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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年07月17日 09:07:49
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Business商业报道Women in management女性管理者A word from your sponsor后台一句话的事Time for women to stop being shrinking violets at work职场女性,从此不再羞答答的I DONT know any successful women who havent had a powerful sponsor in their organisation to give them their first big break, says Avivah Wittenberg-Cox, the boss of 20-first, a consultancy that helps companies put more women into senior jobs.在一个组织里,对于女性而言,没有过硬的后台帮助她们完成人生的首次突破,还能够风生水起的,我实在是没咋地见过,阿维娃·维滕贝格-考克斯,性别顾问公司20-First总裁,如是说。That sentiment is echoed by many people who work in this field.顾问公司20-First帮助很多的公司,让更多的女性做高层领导。她的这一观点得到众多同行的呼应。But why do women need so much help?但是为啥女性需要那么多的帮助呢?Many women who climb the corporate ladder have sponsors, too.许多女性要想晋升,必须有后台,这一道理同样适用于公司。Indeed, they find it easier than women to persuade a senior colleague to sponsor them. They are also less likely to build up useful networks of contacts.确实,女性要想劝高层领导帮助自己,不是件太难的事。But women need help more because they are generally more reluctant to promote themselves.但是女性需要更多的帮助,原因就是,一般来的来说,她们不愿意推销自己。同时,她们也不大可能去建立一个对自个有用的关系网。That may help to explain why women, although they now enter white-collar jobs in much the same numbers as men in many countries, still find it so hard to get anywhere near the executive suite.这也解释了这样一个现象,在很多的国家,白领女性的数量跟男性持平,但是女性进入高管还是一个字,难。A new report, Sponsor Effect: UK, produced by the Centre for Talent Innovation, a New York think-tank, offers a detailed picture of the female talent pipeline in Britain, based on a survey of about 2,500 graduate employees, mostly of large companies.一份新的报告,《后台效应:英国》,制作者为纽约智囊团人才创新中心,详述描绘了英国女性人才的分布状况。这份报告的制作,是基于对2500个左右研究生雇员的调查,且她们基本上都来自大公司。It notes that although women in Britain account for 57% of new recruits to white-collar jobs, they make up just 17% of executive directors and a mere 4% of chief executives of the FTSEs 100 biggest companies.它指出,虽然女性新雇员占白领比例57%,但是在富时指数的100个大公司里,执行理事也就17%,首席执行官只有可怜的4%。It is not that the women lack ambition, says the report.报告表示不是说女性没有雄性壮志。No less than 79% of senior women in the sample said they aspired to a top job and 91% were keen to be promoted.调查者中,多达79%的大龄女性表示希望成为高管,91%希望得到晋升。Nor, say the authors, are they necessarily held back by family responsibilities:作者称,家庭责任并不一定会拖累她们:nearly two in five of those aged 40 or over had no children.年龄在40或是以上的,接近五分之二,是没有孩子的,有五分之三的女性是有孩子的,这个确实不假。Three in five of the over-40s did have children, and talented women who quit work to raise kids are not included in the sample.那些为了照顾孩子而放弃工作的才女们并不在这个范围之内。Still, the surveys main finding is striking.仍然,这个调查的主要发现还是会吓人一跳。Only 16% of the sample had sponsors, defined as people several levels above them who give them career advice, introduce them to contacts and help them get promotions.调查者中,只有16%的人有后台,后台的意思指的是那些比她们的位子要高那么几级的人,在工作当中给予她们建议,给她们接触的机会,帮助她们晋升。Having a sponsor dramatically improves a womans career prospects.有个后台,女性在职场上的路要好走非常多。The British report is a follow-on from a similar study by the CTI on America, The Sponsor Effect, published last year by the Harvard Business Review.这份英国报告,其实是美国CTI的一份类似研究的后续。The CTI is now working on India;这份研究的名称为《后台效应》,去年在期刊《哈佛商业》上出版。Germany may come after that.CTI现在正在对印度进行研究;印度之后可能就是德国。It is also preparing a road map to make it easier for women everywhere to find sponsors.CTI同时也在酝酿一幅公路图,目的就是为了让各地的女性更好地找到后台。Sylvia Ann Hewlett, the CTIs boss, who co-wrote the report, says there are some differences between countries.西尔维亚·安·休利特,CTI老板,是此份报告的共同撰写者。她说,各个国家的情况真的还不大一样。But the broad picture is similar everywhere:但是从更大范围来看,情况其实差不多:women underestimate the importance of sponsorship and fail to cultivate business relationships effectively.女性低估了后台的力量,并且没能够有效地培养商业关系。This may be true, but networking takes time, often after hours.这可能是对的,但是关系网的维护还是需要时间的,尤其是下班时间。Are women with children equally willing to put in that extra time?那么,女性会把跟孩子在一起的时间花在培养关系网上吗?Drawing attention to the problems of women in upper management makes a useful change from the usual lament about the lack of women on boards.把注意力集中到高管女性的问题上,而不是像往常一样,哀叹董事会的女性怎么就这么少,要有用的多了。The scarcity of both is a symptom of something bigger:高管女性和董事会女性的稀缺只是问题的一个症状,更大的问题是:a lot of employers neither know nor care how many senior women they have working for them.许多老板对这个有多少女性在为他工作上,不关心也不在乎。Studies show a correlation between more women in senior positions and superior company performance, though it is hard to know whether more sexual diversity improves performance or top-notch firms promote more women.研究显示,女性高管越多,公司的表现越好,这之间是有一定的关系的,虽然还不是很确定,到底是性别多样化促进绩效呢,还是一流的公司更多的提拔女性呢。How much can sponsorship help?后台到底能有多大用?Ms Wittenberg-Cox is glum.维滕贝格·考克斯女士不清楚。She says there have been so many initiatives that many firms suffer from diversity fatigue,她说,有太多的公司因为性别单一而缺乏主动性,but none has dealt with the appalling reality of the pipeline.但是并没有什么人来解决这个可怕的人才分布事实。The only remedy, she reckons, is a change of thinking at the top.她觉得,唯一的解救方法,恐怕就是高层的变动。 /201307/248143

