2020年01月24日 00:23:34|来源:国际在线|编辑:百度优惠
3Statistics 3.Statistics There were two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical methods. Statistics had a mother who was dedicated to keeping orderly records of government s (states and statistics come from the same Latin root status) and a gentlemanly gambling father who relied on mathematics to increase his skill at playing the odds in games of chance. The influence of the mother on the offspring, statistics, is represented by counting, measuring, describing, tabulating, ordering, and the taking of censuses—all of which led to modern descriptive statistics. From the influence of the father came modern inferential statistics, which is based squarely on theories of probability. Describing collections involves tabulating, depicting and describing collections of data. These data may be quantitative such as measures of height, intelligence or grade level------variables that are characterized by an underlying continuum---or the data may represent qualitative variables, such as sex, college major or personality type. Large masses of data must generally undergo a process of summarization or reduction bee they are comprehensible. Descriptive statistics is a tool describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible m the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data. Inferential statistics is a malized body of methods solving another class of problems that present great of problems characteristically involves attempts to make predictions using a sample of observations. example, a school superintendent wishes to determine the proportion of children in a large school system who come to school without breakfast, have been vaccinated flu, or whatever. Having a little knowledge of statistics, the superintendent would know that it is unnecessary and inefficient to question each child the proportion the sample of as few as 0 children. Thus , the purpose of inferential statistics is to predict or estimate characteristics of a population from a knowledge of the characteristics of only a sample of the population.统计学统计方法的早期发展受到两种截然不同的影响统计学有一个"母亲",她致力于井井有条地记录政府机构的文件(国家和统计学这两个词源于同一个拉丁语词根,status),还有一个有绅士般的"父亲",他依靠数学来提高赌技,以便在几率的游戏中取胜"母亲"对其子女统计学的影响表现在计数、测量、描述、制表、归类和人口普查所有这些导致了现代描述统计学的诞生由于"父亲"的影响则产生了完全基于概率论原理的现代推理统计学描述统计学涉及对所收集数据的制表、制图和描述这些数据可以是数量性的数据,如高度、智商、或者是层级性的数据--具有连续性的变量--或数据也可以代表性质变量,如性别、大学专业或性格类型等等数量庞大的数据通常必须经过概括或删减的程序才能为人所理解描述统计学就是这样一个工具,它对极其庞杂的数据进行描述、概括或删减,使其变成能为人理解的东西推理统计学是一套已定形了的方法体系,它解决的是光凭人脑极难解决的另一类问题这类问题的显著特点是试图通过取样调查来作出预测例如,有一位教育督察想知道在一个庞大的学校系统中,不吃早饭就上学的学生、已经做过防感冒免疫的学生,或其它任何类型的学生占多大比例若具备一些统计学的知识,这位督察应明白,询问每个孩子是没有必要而且没有效率的,只要用0个孩子为样本,他就可以相当精确地得出这些孩子占整个学区的比例了,推理统计学的目的就是通过了解一个群体中一些样本的特性,从而对整个群体的特性进行推测和估算 676这两天是儿女向父母表示一片爱心和敬重之情的日子父母们把孩子们带大,教育他们成为有责任感的公民,并给予他们爱心和关怀Mother’s Day and Father’s DayPeople in the ed States honor their parents with two special days:Mother’s Day,on the second Sunday in May,and Father’s Day,on the third Sunday in June.Mother’s Day was proclaimed a day national observance by President Wood row Wilson in 19.Ann Jarvis from Grafton,West Virginia,had started the idea to have a d ay to honor mothers.She was the one who chose the second Sunday in May and also began the custom of wearing a carnation.In 19,Mrs.Dodd from Spokane,Washington,thought of the idea of a day to honor fathers.She wanted to honor her own father,William Smart.After her mother died,he had the responsibility of raising a family of five sons and a daughter.In 19,the first Father’s Day was observed in Spokane.Senator Margaret Chase Smith helped to establish Father’s Day as a national commemorative day,in 197.These days are set aside to show love and respect parents.They raise their children and educate them to be responsible citizens.They give love and care.These two special days are celebrated in many different ways.On Mother’s Day people wear carnations.A red one symbolizes a living mother.A white one shows that the mother is dead.Many people attend religious services to honor parents.It is also a day when people whose parents are dead visit the cemetery.On these days families get together at home,as well as in restaurants.They often have outdoor barbecues Father’s Day.These are days of fun and good feelings and memories.Another tradition is to give cards an d gifts.Children make them in school.Many people make their own presents.These are valued more than the ones bought in stores.It is not the value of the gift that is important,but it is “the thought that counts”.Greeting card stores,florists,candy makers,bakeries,telephone companies,and other stores do a lot of business during these holidays. 7[7] 5

