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2019年08月18日 04:32:25 | 作者:最新典范 | 来源:新华社
In their quest to build profitable and more far-reaching digital audiences, publishers in the US and Europe have turned to the world’s largest social network for help.为了发展有利可图和更广的数字受众,美国和欧洲的出版商向全球最大的社交网络寻求帮助。Nine media organisations, including the B through its youth-oriented Newsbeat service, the Guardian and the New York Times, have struck a deal with Facebook to publish some of their content directly through the social network rather than simply hosting it on their own sites as part of a trial.包括英国广播公司(B)、《卫报》(Guardian)和《纽约时报》(New York Times)在内的9家媒体机构与Facebook签署了一项协议,尝试通过后者直接发布它们的部分内容,而非只是发布在自己的网站上。B是通过其面向年轻人的Newsbeat务参与该项目的。Facebook says the publishers will be able to keep 100 per cent of any revenue from advertising they sold directly. Publishers will also be able to sell remaining ad space via Facebook, which would take a 30 per cent cut.Facebook表示,出版商将能够保留他们直接销售的所有广告收入。出版商也可以通过Facebook出售剩余的广告空间,后者将会抽取30%的收入。The nine publishers initially participating in Instant Articles are the New York Times, National Geographic, BuzzFeed, N News, The Atlantic, The Guardian, B News, Spiegel and Bild, the German tabloid newspaper.首批参与Instant Articles项目的9家出版商是《纽约时报》、《国家地理》(National Geographic)、BuzzFeed、N新闻(N News)、《大西洋月刊》(The Atlantic)、《卫报》、B新闻(B News)、《明镜周刊》(Der Spiegel)以及德国小报《图片报》(Bild)。The move comes as increasing numbers of ers rely on the social network as the main portal through which they receive news. Facebook wants not only to point users to news sites but to be the place where they stay and consume it, too.在Facebook与这些出版商合作之际,越来越多的读者将社交网络作为他们获取新闻的主要渠道。Facebook希望不仅仅是将用户导向新闻网站,而且还能让用户留在Facebook进行新闻消费。Facebook aly accounts for nearly 20 per cent of the Guardian’s web traffic, excluding visits to its own apps, and about 15 per cent of traffic to the New York Times site.Facebook已经为《卫报》网站贡献了近20%的流量(不包括其自身应用的访问量),为《纽约时报》网站贡献了约15%的流量。The B and Bild declined to reveal their figures.B和《图片报》拒绝披露它们的数据。Mark Thompson, the chief executive of the New York Times, says it made sense to tap into Facebook’s audience. “History suggests that judicious engagement with other platforms makes sense,” he told the Financial Times, adding that the newspaper will have complete control over which stories appear as “Instant Articles” in the Facebook feed.《纽约时报》首席执行官马克#8226;汤普森(Mark Thompson)表示,开发Facebook的受众非常有意义。他向英国《金融时报》表示:“历史表明,明智地与其他平台合作很有意义。”他补充称,《纽约时报》将对出现在Facebook信息流上的“Instant Articles”文章有完全的控制权。The deal would give the company “access to new pools of users, people discovering your journalism and monetising through advertising”, he says.汤普森说,该协议将让《纽约时报》“获得大量的新用户,他们通过广告发现新闻和商业机会”。The Facebook deal follows complaints by some publishers that internet groups such as Google and Facebook undermine their own online businesses.在Facebook与出版商合作之前,一些出版商抱怨称,谷歌(Google)和Facebook等互联网集团侵蚀了他们自己的在线业务。Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp, for example, a critic of Google and Facebook, is not participating.例如,鲁珀特#8226;默多克(Rupert Murdoch)的新闻集团(News Corp)就对谷歌和Facebook持批评态度,没有参与此次协议。Others have expressed concern that Facebook would have too much power over which stories appear and where they are placed.其他出版商则担心,Facebook将对新闻内容和版面拥有太多的权力。Facebook said the scheme would give publishers “control over their stories, brand experience and monetisation opportunities”, including access to some user data.Facebook表示,该项目将给予出版商“对内容、品牌体验和商业机会的控制权”,包括可以获得部分用户数据。