Science and technology科学技术Solar-powered flight太阳能动力飞行Its moment in the sun日间时刻An attempt to fly around the world in a solar-powered plane尝试驾驶太阳能飞机环游世界A REVOLUTIONARY solar-powered aircraft touched down recently at Moffett Airfield, in the heart of Silicon Valley.一架革命性的太阳能飞机近日在硅谷中心的墨菲特联邦机场着陆。No champagne corks were popped, however, for it arrived disassembled in the belly of a 747 cargo jet.可却没有香槟酒庆贺,因为这是一架由波音747喷气式货机运输的解体飞机。The aircraft will be reassembled by the end of March and then begin flight tests.它会在三月底重新组装,继而进行飞行测试。If all goes well, by May it should be y to fly across America, stopping in four cities before landing in New York.万事顺利的话,它将在5月底横越美洲,途径四座城市,最终抵达纽约。However, this aircraft is just an experimental prototype for a much bigger exploit.然而,人们希望利用这架供以实验的原型机实现更加宏伟的目标。The team behind the project, called Solar Impulse, are using their prototype to learn what will be required to build a second aircraft capable of circumnavigating the globe using only the power of the sun.作为此次计划的执行团队—太阳驱动,通过研究该原型机,获得了一系列能使太阳能飞机实现环球飞行的参数。After carrying out a number of successful test flights of the prototype from their base at an airfield in Payerne, Switzerland, construction of their second aircraft began.团队成员在位于佩耶纳某一机场的总部对原型机进行了一系列成功的飞行测试后,便开始着手建造第二架太阳能飞机。But last July the Solar Impulse project suffered a big setback.但就在去年七月,太阳脉冲团队遭受了一个巨大的挫折。The second aircraft failed a critical safety check.第二架飞机的一项关键性安全检查不达标。Its main wing spar, the backbone of any aeroplane, broke during structural tests.在结构测试中,撑飞机的主翼梁发生了断裂。There is always a risk of pushing technology too far when doing something new.不切实际地尝试新技术总会留下隐患。Bertrand Piccard, one of Solar Impulses founders, had been in the same situation before and knew that success comes by learning from mistakes and moving on.太阳驱动的创始人之一—伯特兰·皮卡德也曾深陷此境,他深知技术的推进只能是吃一堑,长一智。In 1999 he co-piloted Orbiter 3, the first balloon to circumnavigate the globe.1999年,皮卡德曾担任轨道飞行器3号的副驾驶,这是第一个实现环球飞行的热气球。It was when he landed in the Egyptian desert with just 40kg of propane left from the 3.7 tonnes he had taken off with 20 days earlier that Mr Piccard decided his next challenge would be to repeat the flight using no fuel at all.在飞行了20天以后,气球在埃及的沙漠中着陆,此时原本携带的3.7吨丙烷就只剩下40千克,这激发了皮卡德向无燃料环球飞行发起挑战。He teamed up with Andre Borschberg, a fighter pilot and engineer, to form the Solar Impulse project.于是他与战斗机飞行员兼工程师—安德烈·尔施伯格通力合作,共同发起了太阳驱动计划。Mr Piccard comes from a line of adventurers.皮卡德来自探险之家。His grandfather, Auguste, was the first to fly a balloon into the stratosphere.他的祖父,奥古斯特,是驾驶气球飞入平流层的第一人。His father, Jacques, plunged to record depths in a deep-sea submersible.而他的父亲,雅克,专注于深海潜探,并创造了下潜深度的历史记录。Making the most of it万般皆有用The problem with the wing spar has set back the team a year.这个团队花费了一年时间来解决翼梁故障。Making a new one, completing the second aircraft and waiting for suitable weather means that the round-the-world flight is now scheduled for 2015.在实现环球飞行之前,他们必须制造一架新飞机,完成第二架飞机的组装,在适宜的天气下试航,所有这一切都要在2015年才能完成。In the meantime, the team decided to make the best of their enforced delay by flying their prototype across America.与此同时,尽管受客观条件制约,团队成员还是决定利用此次机会驾驶原型机飞跃美洲。This will provide more valuable operating experience and help with the development of the technologies they will need.此举不仅能提供更多弥足珍贵的操作经验,还能推动所需技术的改良。Plus, if anything goes wrong, it is easier to land on dry land than the ocean.再者说,如果飞行遭遇意外,陆地着降总要比海面着降轻松许多。Solar-powered aircraft are not new.太阳能飞机由来已久。One of the earliest, Solar Challenger, flew across the English Channel in 1981.早在1981年,太阳挑战号就成功飞越英吉利海峡。It was built by the late Paul MacCy, an American aeronautical engineer.这架飞机由已故美国航空工程师保罗?麦卡克莱迪建造。Its 14.3-metre wing was covered in photovoltaic cells.其14.3米长的机翼上布满了光生伏打电池。These powered two electric motors, which in turn drove a single propeller.推动唯一螺旋桨发动的两台电动机正是由这些电池供电。The Solar Impulse project is a very different beast.然而太阳驱动计划却开辟了一片新天地。