孤独的滋味,在与人相处时感觉最深,因为和别人相处,有时即使是恋人,也会因为趣味、性格和心情的不同而痛苦Solitary Life"Music I heard with you was more than music." Exactly. And theree music itself can only be heard alone. Solitude is the salt of personhood. It brings out the authentic flavor of every experience."Alone one is never lonely the spirit adventures, walking in a quiet garden, in a cool house, abiding single there."It takes a while, as I watch the surf blowing up in fountains at the end of the field, but the moment comes when the world falls away, and the self emerges again from the deep unconscious, bringing back all I have recently experienced to be explored and slowly understood, when I can converse again with my hidden powers, and so grow, and so be renewed, till death do us part.Loneliness is most acutely felt with other people, with others, even with a lover sometimes, we suffer from our differences of taste, temperament and mood. Human intercourse often demands that we soften the edge of perception, or withdraw at the very instant of personal truth fear of hurting, or of being inappropriately present, which is to say naked, in a social situation. Alone we can afd to be wholly whatever we are, and to feel whatever we feel absolutely. That is a great luxury! 5

In all societies, male and female roles are regarded differently. The mother role is universally carried out by women, which is biologically based. Roles defined by sex also characterize the economic sphere so that the tasks men perm are different from those women perm. This difference is not any outgrowth of the biological differences between men and women. A specific task may be associated with men in one society and with women in another. Milking herd animals, example, may be women's task in some societies and a man's task in others.Males and females are each associated with different kinds of behavior. These concepts of male and female behavior extended to how people walk, sit, talk and dress. In our society, as in all others, men walk and talk in certain ways and until recently dressed very differently from women. In some societies, different spatial areas are associated with males and females. Women in many Middle Eastern societies are restricted to certain parts of the house and may only come into contact with the males who are members of their family. In such societies, the coffee house and the market are defined as male domains. In contrast, in some West African societies, women most often appear in the marketplace. Sometimes, men choose to carry out female rather than male roles. In some cases, some men dress like women and perm female tasks. On the other hand, females who carry out male roles usually dress and act like men. Because of women's association with mothering and the home, women are associated with the domestic affairs and men are associated with the public affairs. In a number of New Guinea societies, men are associated with the men's house in which they eat and sleep while women are associated with their own dwelling houses. In our own and other Western societies this division was true until the beginning of the th century. Politics, the courts, businesses, banks, and so th were male areas, and so too were the social clubs where real business was carried out. At the beginning of the th century, women began to question the assignment of the male and female role. They med social groups and began to demand the right to vote. They began to move into the business and professional worlds as well. Men regarded the women pioneers in this movement as very manlike. Even today women in business, law or banking wear very tailored, conservative suits to work. As these changes occur in female roles in contemporary American society, men are increasingly taking on child care and domestic tasks. 997

我们需要用去拥抱生命里的每一分种,用我们所有的感官去感受生活——在花园的芬芳中,在6岁孩童的蜡笔画中,在美丽迷人的虹中去寻找快乐,正是这种对生活的热爱,使得我们神采飞扬、步履矫健,并让我们的灵魂永远年轻Years ago, when I started looking my first job, wise advisers urged, "Barbara, be enthusiastic! Enthusiasm will take you further than any amount of experience." How right they were. Enthusiastic people can turn a boring drive into an adventure, extra work into opporty and strangers into friends. "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm," wrote Ralph Waldo Emerson. It is the paste that helps you hang in there when the going gets tough. It is the inner voice that whispers, "I can do it!" when others shout, "No, you can't." It took years and years the early work of Barbara McClintock, a geneticist who won the 1983 Nobel Prize in medicine, to be generally accepted. Yet she didn't let up on her experiments. Work was such a deep pleasure her that she never thought of stopping. We are all born with wide-eyed, enthusiastic wonder as anyone knows who has ever seen an infant's delight at the jingle of keys or the scurrying of a beetle. It is this childlike wonder that gives enthusiastic people such a youthful air, whatever their age. At 90, cellist Pablo Casals would start his day by playing Bach. As the music flowed through his fingers, his stooped shoulders would straighten and joy would reappear in his eyes. Music, Casals, was an elixir that made life a never ending adventure. As author and poet Samuel Ullman once wrote, "Years wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul." How do you rediscover the enthusiasm of your childhood? The answer, I believe, lies in the word itself. "Enthusiasm" comes from the Greek and means "God within." And what is God within is but an abiding sense of love -- proper love of self (self-acceptance) and, from that, love of others. Enthusiastic people also love what they do, regardless of money or title or power. If we cannot do what we love as a full-time career, we can as a part-time avocation, like the head of state who paints, the nun who runs marathons, the executive who handcrafts furniture. Elizabeth Layton of Wellsville, Kan, was 68 bee she began to draw. This activity ended bouts of depression that had plagued her at least 30 years, and the quality of her work led one critic to say, "I am tempted to call Layton a genius." Elizabeth has rediscovered her enthusiasm. We can't afd to waste tears on "might-have-beens." We need to turn the tears into sweat as we go after "what-can-be." We need to live each moment wholeheartedly, with all our senses -- finding pleasure in the fragrance of a back-yard garden, the crayoned picture of a six-year-old, the enchanting beauty of a rainbow. It is such enthusiastic love of life that puts a sparkle in our eyes, a lilt in our steps and smooths the wrinkles from our souls. 181

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