Online sharing of news articles has aly lured some ers away from publishers’ home pages towards social media sites.在线新闻分享已经让部分读者离开出版商的网站,转向社交媒体网站。According to the Pew Research Center, 39 per cent of Americans use Facebook for political news — significantly more than the proportion who use Yahoo News, Google News or Twitter to do so.皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)的数据显示,39%的美国人使用Facebook来获取政治新闻,远远超过使用雅虎新闻(Yahoo News)、谷歌新闻(Google News)或者Twitter获取政治新闻的人数比例。 /201505/375052The San Francisco-based buyout firm Francisco Partners recently published a delicious analysis relevant to anyone wondering about what the future holds for technology stocks. It is a bulletin in which both pessimists and optimists can find hope and it offers a helpful perspective for those wondering about the current valuations of technology companies.总部位于旧金山的收购集团Francisco Partners最近发表了一份精辟的分析,它对于任何揣测科技股未来的人都很重要。在这份分析中,悲观者和乐观者都能找到希望,它为那些对科技公司当前估值感到纳闷的人提供了一个有帮助的视角。First, the bad news. The 15 technology companies with the largest market capitalisations in 2000 have been decimated — losing about .35tn, or roughly 60 per cent, of their combined market value. Only one, Microsoft, has a market capitalisation that is higher than in 2000. One extraordinary aspect of this meltdown is that it did not occur, as some might suspect, in the much ballyhooed dotcom wonder companies of yesteryear. Instead it was a blight that affected most of what were once considered blue-chip technology holdings. In 2000, Nortel sported a market value of 9bn that, like those of its classmates, had been bloated by the enthusiasm of the era; it has since gone bankrupt. While other members of this corporate bracket have avoided that ignominy, their long-term stock charts present bleak pictures. Cisco’s market value has faded from 3bn to 4bn; Intel’s from 8bn to 1bn; and EMC’s from 8bn to bn.首先是坏消息。2000年市值最高的15家科技公司已严重萎缩,市值损失约1.35万亿美元,约占它们总市值的60%。只有微软(Microsoft)一家的市值高于2000年水平。市值滑坡的一个不寻常之处在于,它没有像一些人可能猜测的那样,发生在当年被大肆炒作的网络奇迹公司身上。相反,这种不幸落在了多数曾经被视为蓝筹科技股的公司身上。2000年,北电网络(Nortel)市值高达2090亿美元,与同业一样,该公司的市值因为当年的市场热情而膨胀;后来该公司破产。尽管其他科技巨擘避免了这种不光结局,但它们的长期股价图表惨不忍睹。思科(Cisco)市值已从4030亿美元降至1440亿美元;英特尔(Intel)市值已从2880亿美元降至1610亿美元;EMC的市值从2180亿美元降至510亿美元。For the class of 2000, the sharpest property price declines have been in the deteriorating neighbourhoods of systems, hardware and semiconductors. This is because of the continuing decline in the cost of computing, the rise of open-source software, the move to the “cloud” and the emergence of huge datacentres where companies such as Amazon, Google and Facebook are designing their own approaches.对于2000年的知名公司而言,最大跌幅出现在系统、硬件和半导体等表现日益恶化的业务领域。这是因为计算成本持续下滑、开放源软件崛起、转向“云计算”的趋势,以及大规模数据中心的兴起,在数据中心领域,亚马逊(Amazon)、谷歌(Google)和Facebook等公司都在设计自己的策略。Now a word from sunnier climes. Fifteen companies that were together worth less than bn in 2000 are now among the world’s 50 top technology companies as measured by market capitalisation, with a combined worth of .1tn. (Had Amazon been included, rather than being classified as a retailer, this number would have swollen by another 0bn). Apple, which even in 2000 was viewed as little more than a curiosity, has risen in value from bn to 9bn. A few themes jump out of this listing: the power of novelty, the shift towards China, the benefits of patience and the virtues of capital efficiency.现在说点让人比较愉快的事情吧。