The prototype aircraft which will fly across America has a wingspan of 63.4 metres, which is as big as a jumbo jets.飞越美国的原型机翼展宽达63.4米,与巨型喷气式飞机同宽。Yet its fuselage is as slender as a gliders and its single-person cockpit is cramped.而其机身却与滑翔机一般大小,窄小的驾驶舱只能容下一名飞行员。The wings are covered in almost 12,000 photovoltaic cells, which can simultaneously run its four electrically driven propellers while charging four packs of lithium-polymer batteries.机翼覆盖着12000块光生伏打电池,在为四组锂聚合物电池充电的同时,还能一同撑四个电驱动螺旋桨运转。The batteries are needed because the aircraft has to be able to fly through the night.之所以携带电池,是因为飞机需要在晚间飞行。The second aircraft will have to do that non-stop for five-to-six days at a time.第二架在建的环球航行飞机需实现一连5、6天不间断飞行。The plan is to take off in an easterly direction and land on every continent that touches the Tropic of Cancer.飞机将于东部地区起飞,随后在北回归线附近的每一块陆地降落。This will involve long flights across oceans.期间包括漫漫的洋面飞行。With only as much power as a motor scooter, the planned aircraft will cruise at just 70kph.按计划飞行动力与小型托车一般,因而只能以70km/h的速度匀速行驶。Its ultimate range will be limited by the physical ability of the pilot to remain alert, with little room to move or to store much food and water.狭小的机内空间,加之有限的食物与饮用水,飞机的最大航行距离就完全取决于飞行员自身的身体素质。With current technology, the team reckon, a two-person solar plane would be too heavy.团队成员认为,以目前的技术,双驾驶太阳能飞机负重过大。To give Mr Piccard and Mr Borschberg room to exercise and lie down, the next aircraft will be about 15% bigger than the prototype, which tips the scales at just 1,600kg.为了给皮卡德和尔施伯格足够的空间移动和躺卧,新的飞机将比原型机大15%,总重达1600千克。Weight is the critical factor.重量是关键性问题。The wing spar that broke had been redesigned with an ultralight carbon-fibre process to shed the grams.先前破损的翼梁用超轻型碳纤维材料重新打造以降低克重。But we went too close to the limits, confesses Mr Borschberg.尔施伯格不得不承认,这已是我们所能之极限。There is little scope for a full autopilot system, and it would weigh too much.完整的自动驾驶系统会使飞机不堪重负。However, Altran, an engineering consultancy based in France and one of the projects supporters, is developing a partial system.不过项目持商之一的法国Altran工程咨询公司,部分解决了自动驾驶问题。In calm weather, it will keep the aircraft pointing in the right direction.风和日丽之时,这套系统会帮助飞机沿着正确的方向前行。And if turbulence causes a wing to dip by more than five degrees, a cuff on the pilots right or left arm will vibrate to tell him which way to correct course.如若飞机机翼受气流影响下沉角度超过5度,它就会通过振动驾驶员某一膀臂上的袖带来指引正确的行驶方向。He must react quickly to keep control.驾驶员的反应速度决定着飞机平稳与否。This system will be tried out on the prototype flight in America.这套系统将在横越美洲的原型机上试用。The ground crew can monitor both the flight and the pilot with telemetry.地勤人员可以通过遥测装置对飞机和飞行员进行监控。When circumnavigating the globe the pilot will be able to lower a seat to lie down and take catnaps of up to 20 minutes.在环球飞行时,飞行员可以将座位调低,这样便可以躺在上面小憩20多分钟。That is enough, the team calculate, to ward off some of the effects of sleep deprivation.团队成员通过计算认为这些时间足够抵御睡眠不足带来的不利影响。The pilot must not be too groggy if he has to swing suddenly into action.当飞行员突然驾驶时,他一定不可以过于疲劳。This procedure has been tested in a flight simulator for 72 hours non-stop, and seems to work.这套流程已在模拟飞行器中进行了72小时不间断测试,效果卓著。A typical flight involves taking off in the early morning, when winds are light, and ascending to 10,000 metres to stay above any stormclouds.普通的飞行包括在风速平稳的清晨起飞,随后上升至10000米的高空以躲避暴风云层。At this altitude, though, the air is thin and an oxygen supply is needed.由于海拔较高,空气稀薄,必须提供足够的氧气。The pilot has to wear an oxygen mask because pressurising the cockpit, as an airliner does with air from its jet engines, is not possible.飞行员只得佩戴氧气罩,因为太阳能飞机无法像普通大型客机那样利用喷气引擎的气流保持驾驶舱的气压平稳。Nor do the team want to carry heavy oxygen cylinders.氧气瓶也因为过于沉重而不切实际。As an alternative Air Liquide, an industrial-gases firm, is developing a solar-powered system to generate oxygen.与法国液化空气公司类似的一家工业用气公司正在研制如何利用太阳能产生氧气。At night the pilot descends slowly, carefully using up the power until dawn.夜晚时,飞机缓缓下降,在黎明前用尽所有燃料。Once the sun returns the batteries can recharge in three hours as the plane ascends again.当太阳升起时,电池会在三个小时内充满,然后飞机便再次起飞。Landings are also left until the early evening, when winds are light.同起飞一样,降落也挑选在风速平稳的傍晚。The flight across America will give the teams meteorologists an opportunity to see how their weather models stand up.飞越美洲的航行也可以验团队中气象学家的天气模型是否成立。Sometimes it is necessary for the pilot to delay a landing to wait for optimum conditions.有时,飞行员必须延迟降落时间以寻求最佳时机。Mr Piccard and Mr Borschberg have learned an interesting technique to do that.皮卡德和尔施伯格用一种有趣的方式进行观察。Flying slowly, they turn the nose into a headwind, which can make the aircraft fly backwards.他们会逆风缓慢飞行,这样飞机就会受气流影响向后移动。It is not the sort of thing to try in a jumbo jet.而这在巨型喷气式飞机上是不可想象的。 /201309/258577

  

