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福州市检查怀孕那里最好莆田宫腔镜手术医院福州输卵管通水那里好 万圣节是西方传统节日。万圣节前夜,当夜幕降临,孩子们穿上五颜六色的化妆,戴上千奇百怪的面具。有的披上漆黑长衫,骑着“魔帚”,扮作女巫;有的裹上白床单装鬼;有的戴上画有骷髅旗的帽子扮成海盗…… Halloween is an annual celebration, but just what is it actually a celebration of? And how did this peculiar custom originate? Is it, as some claim, a kind of demon worship? Or is it just a harmless vestige of some ancient pagan ritual? The word itself, Halloween, actually has its origins in the Catholic Church. It comes from a contracted corruption of All Hallows Eve. November 1, All Hollows Day (or All Saints Day), is a Catholic day of observance in honor of saints. But, in the 5th century , in Celtic Ireland, summer officially ended on October 31. The holiday was called Samhain (sow-en), the Celtic New year. One story says that, on that day, the disembodied spirits of all those who had died throughout the preceding year would come back in search of living bodies to possess for the next year. It was believed to be their only hope for the afterlife. The Celts believed all laws of space and time were suspended during this time, allowing the spirit world to intermingle with the living. Naturally, the still-living did not want to be possessed. So on the night of October 31, villagers would extinguish the fires in their homes, to make them cold and undesirable. They would then dress up in all manner of ghoulish costumes and noisily paraded around the neighborhood, being as destructive as possible in order to frighten away spirits looking for bodies to possess. Probably a better explanation of why the Celts extinguished their fires was not to discourage spirit possession, but so that all the Celtic tribes could relight their fires from a common source, the Druidic fire that was kept burning in the Middle of Ireland, at Usinach. Some accounts tell of how the Celts would burn someone at the stake who was thought to have aly been possessed, as sort of a lesson to the spirits. Other accounts of Celtic history debunk these stories as myth. The Romans adopted the Celtic practices as their own. But in the first century AD, Samhain was assimilated into celebrations of some of the other Roman traditions that took place in October, such as their day to honor Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruit and trees. The symbol of Pomona is the apple, which might explain the origin of our modern tradition of bobbing for apples on Halloween. The thrust of the practices also changed over time to become more ritualized. As belief in spirit possession waned, the practice of dressing up like hobgoblins, ghosts, and witches took on a more ceremonial role. The custom of Halloween was brought to America in the 1840's by Irish immigrants fleeing their country's potato famine. At that time, the favorite pranks in New England included tipping over outhouses and unhinging fence gates. The custom of trick-or-treating is thought to have originated not with the Irish Celts, but with a ninth-century European custom called souling. On November 2, All Souls Day, early Christians would walk from village to village begging for soul cakes, made out of square pieces of b with currants. The more soul cakes the beggars would receive, the more prayers they would promise to say on behalf of the dead relatives of the donors. At the time, it was believed that the dead remained in limbo for a time after