2000年总市值不到100亿美元的15家公司,如今就市值而言已跻身全球科技公司50强,它们的总市值高达2.1万亿美元。(如果加上亚马逊(而不是将其列为一家零售商),这个数字会再增加2500亿美元)。即使在2000年,苹果(Apple)仍只是被视为一家奇特的公司,如今其市值已从60亿美元飙升至6590亿美元。这份名单体现出这样几个主题:新颖性的威力、重心转向中国的趋势、耐心的好处以及资本效率的重要性。Several of today’s most valuable technology companies did not even exist in 2000. Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter together have a collective corporate history of only 33 years. Even Google and Salesforce were barely smudges on the horizon in 2000. These companies now have a combined value of about 0bn. Beyond some of the customised systems they operate in their own datacentres, and in Google’s case, some sideline activities such as its Nexus phones and Chrome notebooks, none of these companies sully their hands with anything as taxing as hardware. They have thrived from the artful deployment of software, in particular the “cloud based” variant, and — for Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter (and Google’s YouTube service) — organising and collating the contributions of their users.如今市值最高的几家科技公司在2000年甚至还未问世。Facebook、LinkedIn和Twitter三家公司的历史加起来也就33年。2000年,就连谷歌和Salesforce也还只是地平线上的小点。这些公司现在的总市值约为8500亿美元。除了它们在各自的数据中心运行的一些定制系统以及(就谷歌而言)像Nexus手机和Chrome笔记本等副业以外,这些公司都没有费神染指棘手的硬件业务。它们的成功来自于巧妙的软件部署,特别是“基于云”的软件,以及(就Facebook、 LinkedIn、Twitter以及谷歌的YouTube务而言)组织和整理用户生成的内容。Perched in a clump as the fourth, fifth and sixth most valuable technology companies of the day are Alibaba, Tencent and Baidu. This threesome is now worth 9bn — testament not just to how much China has progressed in a decade and a half but a harbinger of the next several decades as the country places increasing emphasis on spawning its own technology. Woe betide the management of any western technology company that underestimates the challenge posed by the vast number of emerging Chinese competitors, fuelled by an ambition and work regimen that is hard to match in Europe and the US.目前在市值排行榜上位居第四、第五和第六位的公司是阿里巴巴(Alibaba)、腾讯(Tencent)和百度(Baidu)。这三家公司目前的总市值为4090亿美元,这不仅明了中国在15年里取得了巨大进步,还预示着未来几十年的格局。中国正越来越注重发展自主技术。低估中国的大批新兴竞争对手将会带来的挑战,将给西方科技公司管理层带来厄运。驱使中国竞争对手的雄心和工作文化是欧美难以匹敌的。Finally, a note about two other themes that jump out of this listing: patience and profits.最后说一下这份名单体现出的另外两个主题:耐心和利润。Most investors in technology companies squander vast sums by reacting to short-term jitters or global jolts rather than concentrating on the staying power of those emerging enterprises on the right side of history.科技公司的多数投资者会浪费巨额资金,因为他们对短期恐慌或全球动荡做出条件反射式的反应,而不是专注于符合历史潮流的新兴企业的持久力。And for the founders and chief executives of all of the current billion-dollar “unicorns” there is another abiding message. Almost all of today’s technology juggernauts formed before about 2008 required smallish amounts of capital. Google, for example, consumed only m before turning profitable. Maybe this means that sooner or later a new class of company will come into vogue — a rare species known as the profitable unicorn.对于当前所有10亿美元级的“独角兽”企业的创始人和首席执行官而言,还有一条永恒的信息。在2008年左右之前创建的几乎所有科技巨擘,当初都需要很少的资金投入。例如,谷歌在实现盈利之前仅消耗了800万美元。这或许意味着,新一类的公司迟早会流行:它们将是被称为“盈利独角兽”的珍稀物种。 /201601/419983Another week, another wave of cyber alarm in America. On Wednesday both the New York Stock Exchange and ed Airlines suspended activity for several hours due to mysterious computing problems, while the Wall Street Journal’s website briefly went down. All three insisted that the outages reflected technical hitches, not malicious attack. But many are anxious after past assaults on mighty American companies and agencies.