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2019年07月23日 18:00:42 | 作者:百度知识 | 来源:新华社
Nelson Mandela#39;s daughter Makaziwe has told the B about the ;wonderful; final hours of the former president, who died aged 95 last Thursday.南非已故前总统纳尔逊·曼德拉于2013年12月5日(星期四)逝世,享年95岁。其女马卡兹维在接受英国广播公司采访时,谈到了父亲临终前的“美好时刻”。Ms Mandela said his wife Graca, the children and grandchildren were all there to say goodbye.曼德拉女士称,在父亲逝世前,曼德拉的妻子格拉萨以及他的子孙们都陪伴在他身边,直到最后时刻。South Africa is observing a series of commemorations over the next week, leading up to the funeral on Sunday.南非将在未来的一周内举行各类纪念活动,12月15日(星期日)将举行国葬,并将曼德拉先生的遗体安葬在他的家乡古努镇。More than 100 current or former heads of state or government will attend the funeral or Tuesday#39;s national memorial.预计将有上百名各国现任及前任国家元首以及政府首脑出席曼德拉的葬礼。Makaziwe Mandela told the B#39;s Komla Dumor: ;Until the last moment he had us, you know... The children were there, the grandchildren were there, Graca was there, so we are always around him and even at the last moment, we were sitting with him on Thursday the whole day.;马卡兹维·曼德拉接受英国广播公司采访时说:“我们陪伴他直到生命的最后一刻……子孙们都陪伴在他身边,格拉萨也在他身边。即使在他生命的最后一刻,我们也一直坐在他身边,和他共度了周四一整天的时光。”She said: ;I think from last week, Friday until Thursday, it was a wonderful time, if you can say the process of death is wonderful. But Tata [Nelson Mandela] had a wonderful time, because we were there.她说:“在Tata(纳尔逊·曼德拉)逝世的前一个星期,即从上周五开始一直到周四的时间里,因为有了我们的陪伴,父亲度过了这段最后的‘美好时光’。”;When the doctors told us I think Thursday morning... that there was nothing that they could do, and said to me #39;Maki call everybody that is here that wants to see him and say bye bye#39;, it was a most wonderful day for us because the grandchildren were there, we were there.;“周四早上,医生告诉我们他们已尽最大努力,并建议我‘电话通知大家见他最后一面,和他道别’。孙子们都来到了他的跟前,我们也在他周围陪着他,那是美好的时刻。”Ms Mandela paid tribute to the doctors for the 24-hour care.曼德拉女士感谢医生对曼德拉24小时的照顾。She said: ;It was like there were soldiers guarding this period of the king - yes my father comes from royalty - without them knowing they were actually practising our rituals and culture, they were there in silence and when we as family members come in they would excuse themselves and just a few of them would be there to give us the time to be around my dad#39;s bed.;她说:“他们就像士兵一样,守卫着这个时代的王者——是的,我的父亲出身部落王室——也许他们不知道,他们正以实际行动践行我们的仪式与文化传统。在我们进来前,他们安静地守卫在一旁;当看到作为家属的我们进来时,他们中的大部分人找借口退了出去,仅留下小部分人守在房中,以便我们有更多时间陪在父亲的病床前。”Ms Mandela said that, for the past few months, she would tell her father that she loved him and that would see him again tomorrow.曼德拉女士说,在过去的几个月中,她多希望每一天都和父亲说,她深爱着他并希望第二天能再见到他。“即使他可以仅仅将眼睛睁开几秒,然后再闭上双眼,”;And maybe he would open his eyes for just a second and close those eyes,; she said.Ms Mandela said she believed her father had fought not just for political freedom but also for spiritual freedom.曼德拉女士说,她相信他的父亲不仅为政治自由而战,也为精神自由而战。;He talks about the fact that it takes courage to forgive. Forgiveness is a very difficult thing,; she said.“曼德拉曾说过,原谅需要勇气;而饶恕更是一件非常困难的事情。”;I think he knew that if he didn#39;t forgive, he would be forever imprisoned spiritually. The lesson we can take from his life is to have the courage to forgive other people.在曼德拉女士看来,如果曼德拉不曾宽恕,他将永远被禁锢于精神监狱之中。他用实际行动告诉我们,我们需要用勇气其宽恕他人。;None of us are born hating another - we are taught to hate and if you can teach a human being to hate you can also teach a human being to love, to embrace and to forgive.;“没有人生来就怨恨他人——既然我们是在成长中学会怨恨,那么我们也能在人类成长的过程中教会他们如何去爱,去拥抱,去宽恕。” /201312/268213