death, and that prayer, even by strangers, could expedite a soul's passage to heaven. The Jack-o-lantern custom probably comes from Irish folklore. As the tale is told, a man named Jack, who was notorious as a drunkard and trickster, tricked Satan into climbing a tree. Jack then carved an image of a cross in the tree's trunk, trapping the devil up the tree. Jack made a deal with the devil that, if he would never tempt him again, he would promise to let him down the tree. According to the folk tale, after Jack died, he was denied entrance to Heaven because of his evil ways, but he was also denied access to Hell because he had tricked the devil. Instead, the devil gave him a single ember to light his way through the frigid darkness. The ember was placed inside a hollowed-out turnip to keep it glowing longer. The Irish used turnips as their Jack's lanterns originally. But when the immigrants came to America, they found that pumpkins were far more plentiful than turnips. So the Jack-O-Lantern in America was a hollowed-out pumpkin, lit with an ember. So, although some cults may have adopted Halloween as their favorite holiday, the day itself did not grow out of evil practices. It grew out of the rituals of Celts celebrating a new year, and out of Medieval prayer rituals of Europeans. And today, even many churches have Halloween parties or pumpkin carving events for the kids. After all, the day itself is only as evil as one cares to make it. /200804/36479福州治疗输卵管粘连那家好

福州那个医院宫腹腔镜最好A new study links heavy air pollution from coal burning to shorter lives in northern China. Researchers estimate that the half-billion people alive there in the 1990s will live an average of 5 years less than their southern counterparts because they breathed dirtier air.  一项新的研究表明由于烧煤引发的严重空气污染将缩短中国北方居民的寿命。研究人员估计,因为呼吸更污浊的空气,上世纪90年代居住于北方的5亿居民要比南部的居民平均少活5年。  China itself made the comparison possible: for decades, a now-discontinued government policy provided free coal for heating, but only in the colder north. Researchers found significant differences in both particle pollution of the air and life expectancy in the two regions, and said the results could be used to extrapolate the effects of such pollution on lifespans elsewhere in the world.  中国可以用自身来做一个比较:几十年来,国家政策只允许给寒冷的北方地区提供免费的煤燃料供暖,现在这项政策已经被废止。研究人员发现,在南北两个地区,空气中颗粒物污染和人们的预期寿命都存在显著差异,而且研究结果可以用来推断在世界其他地方这种污染对寿命的影响。  The study by researchers from China, Israel and the ed States was published Tuesday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  这项研究由来自中国,以色列和美国的研究人员共同完成,并于周二发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上。  While previous studies have found that pollution affects human health, “the deeper and ultimately more important question is the impact on life expectancy,” said one of the authors, Michael Greenstone, a professor of environmental economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  虽然之前的研究发现,污染会影响人体健康,但是“更深层和根本上更重要的问题是对预期寿命的影响。”该项研究的作者之一,麻省理工学院环境经济学教授迈克尔·格林斯通说。  “This study provides a unique setting to answer the life expectancy question because the (heating) policy dramatically alters pollution concentrations for people who appear to be of otherwise identical health,” Greenstone said in an email. “Further, due to the low rates of migration in China in this period, we can know people’s exposure over long time periods,” he said.  “这项研究为回答有关寿命的问题提供了一个独特的情境,因为(供暖)政策极大地改变了看似健康状况相同的人生存环境的污染浓度,”格林斯通在一封电子邮件中说道,“此外,由于中国在此期间的低迁移率,我们就可以知道,人们长期以来都是暴露在一定污染浓度的环境中。”  The policy gave free coal for fuel boilers to heat homes and offices to cities north of the Huai River, which divides China into north and south. It was in effect for much of the 1950-1980 period of central planning, and, though discontinued after 1980, it has left a legacy in the north of heavy coal burning, which releases particulate pollutants into the air that can harm human health. Researchers found no other government policies that treated China’s north differently from the south.  因淮河为中国区分南北的界限,故之前的政策为中国淮河以北城市的家庭和办公室提供免费的煤燃料锅炉供暖。该政策在中央计划的1950年-1980年期间开始实行,虽然在1980年后被废止,但大量的煤燃烧却给北方的空气留下了危害人体健康的颗粒污染物。研究人员并没有发现其他不同对待中国南北部的政策。  The researchers collected data for 90 cities, from 1981 to 2000, on the annual daily average concentration of total suspended particulates. In China, those are considered to be particles that are 100 micrometers or less in diameter, emitted from sources including power stations, construction sites and vehicles.  研究人员收集了90个城市多年总悬浮微粒日平均浓度的数据,时间跨度从1981年到2000年。在中国,悬浮微粒被认为是指由包括发电厂、建筑工地和车辆发出的,直径小于或等于100微米的粒子。  The researchers estimated the impact on life expectancies using mortality data from 1991-2000. They found that in the north, the concentration of particulates was 184 micrograms per cubic meter ― or 55 percent ― higher than in the south, and life expectancies were 5.5 years lower on average across all age ranges.  研究人员通过1991年-2000年的死亡率数据来估计对预期寿命的影响。他们发现,在北方,微粒的浓度为每立方米184微克——比南部数据高55%,而且在所有年龄段的平均预期寿命比南方短5.5年。  The researchers said the difference in life expectancies was almost entirely due to an increased incidence of deaths classified as cardiorespiratory ― those from causes that have previously been linked to air quality, including heart disease, stroke, lung cancer and respiratory illnesses.  研究人员说,预期寿命的差异几乎完全是由于心肺死亡类疾病的发生率增加——这些通常被人们认为是空气质量导致的疾病包括心脏病、中风、肺癌和呼吸系统疾病。  Total suspended particulates include fine particulate matter called PM2.5 ― particles with diameters of no more than 2.5 micrometers. PM2.5 is of especially great health concern because it can penetrate deep into the lungs, but the researchers lacked the data to analyze those tiny particles separately.  总悬浮粒子包括被称为PM2.5的细颗粒物,即直径不超过2.5微米的颗粒。因为它可以渗透到肺部深处,PM2.5引起人们对健康的极大担忧,但研究人员缺乏数据来单独分析这些微小颗粒的实际影响。  The authors said their research can be used to estimate the effect of total suspended particulates on other countries and time periods. Their analysis suggests that every additional 100 micrograms of particulate matter per cubic meter in the atmosphere lowers life expectancy at birth by about three years.  该项研究的作者还说,他们的研究可以用来估计总悬浮微粒对其他国家和时段的影响。他们的分析表明,大气中每立方米每增加100微克的颗粒物,则降低出生时3年左右的预期寿命。  The study also noted that there was a large difference in particulate matter between the north and south, but not in other forms of air pollution such as sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide.  该研究还指出,南北之间在颗粒物上有很大的差异,但在其他形式的空气污染,如二氧化硫和氮氧化物上并没有这种差异。  Francesca Dominici, a professor of biostatistics at Harvard School of Public Health who has researched the health effects of fine particulate matter in the U.S., said the study was “fascinating.”  弗朗西斯卡·多米尼西认为这项研究“有着巨大吸引力”。身为哈佛大学公共卫生学院的生物统计学教授,多米尼西在美国研究细颗粒物对健康的影响。  China’s different treatment of north and south allowed researchers to get pollution data that would be impossible in a scientific setting.  中国南北方受到的不同对待使得研究人员能够获取到不可能在任何科学场景中得到的污染数据。  