  Business商业报道Women in management女性管理者A word from your sponsor后台一句话的事Time for women to stop being shrinking violets at work职场女性,从此不再羞答答的I DONT know any successful women who havent had a powerful sponsor in their organisation to give them their first big break, says Avivah Wittenberg-Cox, the boss of 20-first, a consultancy that helps companies put more women into senior jobs.在一个组织里,对于女性而言,没有过硬的后台帮助她们完成人生的首次突破,还能够风生水起的,我实在是没咋地见过,阿维娃·维滕贝格-考克斯,性别顾问公司20-First总裁,如是说。That sentiment is echoed by many people who work in this field.顾问公司20-First帮助很多的公司,让更多的女性做高层领导。她的这一观点得到众多同行的呼应。But why do women need so much help?但是为啥女性需要那么多的帮助呢?Many women who climb the corporate ladder have sponsors, too.许多女性要想晋升,必须有后台,这一道理同样适用于公司。Indeed, they find it easier than women to persuade a senior colleague to sponsor them. They are also less likely to build up useful networks of contacts.确实,女性要想劝高层领导帮助自己,不是件太难的事。But women need help more because they are generally more reluctant to promote themselves.但是女性需要更多的帮助,原因就是,一般来的来说,她们不愿意推销自己。同时,她们也不大可能去建立一个对自个有用的关系网。That may help to explain why women, although they now enter white-collar jobs in much the same numbers as men in many countries, still find it so hard to get anywhere near the executive suite.这也解释了这样一个现象,在很多的国家,白领女性的数量跟男性持平,但是女性进入高管还是一个字,难。A new report, Sponsor Effect: UK, produced by the Centre for Talent Innovation, a New York think-tank, offers a detailed picture of the female talent pipeline in Britain, based on a survey of about 2,500 graduate employees, mostly of large companies.一份新的报告,《后台效应:英国》,制作者为纽约智囊团人才创新中心,详述描绘了英国女性人才的分布状况。这份报告的制作,是基于对2500个左右研究生雇员的调查,且她们基本上都来自大公司。It notes that although women in Britain account for 57% of new recruits to white-collar jobs, they make up just 17% of executive directors and a mere 4% of chief executives of the FTSEs 100 biggest companies.它指出,虽然女性新雇员占白领比例57%,但是在富时指数的100个大公司里,执行理事也就17%,首席执行官只有可怜的4%。It is not that the women lack ambition, says the report.报告表示不是说女性没有雄性壮志。No less than 79% of senior women in the sample said they aspired to a top job and 91% were keen to be promoted.调查者中,多达79%的大龄女性表示希望成为高管,91%希望得到晋升。Nor, say the authors, are they necessarily held back by family responsibilities:作者称,家庭责任并不一定会拖累她们:nearly two in five of those aged 40 or over had no children.年龄在40或是以上的,接近五分之二,是没有孩子的,有五分之三的女性是有孩子的,这个确实不假。Three in five of the over-40s did have children, and talented women who quit work to raise kids are not included in the sample.那些为了照顾孩子而放弃工作的才女们并不在这个范围之内。Still, the surveys main finding is striking.仍然,这个调查的主要发现还是会吓人一跳。Only 16% of the sample had sponsors, defined as people several levels above them who give them career advice, introduce them to contacts and help them get promotions.调查者中,只有16%的人有后台,后台的意思指的是那些比她们的位子要高那么几级的人,在工作当中给予她们建议,给她们接触的机会,帮助她们晋升。Having a sponsor dramatically improves a womans career prospects.有个后台,女性在职场上的路要好走非常多。The British report is a follow-on from a similar study by the CTI on America, The Sponsor Effect, published last year by the Harvard Business Review.这份英国报告,其实是美国CTI的一份类似研究的后续。The CTI is now working on India;这份研究的名称为《后台效应》,去年在期刊《哈佛商业》上出版。Germany may come after that.CTI现在正在对印度进行研究;印度之后可能就是德国。It is also preparing a road map to make it easier for women everywhere to find sponsors.CTI同时也在酝酿一幅公路图,目的就是为了让各地的女性更好地找到后台。Sylvia Ann Hewlett, the CTIs boss, who co-wrote the report, says there are some differences between countries.西尔维亚·安·休利特,CTI老板,是此份报告的共同撰写者。她说,各个国家的情况真的还不大一样。But the broad picture is similar everywhere:但是从更大范围来看,情况其实差不多:women underestimate the importance of sponsorship and fail to cultivate business relationships effectively.女性低估了后台的力量,并且没能够有效地培养商业关系。This may be true, but networking takes time, often after hours.这可能是对的,但是关系网的维护还是需要时间的,尤其是下班时间。Are women with children equally willing to put in that extra time?那么,女性会把跟孩子在一起的时间花在培养关系网上吗?Drawing attention to the problems of women in upper management makes a useful change from the usual lament about the lack of women on boards.把注意力集中到高管女性的问题上,而不是像往常一样,哀叹董事会的女性怎么就这么少,要有用的多了。The scarcity of both is a symptom of something bigger:高管女性和董事会女性的稀缺只是问题的一个症状,更大的问题是:a lot of employers neither know nor care how many senior women they have working for them.许多老板对这个有多少女性在为他工作上,不关心也不在乎。Studies show a correlation between more women in senior positions and superior company performance, though it is hard to know whether more sexual diversity improves performance or top-notch firms promote more women.研究显示,女性高管越多,公司的表现越好,这之间是有一定的关系的,虽然还不是很确定,到底是性别多样化促进绩效呢,还是一流的公司更多的提拔女性呢。How much can sponsorship help?后台到底能有多大用?Ms Wittenberg-Cox is glum.维滕贝格·考克斯女士不清楚。She says there have been so many initiatives that many firms suffer from diversity fatigue,她说,有太多的公司因为性别单一而缺乏主动性,but none has dealt with the appalling reality of the pipeline.但是并没有什么人来解决这个可怕的人才分布事实。The only remedy, she reckons, is a change of thinking at the top.她觉得,唯一的解救方法,恐怕就是高层的变动。 /201307/248143。