You might think I#39;d have little in common with a camel, but we do share one useful skill: both of us can go for a very long time without water.你也许觉得自己和骆驼没有什么相同点,但其实我们确实和骆驼有一种共同的技能:我们和骆驼一样可以长时间不喝水。Usually I start my day with a cup of tea, then I might have a glass of water with my lunch and one with dinner - that#39;s about a litre of liquid in 24 hours. It feels like plenty, but apparently it#39;s not nearly enough.通常我会早上喝一杯茶,然后可能中午吃饭的时候喝一杯水,晚上吃饭的时候再喝一杯水——也就是大约24小时内喝1升水。这似乎够多了,但实际上远远不够。After years of suffering headaches and poor digestion I spoke to a neurologist about my regular headaches and a nutritionist about my poor digestion, and both told me I should be drinking up to three litres of liquid a day for my body to function at its best.在常年受到头疼和消化问题的困扰之后,我和一位神经科医生谈到我的头痛症,又和一位营养科医生谈到我消化功能差的问题,两位医生都建议我,必须一天喝多至3升的水,身体才能运转正常。I decided to conduct an experiment. What would happen if I drank the recommended amount every day for a month?我决定进行一项实验,看看如果我按医生的建议每天喝足量的水,会发生怎样的变化?The photograph of me taken the day I started this trial demonstrates perfectly - and rather frighteningly - what a lack of hydration does to a face.在开始实验前一天我给自己拍了一张照片,这张照片清楚——并且令人恐惧的——实了缺水对面部皮肤带来的损害。I am 42, but have to admit I look more like 52 in this picture, which is shocking. There are dark shadows under and around my eyes, which make me look exhausted, a profusion of wrinkles and strange reddish blotches, and my skin lacks any lustre. It looks dead.我现年42岁,但可怕的是,我必须承认在这张照片里我看起来更像是52岁了。我的眼部周围有黑眼圈,看起来十分疲惫,脸上还有许多皱纹和奇怪的红斑。我的皮肤看起来毫无光泽,死气沉沉。Even my lips look shrivelled. This is all classic evidence of poor hydration, apparently. Every system and function in our body depends on water.甚至我的嘴唇看起来都很干瘪。很明显,这些都是典型的缺水症状。我们身体中的所有系统和功能都离不开水。It flushes toxins from the vital organs, carries nutrients to cells, provides a moist environment for ear, nose and throat tissues, and eliminates waste.水能疏散重要器官中的毒素,将营养运输到细胞里,为耳部、鼻部和咽喉组织提供湿润健康的生态环境,还能排泄废物。Not drinking enough means all these functions become impaired. So I decided to see how I would look and feel if I drank three litres of water every day for 28 days. The results were astonishing.如果饮水量不足,则意味着这些功能都将受损。所有我决定考察一下,如果我连续28天每天都喝下3升的水,那么我的皮肤和身体感觉将有些什么变化。结果是惊人的。 /201311/264742

Fresh air polluted by exhaust fumes and industrial emissions causes lung cancer, a team of World Health Organisation experts has officially declared. 据英国《每日电讯报》报道,世界卫生组织的专家们正式宣布,被汽车尾气和工业废气污染的空气会导致肺癌。 Outdoor air pollution was officially classified as carcinogenic to humans by the cancer arm of the WHO after a review of the latest scientific evidence from around the world. 世界卫生组织回顾了来自世界各地的最新据后,正式将户外空气污染定为致癌物质。 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) also highlighted an apparent link between air pollution and an increased risk of bladder cancer, although the findings were less conclusive. 国际癌症研究机构也强调了空气污染和膀胱癌发病率增加的明显关联,虽然还未被确定。 Levels of pollution vary widely between urban and rural areas, but the working group said their findings applied to all regions of the world, and sent a “strong signal” to governments to tackle the problem immediately. 