上周,美国拉响了又一波网络警报。上周三,纽约交所(NYSE)和美国联合航空(ed Airlines)都因为神秘的计算机故障暂停运转数小时,《华尔街日报》(WSJ)网站也短暂出现无法打开的问题。以上三家机构都坚称,务中断是因为技术故障,而非恶意攻击。但此前一些强大的美国企业和机构遭受的攻击让许多人对此感到焦虑。In February Anthem, an insurance company, revealed that cyber hackers had stolen information on 80m customers. The Washington-based Office of Personnel Management said cyber hackers had taken data on millions of federal employees. Companies ranging from retailers to banks have been attacked, too.今年2月,保险公司Anthem披露,网络黑客窃取了其8000万名客户的信息。位于华盛顿的美国人事(Office of Personnel Management)表示,网络黑客窃取了数百万联邦雇员的资料。从零售商到等各类企业也遭到了网络攻击。On Wednesday — just as the NYSE was frozen — Cambridge university and Lloyds insurance group released a report suggesting that if a cyber assault breached America’s electrical grid, this could create tn dollars of damage. A few minutes later, James Comey, the FBI director, told Congress that it is struggling to crack encryption tools used by jihadis. In May, Mr Comey said Islamic terrorists were “waking up” to the idea of using malware to attack critical infrastructure. It is scary stuff.上周三,就在纽交所因故障暂停交易的时候,剑桥大学(University of Cambridge)和保险集团劳合社(Lloyd#39;s)发布了一篇报告,称如果有一次网络攻击突破了美国的电网,将给美国带来1万亿美元的损失。几分钟后,美国联邦调查局(FBI)局长詹姆斯#8226;科米(James Comey)告诉国会,FBI很难破解圣战分子使用的加密工具。科米在5月份表示,伊斯兰恐怖分子使用恶意软件攻击关键基础设施的意识“正在觉醒”。真是可怕的事情。The key issue that investors, politicians and voters need to ponder is not simply who might be the next target, but whether Washington has the right system in place to handle these attacks. The answer is almost certainly No.关键问题是,投资者、政界人士和选民不仅需要考虑谁可能会是下一个目标,还需要考虑华盛顿是否已部署好能够应对这些攻击的合适机制。几乎毫无疑问是否定的。On paper, there is no shortage of resources; earlier this year, for example, President Barack Obama earmarked bn for the cyber fight. But the key problem now is not so much a lack of cash — but co-ordination: as fear sps, a bewildering alphabet soup of different agencies and task forces is leaping into cyber battle, often with little collaboration. The institution that is supposed to be in charge of security threats is the Department of Homeland Security. But its skills are viewed with scepticism by military officials. The Pentagon has its own cyber warriors, as do America’s intelligence agencies.名义上,资源并不短缺;比如,今年早些时候,美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)指定了140亿美元作为为网络战专项资金。但现在的关键问题,与其说是缺乏资金,不如说是缺乏协作;随着恐惧扩散开来,让人眼花缭乱的众多不同机构和特别行动组纷纷投身网络战,而它们往往很少相互协作。理论上负责应对安全威胁的应是美国国土安全部(Department of Homeland Security)。但军方官员对国土安全部的技能持怀疑看法。五角大楼(Pentagon)有自己的网络战士,美国的情报机构也是如此。The White House has tried to force these bodies to work together. Separately, civilian agencies such as Nuclear Regulatory Commission started holding discreet meetings with each other last autumn on cyber issues too. But collaboration across sectors is patchy. “The level of iness in different agencies varies enormously,” admits a senior Washington figure at the centre of these efforts. Add in private sector bodies and the picture is even worse: not only is the Pentagon wary of sharing data with, say, the Chamber of Commerce, but companies are often terrified of revealing attacks to each other.白宫试图迫使这些机构合作。去年秋天,美国核管理委员会(NRC)等非军事机构之间已经开始低调地就网络攻击问题举行会议。但跨部门之间的协作情况参差不齐。“不同机构的意愿相差极大,”一名主持加强协作努力的华盛顿高级官员承认。如果再算上私营部门实体,情况就显得更糟了:不仅五角大楼对于与美国商会(U.S. Chamber of Commerce)分享数据保持警惕,企业之间通常也害怕互相透露受到网络攻击的情况。