  Business商业报道Manufacturing in Serbia塞尔维亚的制造业Balkan legacy巴尔干遗产Fiat goes east to lower costs菲亚特东迁降低成本MASS-MARKET carmakers in western Europe are enduring car sales at their lowest since 1993.畅销的汽车制造商在西欧正忍受着自1993年以来的最低销量。They are losing money on their assembly plants in their home countries, yet politics makes it hard to close them.他们在本国组装厂赔钱,但政策又使得很难将它们关闭。That has encouraged them to seek ways of manufacturing more cheaply in emerging-market states on Europes periphery, to drive down their average costs.这鼓励他们在欧洲国家寻找更便宜的新兴市场的方式来压低他们的平均成本。Take Fiat, which lost 247m in the third quarter of this year.菲亚特在今年第三季度亏损2.47亿。Some 5,700 workers have been put on extended leave in Italy, and even in Poland Fiat has had to shed 1,450 jobs.在意大利约5,700名工人休长假,在波兰菲亚特甚至不得不裁员1,450个工作岗位。But its Serbian operation is expanding, and in just over a year has gone from zero to becoming the countrys largest exporter.但在塞尔维亚业务却不断扩大,并在短短一年多时间已经从零到成为其最大的出口商。Since March, Fiat has taken on 600 new workers and now employs 3,800 at its plant at Kragujevac, a town in central Serbia.自三月以来,菲亚特在塞尔维亚中部的一个小镇的工厂招聘了600名新工人,现在已拥有员工3,800名。Local suppliers to the plant have taken on a further 1,200 recruits.本地供应商的工厂也新招聘了1,200名新员工。Fiat has invested 1.2 billion in the plant, which now turns out 600 of the companys chunky, family-friendly 500L small cars each day.菲亚特已经在这个厂投资1.2亿美元,每天产出600辆耐用的、适合家用的500L小型车。The region was so badly hit in the 1990s by the collapse of Yugoslavia, followed by sanctions and war that it became known as hunger valley.上世纪90年代南斯拉夫解体对该地区造成了严重的打击,再加上制裁和战争使它成为饥饿的山谷。But it had an industrial legacy in Zastava, maker of Yugo cars and Kalashnikov rifles.但它在扎斯塔瓦有一个工业遗产,优吾车和卡拉什尼科夫步的制造商。In 1989, the last full year of the old Yugoslavia, 180,950 cars rolled off the production lines. In 2004 Zastava produced only 13,300 of its ropy models.1989年,老南斯拉夫全年有180,950辆汽车从生产线下线。在2004年却只生产了13,300辆它的ropy型号。What saved Zastava from oblivion was its links to Fiat, which dated back to 1954.与菲亚特的关系使扎斯塔瓦免于被遗忘,这个关系可追溯到1954年。In 2008 the assets of Zastava were transferred to a new company, Fiat Automobili Srbija, owned 67% by the Italian firm.2008年扎斯塔瓦的资产被转移到一个新的公司,位于意大利的菲亚特汽车有限公司SRBIJA拥有67%的股权。Since then, the old Zastava plant has been demolished. In the new one, workers with an average age of 30 move around silently, tapping instructions into computer terminals that control the plants robots.从那时起老扎斯塔瓦厂就被拆毁了。在平均年龄为30岁的新厂里工人在默默地将指令输入计算机终端控制工厂的机器人。The rationale for producing in Serbia is cost: the wage Fiat pays there is a fifth of what it pays in Italy, and a third of what it pays in Poland.在塞尔维亚生产的理由是成本:菲亚特付的工资只有在意大利的五分之一,是在波兰的三分之一。Last November, however, protests from disgruntled workers forced Fiat to increase wages in Kragujevac by 13%.然而去年11月不满的工人迫使菲亚特在克拉古耶瓦茨增加13%工资。The Serbian government subsequently agreed to compensate Fiat for this by paying it 10,000 for each employee it took on—not the first time a government has had its arm twisted by a carmaker into providing subsidies.随后塞尔维亚政府同意为每一位员工补偿菲亚特10000欧元,这不是政府第一次由汽车制造商拧着胳膊为其提供补贴。It also promised Fiat a further 3,000 per car to make cheaper 500Ls for the Serbian market.它还承诺每辆车补贴菲亚特3,000欧元降低塞尔维亚市场500Ls车的价格。France and rival car importers cried foul, and the European Commission ruled that Serbia, a candidate for European Union membership, had indeed violated state-aid rules.法国和竞争对手的汽车进口商哭诉违反规则,欧盟委员会裁定塞尔维亚的确触犯了国家援助规则,而其是加入欧盟的候选国。The car-price subsidy was abandoned but the cash-for-workers one was not.汽车价格补贴被放弃,但工人现金补贴没有。The plant could make 200,000 cars a year but its production will be lower.工厂一年可以生产200,000辆汽车,但其产量将会降低。One reason is that Serbia failed to persuade Russia to include cars in a free-trade agreement struck in 2011.原因之一是2011年塞尔维亚未能说俄罗斯将汽车列入自由贸易协定。Kragujevac has good transport links and is close to Fiats main European markets.克拉古耶瓦茨拥有良好的交通是菲亚特在欧洲的主要市场。The government would like to encourage more such investment, because too much of Serbias measly economic growth since 2008 has been achieved without creating jobs.政府希望有更多的投资,因为自2008年以来塞尔维亚可怜的经济增长创造不了多少就业机会。How annoying, then, that one of the advertisements made to publicise the 500L in America shows the cars arriving as women strip off their outer garments to the cry of: The Italians are coming!讨厌的是在美国做广告宣传500L汽车时妇女脱掉外衣喊叫:意大利人都来了!If only potential American investors knew that these Italians are really Serbs.假如只有潜在的美国投资者知道这些意大利实际上是塞尔维亚的。 /201311/264838

  

