世界上大概没有哪一种语言文字不带粗语、脏话的成分特别是文学作品里，粗语、脏话时有所见（所闻）我们用母语演讲、写作时完全可以做到少用或者不使用这类不文雅的字眼，但在作时就身不由己了对原作中所出现的粗鄙字眼，即所谓“四字母词(four letter words）”如果避而不，或者在时随便加以“净化”，说得轻点就是不“信”，说得重点是对原作的歪曲无论原话有多“粗”、多“脏”，它们毕竟是原作的有机组成部分在文学作品中，出自某些人物之口的诅语、粗话，是他们心理活动、情绪变化的写照也是作家借以表现人物性格的重要手段之一
四六级资讯 The Relationship between Brain Process with Mental Experi 阅读练习与讲义 -- :55: 来源： The Relationship between Brain Process with Mental Experience By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to mental experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience. Near the turn of the century, it had been suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, taste and color, might be correlated with the discharge of specific kinds of nervous energy, However, subsequently developed methods of recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits. Although qualitative variance among nerve rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system. According to this theory, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but, rather, the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and there is some evidence this view. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the visual cortex, an auditory sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as as psychoneural correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences. However, cortical as diverse as those of red, black, green and white, or touch, cold, warmth, movement, pain, posture and pressure apparently may arise through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of impulses that counts. In short, Brain theory suggested a correlation between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogenous nerve-cell s conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of mental experience psychologists could only point to a limitless variation in the spatiotemporal patterning of nerve impulses. Vocabulary 1. Up until 1950, efts to establish that brain processes and mental experience are related would most likely have been met with [A]. vexation. [B]. irritability. [C]. discouragement [D]. neutrality . The author mentions “common currency” primarily in order to emphasize the______. [A]. lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings. [B]. similarities in the views of the scientists. [C]. similarity of sensations of human beings. [D]. continuous passage of nerve impulses through the nervous system. 3. Which of the following theories is reinced by the depiction of the experiment in lines —19? [A]. Cognitive experience manifested by sensory nerve impulses are influenced by the area of the brain stimulated. [B]. Qualitative diversity in nerve potentials can now be studied more accurately. [C]. Sensory stimuli are heterogeneous and are greatly influenced by the nerve sensors they produce. [D]. Differentiation in neural modalities influences the length of nerve transmissions. . It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following exhibit the LEAST qualitative variation? [A]. Nerve cells. [B]. Nerve impulses. [C]. Cortical areas. [C]. Spatial patterns of nerve impulses. Vocabulary 1. mental experiences 精神感受 . discharge 释放 3. negligible 微小的，可以忽略不计的 . manifold 多种多样的，多方面 5. neuron 神经元细胞 6. neural (中枢)神经的(系统) 7. qualitative diversity 质的多样性，量变的 8. disprove 反驳，反 9. homogeneous 相似的 . sensory nerve 感觉神经 . cortical 外皮的，皮质的 . cerebral cortex 大脑皮层 . locus 地点，区域 . psychoneural 精神神经 . heterogeneous 异源的，异种的，异体的 . spatiotenporal 时空的 难句译注 1. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience. [结构分析] 句型为such…as 可as 具有关系代词作用，此处作从句中had been demonstrated 的主语 [参考译文] 神经细胞中所显示的诸如在尺寸，形状，化学，神经脉冲中传导速度，激发界限等方面的那种变化差异对多方面的精神感受可能有联系来说仍然意义不大 . It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits. [参考译文] 有可能用其他办法来显示神经类型之间细微的结构差异可是，缺乏据实脉冲的或者其脉冲传导的质量受这些差别的影响相反，这种质量看起来它却影响了中枢神经循环的进展模式 3. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the visual cortex, an auditory sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. [结构分析] 主从句后面跟解释性同位语：that is …… [参考译文] 在一个实验中，当电刺激作用于有意识的人体大脑皮层的某个感觉部位，它对这个特定部位产生一种恰如其分的感觉道，也就是说，视觉来自视觉皮层，听觉来自听皮层，以此类推 . Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as as psychoneural correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences. [参考译文] 其他实验揭示了神经细胞在尺寸，数目，排列和相互联结上的细微变化可是，就精神神经相互关系而论，这些感觉部位相互之间明显的相似性似乎比任何细微差异更为明显多 5. In short, Brain theory suggested a correlation between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogenous nerve-cell s conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through homogeneous cerebral tissue. [参考译文] 总之，大脑理论说明精神感觉和相对相似的神经细胞单位的活动有关系这种活动通过相似的大脑皮层组织传导的基本相似的脉冲 写作方法与文章大意 文章是对“大脑神经活动和精神感受关系的探讨”采用时空写法先从1950年，探索两者关系的结果令人沮丧谈起在临近本世纪转折时期，由赫林提出的不同的感觉态可能和某种神经能量有关经过一系列理论和经验探索，最后得出大脑理论说明神经感受和相对相似的神经细胞单位活动有关的结论这是一种通过相似的大脑结构引导相似脉冲的活动 祥解 1. C. 令人失望见文章的第一句话“到了1950年，大脑活动过程和精神感受有关系的实验结果看起来令人沮丧” A. 令人恼火 B. 激怒 D. 中立 均不对 . A. 在人的神经脉冲中缺少变异(差别)Common currency 本义是一般通用这里的上下问决定了它的含义“无变异脉冲(普通脉冲)”第二段“虽然神经能量中的质变理论从没有受到严厉的驳斥，但这一学说被普遍放弃，而赞成其对立的观点;那就是：神经脉冲在质量沙锅内基本相似，并作为无变异脉冲(普通脉冲)经神经系统传送”所以普通脉冲就是指神经脉冲无变异，在质量上基本相似 B. 科学家观点上的相似性 C. 人类感觉相似性 D. 神经脉冲连续不断通过神经系统这三项和common currency 无关 3. A. 受刺激的大脑部位影响感觉神经脉冲所显示的认知感受在第二道题译文下面“根据这一理论，不是感觉神经脉冲的质量决定它们所产生的各种有意识的感觉而是由脉冲在大脑中释放的不同部位决定，并且有据明这一论点”见难句译注3 B. 现在对神经潜力的质量变化可以进行更精的研究 C. 感官刺激是异源的，并深受它们所产生的神经感觉(感受器)的影响 D. 神经形态上的差异影响神经传递长度 . B. 神经脉冲这在第题A中译注(即第二段)已有明确的答复“神经脉冲在质量上基本相似……” A. 神经细胞见难句译注，“有可能用其他办法来显示神经细胞类型之间细微的结构差异” C. 外皮区域(部位) D. 神经脉冲空间模式见难句译注5和本文最后一句“为了和精神感受多样性吻合，心理学家只能指明神经脉冲时空模式上的无限差异”这说明，它不是 “Least qualitative variation.” 讲义考研英语 考研英语:必考核心词汇坚持练(第三十一天) -- :6: 来源： 复习贵在持之以恒，像考研英语这种学科，单词、翻译、作文都需要坚持定时定量的练习，才会有效果而单词则是英语学习的基础，无论到了复习的哪个阶段，对单词的记忆和练习都不可荒废，希望我们关于考研英语核心词的每日一练可以帮到你 rationn.比;比率;比例The ratio of men’s jobs to women’s is 8 to 1.男性与女性工作岗位的比例是8比1.Equity ratio股东权益比率(股东权益比率是股东权益与资产总额的比率，该比率反映企业资产中有多少是所有者投入的) apprehensivea.(anxious or fearful that something bad or unpleasant will happen; worry)忧虑的，担心的He felt apprehensive about going home.对于回家他觉得担心apprehend n.理解，逮捕 estaten.房地产;不动产;所有权;地位;生活状况French nationals are restricted to a certain extent when they acquire real estate abroad.法国公民在国外购房也受到一定程度的限制I present higher analysis as it was in its childhood but you are bringing it to man’s estate.我对高等分析的介绍是肤浅的，你则把它上升到了相当高的程度real estate房地产，不动产holding, property, possession distincta.清楚的，明显的;(from)截然不同的There was a distinct sense of embarrassment in the air.周围的气氛中有一种明显的局促不安的感觉Although they look similar, these plants are actually quite distinct.尽管这些植物看起来很相似，实际上却属于完全不同的种类di-+stinct(刺)→刺眼的→清楚的，明显的obvious, evident, overt, apparent, clear; differentdistinctly ad.明显地;无疑地 distinctness n.明显;不同 distinction n.名望Stratd-on-Avon, as we all know, has only one industry—William Shakespeare—but there are two distinctly separate and increasingly hostile branches.众所周知，埃文河畔的斯特拉福特镇只有一个产业，那就是威廉·莎士比亚，但是在那儿有两个完全独立且敌意渐浓的派别 mechanicala.