Is there a solution? One sensible response might be to create a new agency to provide a central focus for the cyber fight. There is precedent for that; most Washington regulators emerged in response to a new threat. The Securities and Exchange Commission, for example, was created after the 1929 stock market crash; the Food and Drug Administration appeared after scandals over dangerous medicines. A second option might be to relaunch the DHS to focus on the cyber fight. It could, for example, be named the Department of Cyber and Homeland Security.有解决方法吗?一种合理回应可能是成立一个重点应对网络战的新机构。这是有先例的:大多数华盛顿监管机构最初都是为了应对一种新威胁而成立的。 比如,美国交会(SEC)是在1929年股市崩盘后成立的;美国食品药品监督(FDA)是在曝出危险药品丑闻后成立的。第二个选项可能是将国土安全部改头换面,专注于网络战。比如,国土安全部可以被重新命名为网络和国土安全部。Either way, Washington needs to answer the question that Henry Kissinger once posed in relation to Europe: in a crisis: “Who do I call?” Some countries have found ways: Australia has impressive levels of co-ordination between the public and private sector over cyber defences. But as the sense of tribalism builds in Washington, the sad truth is that it may take something — like a really big crisis — before anyone can bang bureaucratic heads together in an effective way. Better just hope that this “something” will not be too devastating; such as a real attack on the transport sector and markets.无论采取哪种方式,华盛顿都需要回答亨利#8226;基辛格(Henry Kissinger)曾经对欧洲提出的那个问题:危急时刻,“我该打给谁”?一些国家已经找到了方法:澳大利亚的公共和私营部门在网络防御方面的协作程度令人印象深刻。但由于华盛顿内部的部落主义思想,令人悲哀的真相是,美国或许需要经历一些事情——比如一场真正严重的危机——才会有人将官僚体系的头头脑脑有效地联合起来。我们最好还是希望这件“事情”不会太具毁灭性;比如一次针对交通部门和市场的真正攻击。 /201507/385714

When Samantha Du returned to her native China in 2001 with a mission to build a pharmaceuticals company, the move seemed like a terrible mistake. 当2001年杜莹(Samantha Du)带着创建一家制药公司的使命回到祖国时,她的举动似乎像是一个可怕的错误。 She had left behind a comfortable life in the US where she spent the previous 12 years, first as an academic scientist and later in roles of rising seniority at Pfizer. Back in China, she felt like an alien in her own country as she tried to start her venture. 她放弃了在美国的优渥生活。她在那里已经生活了12年,先是读士,后来在辉瑞(Pfizer)工作,期间不断获得晋升。回到中国,当她设法自己创业时,她反倒感觉自己像一个外国人。 The nadir came during a business meeting in which the refreshments came in the form of hard liquor. She recalls: “Everyone drank until they fell asleep. Then they woke up and signed the contract. While they were sleeping I left the room and cried. I had left a great career and a big house in rural Connecticut. Now here I was negotiating with drunk people.” 最糟糕的时刻是在一次商务会谈期间——提神饮品只有烈性酒。她回忆道:“每个人都喝到睡着。醒来之后,他们就把合同签了。在他们睡着时,我走出房间哭了一场。我舍弃了一份很有前途的事业,还有恬静的康涅狄格州的大房子。现在,我却在和一群醉汉谈判。” Several times she came close to quitting but was dissuaded by business partners. Fifteen years later, her persistence appears to be working. As, first, chief scientific officer of Hutchison China MediTech and now chief executive of Zai Lab, she is prominent among a wave of biotech entrepreneurs aiming to modernise China’s pharma industry and make the country a force in drug development. 好几次她都差点放弃,但是被合伙人劝止住。15年后,她的坚持似乎正在带来回报。她先是担任和黄中国医药科技(Hutchison China MediTech)首席科技官,现在任生物科技公司再鼎医药(Zai Lab)首席执行官。在一批有志于推动中国医药产业现代化并使中国在药物开发领域崭露头角的生物技术创业者中,她是突出的一员。 Most of them are “sea turtles” — the name given to Chinese professionals trained in the west who have returned home armed with qualifications and experience. All nine of Zai Lab’s top management studied at US universities. They have been drawn home by rapidly improving opportunities in China’s life science sector as Beijing pumps resources into its quest for a more innovative, high-value economy. 