世界日报》) 3. Wearing two hats 同事朋友聚会,少不了相互介绍。先生在向我介绍他的同事 Larry 时,说他可是个大忙人: “He is wearing two hats.” 我说,你开什么玩笑,他根本就没戴帽子。 Larry 一直以笑作答,倒是先生察言观色,知道我不懂,便帮我找台阶下。原来,先生是指Larry在医院某一部门担任要职,除此之外,还有自己的生意,就是说 Larry 身兼两职,而不是真的戴了两顶帽子。 (摘自《世界日报》) 4. With a grain of salt 一天吃饭的时候,好友 Allen 和他的中国籍太太坐在餐桌旁大谈最近流行的一种草药,说它能包治百病。 Allen 说了一句:“I’d like to take it with a grain of salt”。他太太笑道:“你以为它是蔬菜啊,还要加点盐再吃。健康专家可没有说过要加盐。”Allen 愣了一下,然后大笑不已,解释道“ Take something with a grain of salt” 是“对某事有保留、持怀疑态度”的意思。 原来刚才Allen 是说他对这种草药的神奇疗效表示怀疑,而不是说要“放些盐再吃”。 (摘自《世界日报》) 5.You are in for a treat! 这天,同事们正在讨论为我和 Rhonda 开生日 party的事情,为了尊重寿星,大家让Rhonda 和我选择一家中意的餐厅。Rhonda建议去镇上一家叫做BBQ 的美国餐厅。我从来没有去过那里,于是就问她那里有什么特色。Rhonda便开始滔滔不绝的介绍他们的招牌菜,听得我十指大动,直咽口水,Rhonda便笑着说: “You are in for a treat !” 我愣了一下,以为Rhonda要请我去那里吃饭,心里十分不好意思,试探着问过她之后,Rhonda 笑着解释说: “You are in for a treat means you’ll like it !” (摘自《世界日报》) 6. Knife and fork 朋友D说日前在某大酒楼饮茶,见邻桌有青年夫妇和大概是他们在外国结识的老太太一起饮茶。老太太对操作筷子很感兴趣,在那里学用 chopsticks夹虾饺。D说他有个美国朋友,曾花了一些时间学习正确使用筷子的方法,每有机会就要表演一下,还说用筷子是一种艺术,是古老的中国文化的表现。 中国人吃饭用筷子,洋人进餐用刀*。其实洋人从前没有knife and fork,用的是木片削成的*。这种木*从意大利经伊斯坦堡传到英国,是两刺的肉* (two-pronged fork)。在此之前,人们吃肉用手,因此对于改用肉*有人说是“对赐人五指之神的侮辱。” 筷子又叫作“箸”,据说由于箸与住同音。住有停止之意。航船忌停,江苏一带行船的人们改称箸为“筷儿”。筷音同快,不住而快,一帆风顺矣。日语中筷作箸,但读作hashi,和作桥解的hashi相同,似乎和行船有点关系。日谚有“只会拿着筷子吃”指“茶来伸手,饭来张口。”中餐桌上每人有一份箸匙 (zhuchi),一双筷子一把汤匙,也许就没有knife and fork那么杀气腾腾了吧? (摘自《世界日报》) 7. Skeleton in the closet 一天朋友谈及一则大爆“名人”家丑的八卦新闻,说那些家族中人以搬弄“skeleton in the closet”为乐事,难道这些名人家的壁橱中真的有骷髅? 他说的“skeleton in the closet”(英国人则习惯说成skeleton in the cupboard)现在的意义并没有那么可怕。不过据说当年这个习语产生的时候的确指那些有钱人家谋杀了一个人,把骸骨暗藏在壁橱中,不让外人知道,从此 skeleton in the closet 就成了那家人的秘密,后来这个短语用来指不可或不愿外扬的家丑,简称作family skeleton。例如: Many old families have a number of skeletons in their closets which they are loath to discuss(许多古老的家族中有很多秘密,他们不愿谈及这些话题。) (摘自《世界日报》) /200804/36090

An American friend has invited you to visit his family. You#39;ve never been to an American#39;s home before, and you#39;re not sure what to do. Should you take a gift? How should you dress? What time should you arrive? What should you do when you get there? Glad you asked. When you#39;re the guest, you should just make yourself at home. That#39;s what hospitality is all about: making people feel at home when they#39;re not.  一位美国朋友邀请你去他家。你以前从未去过美国人的家,你不确定该怎么做。该带一个礼物吗?该怎么穿?该几点到?到了那里该做什么?很高兴你发问。你若是客人,只要使自己感到自在就好了。待客之道就是这样:虽然不是在家里,却使客人有实至如归之感。  The question of whether or not to bring a gift often makes guests squirm. Giving your host a gift is not just a social nicety in some cultures-it#39;s expected. But in American culture, a guest is not obligated to bring a present. Of course, some people do bring a small token of appreciation to their host. Appropriate gifts for general occasions might be flowers, candy or-if the family has small children-toys. If you choose not to bring a gift, don#39;t worry. No one will even notice.  是否带礼物的问题常使客人不安。在某些文化中,送主人礼物不只是社交礼节——还是必要的。但是在美国文化中,客人并不一定要带礼物。当然,有些人的确会带个表示感谢的小礼物给他们的主人。在一般情況下,带花或是糖果,如果这家人有小孩,玩具应当是恰当的礼物。