[(of a person or action) not having or showing thought or spontaneity; automatic]机械的，呆板的;机械的，由机械组成的;机械似的We must supplement human perception by mechanical devices.我们必须利用机械设备来弥补人类感官的不足His acting is very mechanical.他的表演很生硬She stopped the mechanical brushing of her hair.她停止机械地梳理头发automatic, deadmechanic n.技工，机修工While often praised by eigners its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and self-expression.虽然过去外国人称道强调基础教育的日本教育体系，但是现在其也趋向于重视考试和机械性学习而不是创造性和个人表现的培养哲学上说，量变到达一定程度必然会引起质变复习也同样，一天弄透几个单词，日积月累，总会变得不一样生活就像海洋，只有意志坚强的人才能到达彼岸考研正是这样一个贵在坚持的过程，祝各位考生都能坚持到最后，金榜题名
Braving the wind and dew, Wang Mian traveled day after day past large posting stations and small, till he came to the city of Jinan.年6月六级作文范文：报考研究生 -- :39: 来源： 年6月六级作文范文：报考研究生 1 目前很多人报考研究生 我认为形成这股热潮的原因是…… 3 自拟标题 题目分析： 研究生，作为找到一份好工作的有力筹码，更是处于经济危机水深火热中毕业生们的一个热门选择，本文可围绕考研的种种好处以及结合经济危机进行讨论 引用 参考例文： The Post-graduate Craze Each year, millions of college students will sit in the post-graduate entrance examination. More and more students have regarded the pursuing of a master degree as an indispensable part of their education. What is to their enthusiasm a post-graduate diploma? First, it is the demand of the time. In an age of knowledge updating and inmation explosion, what you have learned in college can hardly meet the demand of society. Talents of high quality who are equipped with the latest knowledge and skill will be needed more than ever. That is why many students will further their studies. Second, we all recognize that the more education you have, the more likely you are to succeed. Compared with those without a master degree, masters will enjoy more preferential treatment, example, better salaries, more opporties promotion and training. A post-graduate degree can guarantee a more promising career. Last but not least, with the graduation of a large number of college students, competition jobs becomes more and more fierce. One way to gain some advantage over others is to have a higher degree. No wonder millions of students will consider pursuing a post-graduate degree. 常用 andor 英译合同中“甲和乙+甲或乙”的内容，这样就可避免漏译其中的一部分
）通篇略读及相关词汇格局判断英语六级作文素材：热点话题之有意义的生活 -- :9:7 来源： Directions: this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay commenting on the remark “the greatest use of life is to spend it something that will outlast it.” You can give examples to illustrate your point and then explain what you will do to make your life more meaningful. You should write at least 0 words but no more than 0 words. 本次作文主题围绕“有意义的生活”，由于本次主题有些抽象，难度稍大以下是一条可行思路：1.由谚语引出话题，表述自己对生活的看法.引出具体例子，作为自己观点的撑3.给出自己的行动方向，如何“过有意义的生活” 范文 Among all the highlighted topics, there is “how to live a meaning life?” Everyone has his or her own opinion. As the saying has it, “the greatest use of life is to spend it something that will outlast it.” I cannot agree any more. If our life is just to pursue something ourselves, we will surely feel fruitless and meaningless when we grow old. From Steve Jobs’s bibliography, we can get that the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world are the ones who do. Steve Jobs has brought a great many changes to our world. His life, although short, definitely outlast. That’s a life worth living. Theree, if there is a way to make my life meaningful, it should be to find something I’m interested in and also helpful to others or the whole society. Only in this way can I keep my passion throughout my life until I finally fulfil my life.