他们大都是“海龟(归)”——在西方深造过,带着文凭和经验回国的专业人才。再鼎医药的9名高管全都曾在美国大学里深造过。随着北京方面投入大量资源、寻求将中国经济打造得更具创新性和高附加值,中国生命科学领域的机遇快速增多,将他们吸引回国。 After a PhD in biochemistry at the University of Cincinnati, Ms Du joined Pfizer as a research scientist and ended up in charge of licensing some of the US group’s drugs around the world. She had not thought about leaving until a call came from Hutchison Whampoa, the holding company of Hong Kong tycoon Li Ka-shing, inviting her to head a new pharma enterprise. “They said, ‘You have aly achieved so much in the US. Why not come back and do something for China?’” 在美国辛辛那提大学(University of Cincinnati)获得生物化学士学位后,杜莹加入了辉瑞担任研究科学家,最终做到主管该公司部分药物在全球的授权工作。她从未想过离开辉瑞,直至接到来自和记黄埔(Hutchison Whampoa)——香港大亨李嘉诚(Li Ka-shing)的控股公司——的一个电话,邀请她掌舵一家新的制药公司。“他们说,‘你在美国已经取得这么多成绩。为什么不回来为中国做些事呢’?” With the resources of one of Asia’s richest men behind her, she criss-crossed China looking for assets to build a company around. It did not prove an easy task. Instead of hidden scientific gems, Ms Du found a domestic industry more interested in eking out margins from cheap generic drugs than investing in research and development. “The mindset was all about trading rather than innovation,” she recalls. 在这位亚洲富豪的雄厚资源持下,她遍访中国各地,寻找成立一家公司所需的各种资产。事实明,这并非一项简单的工作。杜莹发现,相较于投资研发、发现隐藏的科学宝藏,国内医药产业对于从廉价仿制药中赚取利润更感兴趣。“大家在想的都是如何进行交易,而非创新,”她回忆道。 Gradually, however, China MediTech, or Chi-Med, began building its own Ramp;D capabilities in partnership with western drugmakers including Eli Lilly and AstraZeneca. The company floated on London’s Aim stock market in 2006 and is planning a dual listing on Nasdaq this month as it pushes two cancer drugs through late-stage trials, with five other products in earlier studies. 然而,逐渐地,和黄医药开始与礼来(Eli Lilly)和阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)等西方制药商合作,建立自主研发能力。2006年,该公司在伦敦交所的第二板交易市场(AIM)上市,并计划本月在纳斯达克(Nasdaq)完成第二上市。该公司有两种抗癌药物正在进行后期临床试验,另外还有5种产品处于早期研究阶段。 Ms Du left Chi-Med in 2011 to take charge of Chinese healthcare investments for Sequoia Capital, the Silicon Valley venture capital firm, before founding Zai Lab in 2013. The company has licensed experimental treatments from big pharma partners including Sanofi and Bristol-Myers Squibb, but Ms Du’s long-term focus is on developing homegrown drugs. Zai in January raised 0m in private finance from Sequoia and other big international investors and recently opened an Ramp;D base in Shanghai. “We want to be the first Chinese biotech company with global standing,” says Ms Du. 杜莹于2011年离开和黄医药,之后加入硅谷风险投资公司红杉资本(Sequoia Capital),负责在华医疗投资业务,在2013年创立再鼎医药。再鼎医药从赛诺菲(Sanofi)和百时美施贵宝(Bristol-Myers Squibb)等大型制药商伙伴那里,获得了一些处于临床试验阶段的药物的授权,但杜莹的长期目标在于研发本土药物。今年1月,再鼎医药从红杉资本及其他大型国际投资机构处筹集了1亿美元,并于近期在上海设立了研发基地。“我们希望成为中国首家享誉全球的生物技术公司,”杜莹说。 She is hardly alone in that ambition. BeiGene, a company founded by Xiaodong Wang, former professor of biomedical science at the University of Texas, last month raised 8m on Nasdaq to accelerate development of four promising cancer drugs. 拥有此等雄心的人不止她一个。前德克萨斯大学(University of Texas)生物医学教授王晓东创办了生物科技公司百济神州(BeiGene),该公司上月在纳斯达克筹得1.58亿美元,用于加快4种很有前景的抗癌药物的研发。 Perhaps the most successful “sea turtle” in China’s life science sector is Ge Li, who earned his doctorate at Columbia University and became a biotech entrepreneur in the US before returning home to found WuXi AppTec 15 years ago. The company has since become the biggest Chinese contract research organisation, performing Ramp;D and manufacturing for many of the world’s biggest pharma groups. 