如果你选择不带礼物,別担心,甚至沒有人会注意到的。  American hospitality begins at home-especially when it involves food. Most Americans agree that good home cooking beats restaurant food any day. When invited for a meal, you might ask, ;Can I bring anything?; Unless it#39;s a potluck, where everyone brings a dish, the host will probably respond, ;No, just yourself.; For most informal dinners, you should wear comfortable, casual clothes. Plan to arrive on time, or else call to inform your hosts of the delay. During the dinner conversation, it#39;s customary to compliment the hostess on the wonderful meal. Of course, the biggest compliment is to eat lots of food!  美国人的待客之道从家里开始——尤其是和食物有关。大多数美国人都同意,无论如何,好的家常菜胜过餐馆的菜。受邀吃饭时,你或许可以问:「我可以带些什么吗?」除非是每人带一道菜的聚餐,否则主人很可能会回答:「不用,你来就可以了。」大多数非正式的聚餐,你应该穿舒适、轻便的衣。设法准时到,否则打电话告诉主人你会晚点到。用餐时,习惯上,人们会称赞女主人烹调的美食。当然,最大的赞美是多吃!  When you#39;ve had plenty, you might offer to clear the table or wash the dishes. But since you#39;re the guest, your hosts may not let you. Instead, they may invite everyone to move to the living room for dessert with tea or coffee. After an hour or so of general chit-chat, it#39;s probably time to head for the door. You don#39;t want to wear out your welcome. And above all, don#39;t go snooping around the house. It#39;s more polite to wait for the host to offer you a guided tour. But except for housewarmings, guests often don#39;t get past the living room.  当你吃得差不多时,或许可以主动表示要帮忙清理桌子或洗碗盘,但你既是客人,你的主人可能不会让你这样做。他们或许会邀请大家到客厅吃点心、喝茶或咖啡。聊个大约一小时或许就该离去了,你可不希望变得不受欢迎吧。还有最重要的是不要在屋子里四处窥探,等主人邀请你参观才较有礼貌。可是除了乔迁喜宴之外,客人通常都只待在客厅里。  Americans usually like to have advance notice when people come to see them. Only very close friends drop by unannounced. This is especially true if the guests want to stay for a few days. Here#39;s a good rule of thumb for house guests: Short stays are best. As one 19th century French writer put it, ;The first day a man is a guest, the second a burden, the third a pest.; Even relatives don#39;t usually stay for several weeks at a time. While you#39;re staying with an American family, try to keep your living area neat and tidy. Your host family will appreciate your consideration. And they may even invite you back!  美国人通常喜欢访客事先通知他们,只有非常亲密的朋友才可能不请自来,尤其在客人要待好几天时更是如此。最好不要久留——这是给访客的经验之谈。如同十九世纪一位法国作家所写的:「第一天是客人,第二天是负担,第三天就是讨厌鬼了。」即使是亲戚通常也不会一次待上几个星期。当你住在美国人家里时,设法使你住的地方保持整齐清洁。你的主人一家都会感谢你这么体贴,他们甚至会再邀请你!  Most Americans consider themselves hospitable people. Folks in the southern ed States, in particular, take pride in entertaining guests. In fact, ;southern hospitality; has become legendary. But in all parts of America, people welcome their guests with open arms. So don#39;t be surprised to find the welcome mat out for you. Just don#39;t forget to wipe your feet.  大多数美国人都认为他们是好客之人。尤其是美国的南方人更以款待客人自豪,事实上,「南方的款待」是人们所津津乐道口口相传的。不过在美国各地,人们都展开双臂欢迎他们的客人,所以当你发现有WELCOME字样的鞋垫为你而时,別惊讶,只是別忘了把你的脚擦干净就是了。 /201303/228229

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