都市和乡村的污染程度有很大的不同,但是研究组人员称他们的结果是来自全球所有区域的,并且极力要求各个政府尽快解决这个问题。 Dr Kurt Straif, head of the IARC Monographs Section which identifies environmental causes of cancer, said: “The air we breathe has become polluted with a mixture of cancer-causing substances. 库尔特#8226;斯特莱夫士是国际癌症研究机构专论部的领导者,这个部门专门识别导致癌症的环境因素。他说:“我们呼吸的空气已被一种混合的致癌物质所污染。” “We now know that outdoor air pollution is not only a major risk to health in general, but also a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths.” “现在我们知道户外空气污染不但是对健康不利的主要因素,而且是癌症死亡的主要环境因素。” The latest available data suggest that in 2010, air pollution was responsible for the deaths of 223,000 lung cancer patients around the world. 最新的数据表明,在2010年,空气污染造成全世界22.3万人死于肺癌。 Scientists from the IARC studied more than 1,000 academic papers on polluted air and, separately, small particles found in polluted air. 国际癌症研究机构的科学家们研究了1000多份空气污染的学术报告,分别在被污染的空气中找到了小颗粒物。 They found that the risk of developing lung cancer rises in tandem with increasing levels of either, concluding for the first time that outdoor air pollution is a cause of cancer. 他们发现患肺癌的风险与空气污染的增加是有关的,首次明户外空气污染是癌症的诱因。 Prof David Phillips of King’s College London, a member of the working group, said there was no particular threshold at which pollution becomes dangerous. “The higher the pollution, the greater the cancer risk,” he explained. “It does not suddenly kick in at a particular level.” 伦敦国王学院的戴维#8226;菲利普斯教授是工作组的成员之一。他说没有特定的临界值可以判定污染到达什么水平才算危险。“污染指数越高,患癌症的风险越大,”他解释说。“它不会突然达到一个特定的水平。” The programme had previously classed a variety of individual chemicals and mixtures found in polluted air as carcinogens, such as diesel engine exhaust, solvents, metals, and dusts. 该计划曾将一些单独的化学物质和受污染空气中的混合物归类于致癌物质,如柴油机排气,溶剂,金属和灰尘。 Dr Dana Loomis, deputy head of the IARC monographs section, explained: “Our task was to evaluate the air everyone breathes rather than focus on specific air pollutants. 国际癌症研究机构专论部副主任达纳#8226;卢米斯士解释说:“我们的任务是评估每个人呼吸的空气而不是关注特定的空气污染物。” “The results from the reviewed studies point in the same direction: the risk of developing lung cancer is significantly increased in people exposed to air pollution.” “从相同方向研究的结果表明:患肺癌的风险对于暴露于空气污染中的人们来说正显著增加。” Although the findings do not come as a surprise, they are likely to significantly increase the pressure on governments around the world to tackle pollution, which has risen rapidly around the world during industrialisation and was aly known to raise the risk of conditions like heart and respiratory diseases. 虽然研究结果并不让人感到惊讶,但他们可能会对世界各国政府在解决污染的问题上施加压力。这些污染在全球工业化期间迅速飙升,人们也已知它们会提高患心脏病和呼吸疾病的风险。 Traffic, power stations, industrial and agricultural emissions, and cooking and heating in the home are the main causes of air pollution. 交通、电力站、工业和农业的排污,家庭做饭和供暖是空气污染的主要原因。 Dr Christopher Wild, director of the IARC, said: “Classifying outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans is an important step. There are effective ways to reduce air pollution and, given the scale of the exposure affecting people worldwide, this report should send a strong signal to the international community to take action without further delay.” 克里斯托弗#8226;怀尔德士是IARC的主任,他说:“将室外空气污染归类为致癌物对人类来说是一个重要的步骤。我们有许多有效的方法来减少空气污染。考虑到空气污染范围影响着全球人民,这个报告应该向国际社会发出强烈信号,让他们立即采取行动。” /201310/261948

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