中国生命科学领域最成功的“海龟”,或许要数在哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)获得士学位的李革。他在美国时已是一名生物技术创业者,15年前回国创办了无锡药明康德(WuXi AppTec)。该公司如今已成为中国最大的研发外包机构,为许多世界顶级医药集团提供研发和生产务。 About 5 per cent of WuXi AppTec’s 10,000-strong workforce was trained overseas. 在药明康德的1万多名员工中,约5%曾在海外深造。 Among them is Hongye Sun, who studied at Harvard and spent a decade with a Californian biotech company before being lured back to run WuXi’s genomic sequencing business. Mr Sun says the biggest difference with the US is the speed of decision making. 孙洪业就是其中之一。他曾就读于哈佛大学(Harvard),在加州一家生物科技公司工作过10年,后来被吸引回国,负责药明康德的基因组测序业务。孙洪业说,这里与美国最大不同在于决策的速度。 “In America it felt like I needed 60 meetings to get something done, whereas here I need four.” “在美国感觉需要开60次会议才能搞定的事,在这里只需要开4次会。” WuXi AppTec has tried to harness the vigour of Chinese business culture while importing the quality standards learnt by its top scientists in the west. “We have 15 minutes of compliance training every morning,” says Mr Sun. “We tell our people, ‘We cannot afford a single mistake because if something goes wrong it could ruin the company in a day’”. 药明康德试图在利用中国商业文化活力的同时,引入公司顶级科学家在西方学到的质量标准。“我们每天上午要进行15分钟的合规培训,”孙洪业说,“我们告诉员工,‘我们一丁点儿错误都无法承受,因为如果出现错误,就可能让公司毁于一旦’。” While returnees are leading the development of China’s biotech sector, they are increasingly drawing from an expanding local talent pool to build their businesses. China overtook the US in 2008 as the world’s biggest producer of PhDs, and the number has continued to grow rapidly. 虽然海归们引领着中国生物技术行业的发展,但他们正日益从不断扩大的本土人才库中发掘人才,来发展自己的业务。2008年,中国超过美国成为世界培养士最多的国家,而中国士的数量还在继续快速增长。 Critics question whether the increasing volume is matched by quality. Mr Sun says standards at the top Chinese universities are high, with fierce competition for entry. But he concedes that locally trained scientists can be too deferential. 批评人士质疑,在数量增加的同时,中国士的素质是否跟得上。孙洪业说,中国顶尖高校的标准很高,入学竞争非常激烈。但他也承认,中国本土培养的科学家过于恭顺。 “I tell employees to argue with me and call me by my name, not my title. I tell them, ‘If you use my title, you are less likely to tell me the truth’.” “我告诉员工可以跟我争论,直呼我的名字,而不是我的头衔。我告诉他们,‘如果你们叫我的头衔,就不太可能跟我说实话’。” With soaring numbers of scientists, rising investment in Ramp;D and growing demand for medicines from an ageing population, China has all the ingredients for growth in its biotech sector. Ms Du and others like her are aiming to replicate the success of US companies such as Genentech and Amgen, which suddenly appeared in the 1980s to become forces in global pharma. 中国生物技术行业增长的条件已经全部具备:科学家数量激增、研发投资增多、日益老龄化的人口对药品的需求日益增长。杜莹与其他像她一样的创业者的目标是,复制像基因泰克(Genentech)和安进(Amgen)等美国公司那样的成功,这两家公司在上世纪80年代横空出世,迅速在全球制药行业崭露头角。 As a service provider to local and foreign companies alike, WuXi AppTec is well placed to assess progress. Steve Yang, the company’s chief operating officer and a veteran of AstraZeneca, Pfizer and the University of California, urges caution. 药明康德同时为国内、外制药公司提供务,应该有资格评估中国在制药领域取得的进展。但该公司首席运营官杨青(Steve Yang)呼吁保持谨慎。杨青毕业于加州大学(University of California),曾在阿斯利康、辉瑞担任高管。 “There is a group of Chinese companies that are well positioned, but how many years did it take for the world to appreciate Genentech? It took decades. The race is on, but it’s still very early.” “现在有不少中国企业发展势头很好,但基因泰克用了多少年才获得全世界的认可?几十年。中国已经加入竞赛,但输赢还远未见分晓。” /201603/431236

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