Dominici said the quasi-experimental approach was a good approximation of a randomized experiment, “especially in this situation where a randomized experiment is not possible.”  多米尼西说准实验法是近似一个随机实验的很好方法,“尤其是在这种不可能做随机实验的情况下。”  She said she wasn’t surprised by the findings, given China’s high levels of pollution.  她说,考虑到中国的高污染水平,她对调查结果并不感到惊讶。  “In the U.S. I think it’s pretty much been accepted that even small changes in PM2.5, much, much, much smaller than what they are observing in China, are affecting life expectancy,” said Dominici, who was not involved in the study.  “在美国,我想,哪怕PM2.5的数值发生很小的变化,远远小于他们在中国观测到的数据,大部分人也会认为这影响到人们的预期寿命。”并没有参与这项研究的多米尼西说道。 /201309/254730福州做人工受孕那家好 WHEN I WAS 16, I went to Berlin─West Berlin, since at that time a wall still divided the city─to live for three months with a family on an exchange program. They were a nice bunch, the mother a teacher, the father an engineer, a pretty and exuberant daughter who#39;d recently stayed with my family in Toronto and their son, who was a year or two older than I was. All the family members were also, as it turned out, very active members of a group called the Freik?rperkultur, or FKK, which translates as #39;Free Body Culture.#39; In other words, a nudist club.我16岁时参加了一个交流项目,在柏林──西柏林,因为当时仍有一道 将这座城市分隔开──的一个家庭中住了三个月。他们一家人都很好,母亲是老师,父亲是工程师,漂亮而活力四射的女儿(最近她和我们全家一起待在多伦多),他们的儿子比我大一、两岁。后来我发现,他们家所有人都是一个叫Freik?rperkultur(FKK,翻译过来就是“自由身体文化”)的团体的活跃成员。这个团体说白了就是一个天体俱乐部。I hadn#39;t expected this when I signed up for a German cultural exchange through my high school; somehow I hadn#39;t been aware I might have to get naked in public. In fact I knew shamefully little about my host country. Yet nudism, as far as I know, is fairly mainstream in Germany to this day (and not, as it is here, the province of hippies and public radio humorists).当我在高中报名参加一个德国文化交流活动时,可没有料到这些,至少没有意识到我不得不在公共场合赤身裸体。事实上,我对东道国的了解少得可怜。然而就我所知,迄今为止,天体主义在德国都是相当主流的文化(和我们这个盛产嬉皮士和电台笑星的国家不同)。The nudist outings were going to be pretty much mandatory, my hosts explained to me─much like speaking the language or eating the food. The family felt strongly that, to properly explore their native ways, I needed to join in the nudist activities. If I closed my mind to nudism, I#39;d prove myself closed to the wonder of life itself. While there would be no punishment if I refused to participate, they implied that such a lapse of courage on my part would signal a deep moral failure─possibly a spiritual one.主人家向我解释说,裸体郊游是非常有必要的──就像说话和吃东西一样。这家人强烈地感到,为了正确了解本地人的生活方式,我需要加入天体活动。如果我拒绝接受天体主义,就等于拒绝接受生活本身的美妙。尽管我拒绝参与的话不会受到什么惩罚,但他们暗示,我缺乏勇气的表现意味着深层的道德缺陷──可能是心灵缺陷。At 16, I was more resilient and easygoing than I am now. After a few hours of confusion and mild alarm, I shrugged my shoulders, suppressed my panic and acquiesced.16岁的时候,我比现在更有弹性、更随和。几个小时的困惑和轻微的担心后,我耸耸肩,压抑住自己的恐慌,默许了。The good news was that the nudity was mostly a weekend gig. We drove to the #39;Free Body Culture#39; property, which involved a body of fresh water, expanses of bedraggled grass richly festooned with goose and duck droppings and a few stunted trees. We passed through the change rooms, where we divested ourselves of our clothes and left them in unlocked lockers. And then among the shrubs, hundreds of free bodies sp out, picnicking and sunning. I came to understand that a German nudist, in 1984, loved little more than to work on his or her tan.好消息是,这次天体活动基本上就是一次周末小聚。我们驾车前往“自由身体文化”的活动场地,那里有一片淡水湖,广阔的草地上满是鹅和鸭的粪便,还有几棵矮小的树木。