  Mobile telecoms in Pakistan巴基斯坦的移动通信业At last, 3G终于等到你,3GThe government raises a bit of money and gets a long-awaited industry started政府筹集到了一定资金,启动了长期停滞的产业Now we can really start shopping现在我们可以真正意义上开始购物IN PAKISTAN, as in other poor parts of the world, mobile telecoms are vital to the countrys development, bypassing obstructive bureaucrats and bringing services directly to the masses—from banking to voter registration. Yet it is the only country in South Asia that does not have high-speed mobile internet, because only this week, after eight years of delays and regulatory snarl-ups, did it at last hold an auction of the spectrum required to roll out 3G and 4G services.移动通信的发展对于巴基斯坦以及世界上其他的贫困地区的发展至关重要,避开官僚作风的阻碍,将直接务于大众—从业到选民登记。同时,他也是南亚唯一没有高速移动网络的国家。因为在持续8年的推延以及官僚阻滞的影响下,直到这个星期,巴基斯坦才举行开展3G和4G业务所需频谱的招标。 Demand for the licences fell short of the governments hopes. The finance minister, Ishaq Dar, had talked of the auction raising billion; in the end it produced just under .2 billion. Successful bids were made by two local operators, Mobilink and Ufone, and two foreign ones, China Mobile and Telenor of Norway. Two other big foreign firms that had been expected to take part, Saudi Telecom and Turkcell of Turkey, got cold feet after, it is said, having their request for exclusive one-year licences rejected.运营权的需求度低于政府的预期。金融部长Ishaq Dar曾经提及招标计划是20亿美金,但是最后只产生了12亿不到。成功中标的包括Mobilink 以及Ufone 这两家本土公司以及China Mobile 和 Telenor of Norway这两家国外公司。其他两个国外大集团Saudi Telecom 和 Turkcell of Turkey曾有望参与其中,但是却临阵退缩了。据说是因为拒绝了他们一年独家经营权的要求。The year Pakistans government first talked about auctioning 3G spectrum, 2006, was the year Sri Lanka actually started its services. India held its auction in 2010. Even now, in both these countries only a modest proportion of the population enjoys access to high-speed mobile broadband—but they are far ahead of Pakistan and Bangladesh (see chart).在斯里兰卡实际开启其3G业务的2006年,巴基斯坦政府第一次提及3G频谱的拍卖。印度在2010年招标。即使是现在,这两个国家只有一部分人喜欢连接高速移动宽带——但是这比例也远比巴基斯坦和孟加拉要高。In 2003 Pakistans then military dictator, Pervez Musharraf, deregulated mobile telecoms to attract foreign investment. But the civilian administration that succeeded him in 2008 spent years lurching from one crisis to another, and failed to promote the industry. A new government, in power since last June, has faced down protests from opposition politicians and, at last, held the auction.2003年,巴基斯坦当时的军事独裁者Pervez Musharraf解除对于移动通信业的管制来吸引外商投资。但是2008年接任的平民政府在不断发生的危机中步履蹒跚,发展该产业也失败了。去年六月上台的新政府面对反对派的抗议,最终举行了招标。It could have copied war-torn Afghanistan, which has done without an auction, and simply sold licences at low prices, starting in 2012. It did so on the grounds that the economic boost from introducing 3G should be bigger than the one-off windfall from an auction that might have got mired in corruption allegations.它本可以模仿饱受战乱的阿富汗,自2012年开始,不进行招标,单纯地以低价出售经营权。阿富汗这样做,因为引入3G带来的经济发展的利益比一次性拍卖来得高,后者还可能会陷入腐败的指控中去。Pakistans new government, however, needed cash to replenish its foreign reserves. It has not got as much as it wanted, but a less competitive auction may give the successful operators more of a chance to build a profitable business. They have long been plagued by fickle government policies and tight margins in a market that has some of the lowest average revenues per user in the world, at around a month.但是巴基斯坦的新政府需要现金来重新扩大它的外汇储备。它没有获得其预期的那么多,但是竞争不太激烈的招标或许能给中标方更多的机会来建立一个盈利的项目。他们长期困扰于多变的政策以及市场利润空间不足的情况,因为一些用户处于世界上最低收入水平,每月收入在2美元左右。With a crippling energy crisis that leaves its cities powerless for up to 12 hours a day and the villages for longer, and an Islamist insurgency that has paralysed businesses and deterred all but the bravest foreign investors, the country of nearly 200m people sorely needs the boost that high-speed mobile-internet access should bring. A recent study by a British consulting firm, commissioned by the Pakistani government, predicted that by increasing economic activity it could help create up to 900,000 jobs over the next four years, and bring in hundreds of millions of dollars a year of new tax revenues.伴随着严重的能源危机,巴基斯坦的城市一天有12个小时断电,乡村更久。并且伊斯兰叛乱活动使得商业瘫痪,除了那些最勇敢的外国投资者,没有其他人敢来。有将近2亿人的国家十分需要高速移动网络连接带来的发展。最近一项受巴基斯坦政府委任由英国顾问集团进行的研究,其预计通过增加经济活动,发展高速网络能在接下来的思念时间帮助创造90万的岗位,并带来每年亿万美元的税收收入。Nevertheless, as elsewhere in South Asia, the sp of the mobile internet is likely to be slow, since it depends on people replacing their basic handsets with smartphones, which remain unaffordable for most Pakistanis. So far less than 10% of the countrys 132m mobile subscribers have smartphones, according to industry figures. However, Pakistans mobile operators are playing a long game. Even the local ones have deep-pocketed foreign backers that are prepared to wait for growth to pick up and dividends to flow.然而,就像南亚其他地方一样,手机网络的推广过程是缓慢的,因为它需要人们将他们的功能机置换成智能机,这对于大多数巴基斯坦人来说是难以负担的。产业数据显示,目前,该国1.32亿手机用户中不到10%拥有智能机。但是,巴基斯坦的移动运营商着眼于未来。即使本地运营商也有着有钱的国外赞助人,他们准备等待着发展腾飞、利益的扩张。 /201405/294997

  

  

  

  Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon德怀特·艾森豪威尔和理查德·尼克松The odd couple欢喜冤家They were more alike than is often thought他们的相似之处比人们通常想的要多Take a few swings挥几杆Ike and Dick: Portrait of a Strange Political Marriage. By Jeffrey Frank.书名:《艾森豪威尔和尼克松:一场奇特的政治联合》作者:Jeffrey FrankBETWEEN 1933 and 1977 only two Republican presidents were elected, Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon. They are often seen as opposites: the hero and the crook. Eisenhower was the genial, selfless five-star general who seemed to float above the fray of party politics. Nixon was the cold, conniving liar, paranoid and petty. Jeffrey Frank, a former senior editor at the New Yorker, has written a book about the unlikely duo, which offers a more nuanced portrait of their personalities. Though they disagreed about politics and struggled to get on, Ike and Dick were more alike than is often thought.1933至1977年间,只有两名共和党人士当选总统,他们就是德怀特·艾森豪威尔和理查德·尼克松。人们通常认为他俩的为人截然相反—一个是英雄,一个是坏蛋。在人们眼中,艾森豪威尔是一名和蔼可亲、无私奉献的五星上将,似乎总是置身于党派间斗争之外;尼克松则是一个冷酷无情、精于暗算、生性多疑、心胸狭窄的骗子。曾在《纽约客》任资深编辑的Jeffrey Frank写了一本书,内容就是关于这两位并不像搭档的双人组合,该书更加细致地描述了他们的性格。虽然他俩在政治上各执己见、关系也处的不是太好,但艾森豪威尔和尼克松的相似之处比人们通常认为的要多。Eisenhower picked Nixon as his vice-presidential nominee in 1952 because he had qualities Ike lacked. The old warhorse from Kansas needed someone young and nakedly political. An anti-communist would satisfy the party and a Californian would help to win over the Golden State. Nixon it was. It did not matter so much that the pair squabbled. They won 39 out of 48 states and 55% of the popular vote.1952年,艾森豪威尔指定尼克松为他的副总统候选人,因为后者有他自己所不具备的特质。艾森豪威尔——这名来自堪萨斯的老兵需要一个纯政界出身的年轻人。这个人最好是反共的,因为这样可以满足其党派之需;最好还是个加州人,这样就可以帮助他赢得加州人民的持——尼克松就是不二之选。这两人是否相处得融洽并不重要,重要的是他俩获得了48个州中39个州的持,并囊括了55%的选票。They often failed to see eye-to-eye. Nixon was a hawkish adviser who blamed Democrats for losing China to communism. Eisenhower strove to avoid war at any cost. He ended the Korean war and refused to send soldiers to Vietnam, Hungary and Suez. The two had different views about the space race as well. When Russia launched the satellite Sputnik into space in 1957, Nixon saw it as a failure of Western civilisation. Eisenhower said, “Any of you fellows want to go to the moon? I dont. Im happier right here.”他们往往做不到“心有灵犀”。作为一名鹰派顾问,尼克松指责民主党把中国丢到了共产党手中。艾森豪威尔尽最大努力不惜一切代价阻止战争的发生。他结束了朝鲜战争、拒绝派士兵到越南、匈牙利和苏伊士。两人就太空竞赛的意见也不相同。当苏联于1957年把Sputnik卫星发射升空时,尼克松视之为西方文明的失败。而艾森豪威尔则说:“你们有谁想奔月吗?我可不想,我在这儿就挺高兴的”。This was a source of tension between them. Nixon would grumble about foreign policy and defence. He could be bitter. “This ‘togetherness bullshit,” he said of Eisenhowers doveish multilateralist defence policy, “I dont believe in that. I think the time will come when well look back at this era and ask ourselves whether we were crazy or something.” Ike could be standoffish in return.那是他俩不和的一个原因。尼克松常常抱怨美国的外交政策及防御策略,他的言论有时会很尖刻——对于艾森豪威尔的鸽派多边防御政策,尼克松说道:“这种‘团结一致纯是扯淡,我一点儿也不相信。我认为,总有一天,我们会回首这一阶段,并问问自己我们是不是疯了还是怎么的。”对此,艾森豪威尔回应冷淡。But Ike needed Dick to be his political hound dog. Nixon savaged the administrations opponents, which allowed the president to be an apolitical, national figurehead. An aide called this Eisenhowers “dirty work”. When Joseph McCarthy, a Republican Senator, overreached in his crusade to hunt communists from public life, Adlai Stevenson, a targeted Democratic governor of Illinois, pointedly declared that a “political party divided against itself, half McCarthy and half Eisenhower, cannot produce national unity.” Eisenhower decided it was time to restrain McCarthy. A fervent anti-communist and talented orator, Nixon was well placed for this. He laid into McCarthy on Saturday-night television, logically unweaving his illiberal argument. “It was just right, Dick,” Eisenhower said over the telephone.