我们经过更衣室,在那里脱下衣,将它们放在未上锁的储物柜里。然后,数百个一丝不挂的人在灌木丛中伸展四肢,享用野餐、晒日光浴。就在1984年,我开始理解,对于一个德国天体主义者来说,没有比晒太阳更令他们喜欢的事了。There was a code of eye contact: You didn#39;t ogle people below the neck when you talked to them. You kept your eyes fixed firmly on their faces. But of course you looked later, when you thought no one was paying attention. I remember noticing old and middle-aged bodies and feeling sorry for their owners: how tragic to be so saggy, bulgy and wrinkly. How strange to be apparently proud of the condition, rather than mortified by it.这里有一条目光接触守则:当你和别人聊天时,不应注视对方脖子以下的部位。你应将目光牢牢固定在他们脸上。当然,当你认为没人注意时,会趁机偷看。我记得我注意到中老年人的身体很难看:如此皮肤松弛、身材臃肿、皱纹遍布是多么可悲。为此感到骄傲而不是窘迫可真奇怪。It was a little odd to be naked in the company of the teenage son, whom I#39;d only met days before. But he was so casual and good-natured that I almost forgot how freakish it would have been to blithely disrobe among the boys I knew back home.和主人家十几岁的儿子一起裸露着身体有点奇怪,我可是几天前才认识他的。但是他状态很放松,脾气很好,我几乎忘掉了在我认识的这些男孩中轻率地脱掉衣有多奇怪。My main complaint about the sunbathing afternoons proved not to be self-consciousness. It was simple boredom. I wondered what these people were doing, sitting around naked, chitchatting now and then. Were they waiting for something to happen?事实明,对于在下午晒日光浴,我主要的不满不是难为情,而是觉得这样做很无聊。我奇怪这些人赤身裸体地坐着闲聊要干什么。他们是等待着什么事情发生吗?I was definitely waiting for something, especially when I felt a chill breeze sweep up from the water. I was waiting to be allowed to put my clothes back on. The tan-giving sun was all very well; actual comfort was far better. #39;I#39;m cold,#39; I plaintively expressed, more than once, but each time my obvious constitutional weakness was met with strict disapproval.我绝对是在等待着什么,尤其是当我感到一阵寒冷的微风从水面上吹来时。我等待着可以穿上衣的那一刻。能晒黑皮肤的阳光很好,不过实实在在的舒适感更好。“我冷”,我不止一次哀怨地表示,但弱不禁风的我每次都遭到了严辞拒绝。It wasn#39;t all sunbathing and small talk. We also swam naked─I remember an actual swim meet─and played basketball. The basketball was the worst.那天也不全是日光浴和闲聊。我们还裸泳──我记得有一次真正的游泳比赛──并打了篮球。打篮球的经历是最糟糕的。We wore nothing but sneakers. No brassieres, no jockstraps. There was flopping, and there was pain. There was the sight of nude people, bouncing and swinging above bulky white athletic shoes. Could this be the wonder my German family had talked about, the beauty of the unclad human form? Was this jiggling, dangling dance with a large, orange ball indeed our highest, purest identity?我们除了运动鞋什么都没穿。没戴胸罩,也没穿弹力护身。我们笨重地摔倒,痛苦不已。你所看到的就是的人们穿着笨重的白色运动鞋跳来转去。这就是我的德国交换家庭所说的人类形态的美妙之处吗?这种拍着一个橙色大球、摇摇晃晃的舞蹈真的是我们至高至纯的特性吗?I tried to open my mind as I jumped and flopped. I#39;d jam it open if I could. Open, O Mind! Open right now! I#39;ll prise you open with a clawhammer!我一边蹦蹦跳跳,一边试图敞开心扉。如果我可以,我会尽全力打开它的。快打开!我的心灵!现在就打开!我会用木工锤把你撬开的!And yet, in the end, the Germans were absolutely right. The Free Body Culture gave me a gift I might never have received had I refused to play along. It left me with an acute sense of the absurd─one I still cherish─to be there among my fellow apes, awkward and less than half-willing, aiming and missing, leaping, landing and wincing.结果明,这些德国人是绝对正确的。“自由身体文化”给了我一份如果我拒绝参与就可能永远得不到的礼物。它让我有一种强烈的荒诞感──与猿类同伴共处的荒诞感──至今我仍珍视这种感觉,这种尴尬而不情愿、瞄准又错过、跳起、着地和闪避的感觉。 /201303/230108福州查激素最好的医院

福州染色体检查三甲医院这是关于一个女孩、女人、女性的成长漫画On A Claire Day:亲情、友情、爱情;家庭,朋友、婚姻,工作,生活……一切的一切~今日嘱咐:现在,监控探头也是到处生根发芽!不管你喜不喜欢,它们都默默地在发挥作用,你不利用它,它就要利用你了!!译者:koogle 永泰县妇科检查费用福州市看阳痿那家好




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