但艾森豪威尔需要尼克松来充当他在政治方面的喉舌。尼克松猛烈抨击艾森豪威尔政府的反对者,这样艾森豪威尔就能成为一名政治中立的国家名誉总统。一名助手称这是艾森豪威尔的“肮脏把戏”。当共和党参议员约瑟夫-麦卡锡过分地从公众生活中抓捕共产党员时,被指定为伊利诺伊州州长的民主党派阿德莱·史蒂文森(Adlai Stevenson)对此直言不讳:“一个内部分裂的政党—一边是麦卡锡、一边是艾森豪威尔——是不能促进国家团结统一的”。因此艾森豪威尔决定,是时候让麦卡锡收敛收敛了。尼克松——这名狂热的反共分子、天才的演说家—正适合这一角色。在周六晚的电视节目上,尼克松把麦卡锡劈头盖脸地一顿骂,条理明晰地一一击破了对方的狭隘论点。艾森豪威尔在电话中对尼克松说:“尼克松,干得好”。Eisenhower could be ignoble, too. After the Supreme Court declared segregated schools unconstitutional in 1954, he wrote, “No other single event has so disturbed the domestic scene in many years.” Martin Luther King observed that Nixon did more for race relations than Eisenhower. Nixon spoke passionately about civil rights on the stump. He took on critics during the passage of the 1957 Civil Rights Act.艾森豪威尔也可能不会正大光明。1954年,在最高法院宣布“实行种族隔离制度的学校是违法的”之后,他写道:“这是多年来最扰乱国内形势的事件了”。马丁路德金称:与艾森豪威尔相比,尼克松在种族间关系方面做的工作更多。尼克松在作巡回政治演说时,洋溢地谈论了公民权利。在1957年民权法案通过期间,尼克松与批评家展开了较量。At a time when political machinations are all too overt, it is entertaining to learn about the wheeling and dealing during a more discreet age. Yet ers may wish less space was devoted to how Dick felt about Ike, and then how Ike felt about Dick. All this gossip seems to take up valuable space: the Suez crisis, for example, covers no more than two pages. The Iran coup and important details about Americas economy are missed out altogether. Mr Frank tells an absorbing story in a breezy, lucid way. But as a work of history, the book leaves something to be desired.在当今政治阴谋得以明目张胆之时,看看在更谨慎的年代人们是如何尔虞我诈的不失为一种有趣的作法。然而,读者朋友们可能希望关于他俩对彼此看法的篇幅不要占的过大。所有的这些流言蜚语似乎占据了宝贵的空间:比如苏伊士运河危机只占了不到两页;1953年伊朗政变和关于美国经济的重要细节全被忽略了。本书作者明晰而风趣地讲述了一个引人入胜的故事。但作为一部历史著作,本书还有些不尽如人意的地方。 /201406/303176

  Afghanistans election阿富汗大选Joining forces势力加入A new alliance forms just as fighting season begins新的竞选联盟出现,但战斗刚刚开始Abdullahs the man阿卜杜拉AFGHANISTAN announced the results of the first round of its presidential election on May 15th. Abdullah Abdullah, a former foreign minister, gained 45% of the vote. Ashraf Ghani, a former World Bank official, secured 31.6% and Zalmai Rassoul, another former foreign minister, got 11.4%. The election will now move to a run-off between Dr Abdullah and Mr Ghani, due on June 14th.阿富汗于5月15日公布了总统大选首轮结果:前外长阿卜杜拉·阿卜杜拉赢得45%的持率,前世界官员阿什拉夫·贾尼获得31.6%,另一位前外长扎尔迈·拉苏尔获得了11.4%。大选将于6月14日在阿卜杜拉与贾尼间决出胜者。The manoeuvring for the second round had aly begun before the announcement, as Mr Rassoul, aware he would finish third, threw his support behind Dr Abdullah on May 11th. The move boosted the former ophthalmologists chances of becoming president. Dr Abdullah is of mixed Pushtun-Tajik ethnicity but is widely seen as Tajik, so the endorsement from Mr Rassoul, from the dominant Pushtuns, is valuable. Mr Ghani is also a Pushtun.第二轮的竞争在首轮结果宣布之前业已打响。5月11日,当拉苏尔自知将位列第三,便对阿卜杜拉予以声援持,此举进一步提高这位前眼科医生成为总统的可能。阿卜杜拉是普什图-塔吉克混血,但一般认为他是塔吉克人,因此普什图人拉苏尔的持对他来说甚为珍贵(阿国普什图族为主)。贾尼也是普什图人。Now debate will focus on whether a run-off should take place at all. In the previous election in , under international pressure, Dr Abdullah stood down after the first round, even though his opponent, Hamid Karzai, did not reach 50%. Mindful of the security risks and the costs of a run-off, and of the double-digit gap between them, some suggest Mr Ghani should do the same, but he has pledged to fight on.目前的争议集中在第二轮竞争是否有存在必要。上次09大选,尽管对手哈米德·卡尔扎伊并没有达到50%持率,但迫于国际压力,阿卜杜拉还是在首轮之后就退出竞选。出于对第二轮竞选安全风险和成本的考虑,以及二者之前两位数的差距,一些人认为贾尼也应当学习阿卜杜拉当年的做法。但贾尼称要继续竞选。A run-off will give the new president a mandate, but it will also let the Taliban reassert themselves. Having failed to disrupt the first round, they signalled their intentions on May 12th, launching a spring offensive with attacks across the country. The second round seems sure to be bloodier. The Taliban also promised to target the remaining foreign troops, as well as government institutions. No wonder that both Dr Abdullah and Mr Ghani have pledged to sign a security pact with America to allow 10,000 foreign soldiers to remain in Afghanistan after the majority leave by the end of the year.第二轮选举将产生新总统,但也将给塔利班有机会卷土重来。塔利班未能扰乱第一轮,遂声称将于5月12日在阿富汗全国发起春季攻势。第二轮选举注定将发生更多流血事件。塔利班称尚未撤军的外国军队和政府机关都将成为攻击目标。难怪阿卜杜拉和贾尼都承诺与美国签订安全协议,以确保在驻阿部队年底前大部分撤离的情况下在阿富汗维持10000人的军队规模。 201406/302917

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