楼主:预约乐园 时间:2019年11月20日 18:07:24 点击:0 回复:0
A Chinese arbitration panel has dismissed a landmark suit brought against Walmart by a chapter of the country’s official trade union, ending a three-month dispute that galvanised labour activists across China.中国一仲裁委员会驳回了沃尔玛(Walmart)常德分店工会对该公司提起的里程碑式仲裁请求,结束了鼓舞中国各地劳工维权人士的3个月纠纷。The panel dismissed worker demands for extra compensation after the world’s largest retailer closed its store in Changde, Hunan province, in March as part of a restructuring of its China operations.该仲裁委员会驳回了沃尔玛常德分店员工提出的更多补偿的要求,今年3月,全球最大零售商关闭了其在湖南常德的门店,这是其在华业务重组的一部分。Industrial action erupts daily across China and over recent months has affected the operations of multinationals such as IBM, Cooper Tire and Rubber of Ohio and Yue Yuen Industrial, a shoe manufacturer.中国经常发生劳资纠纷,最近几个月影响了很多跨国企业的业务,包括IBM、俄亥俄州的固铂轮胎橡胶公司(Cooper Tire amp; Rubber)以及制鞋企业裕元工业(Yue Yuen Industrial)。But the Changde protest was unusual in that it involved the head of the official store union, an affiliate of the tightly controlled All China Federation of Trade Unions. The ACFTU and its affiliates rarely confront management, often leaving workers to fend for themselves in industrial disputes. Labour activists are highly critical of this tendency, saying it only leads to greater unrest.然而,常德纠纷的不同寻常之处在于,它涉及沃尔玛门店工会主席,该工会是受到严密控制的中华全国总工会(All China Federation of Trade Unions)的分机构。中华全国总工会及其分机构很少与管理层对抗,往往让员工自己在劳资纠纷中维权。劳工维权人士对于这种倾向非常不满,他们表示,这只会酿成更大的不安定。The involvement of the union head, Huang Xingguo, in the Changde dispute excited worker rights groups, who said it was a significant event in the development of China’s labour movement. Mr Huang said he was surprised and disappointed by the arbitrators’ ruling, and intended to appeal.沃尔玛常德店工会主席黄兴国参与了此次纠纷,这激励了劳动者权利团体,它们表示,这是中国工人运动发展中的一个重大事件。黄兴国表示,他对该仲裁委员会的裁决感到意外和失望,并打算上诉。“We are not celebrating here but we think it is the right decision,” said Ray Bracy, a senior Walmart executive. “We always felt we were doing what was right and what was required by law.”“我们没有庆祝,但我们认为这是一个正确的决定,”沃尔玛高管睿(Ray Bracy)表示,“我们一直认为,我们所做的是正确的,依法的。”The Changde outlet employed 130 workers and was one of about 20 Walmart stores earmarked for closure as part of a larger reorganisation of the US retailer’s China operations. Walmart also intends to open 110 new stores and hire more than 19,000 workers in the country over three years.沃尔玛常德店曾聘用130名员工,该门店是沃尔玛作为重组在华业务的一部分准备关闭的大约20家门店之一。沃尔玛还计划在未来3年在中国新开110家门店,聘用逾1.9万名员工。Sixty-nine of the Changde workers rejected Walmart’s original settlement offer. But by the time the arbitration court issued its ruling on Wednesday evening, only Mr Huang and 17 other holdouts remained.有69名常德店员工拒绝了沃尔玛最初的和解方案。但到仲裁庭周三晚做出裁决时,拒绝和解方案的只剩下黄兴国和另外17名员工。 /201406/308358Fifty-five aircraft flew over eastern Ukraine on July 17, carrying the flags of nine nations. They flew in airspace declared safe by air traffic controllers, and on flight paths approved by European regulators appointed by the UN’s global aviation body. But out of a clear blue sky came violent destruction. Evidence suggests that Flight MH17 was shot down.7月17日,有55架飞机载着9个国家的国旗飞越乌克兰东部。它们飞经的空域被空中交通管制员认定是安全的,飞行的航线也经过了由联合国(UN)旗下全球航空组织任命的欧洲监管员的批准。但蔚蓝的天空上却发生了暴力破坏活动。有据表明,MH17客机是被击落的。In Malaysia, still recovering from the loss in March of MH370, there was disbelief. As we began to understand what had happened, this gave way to anger. Responsibility for the lives lost lies with those who brought MH17 down. We will pursue every avenue to bring them to justice. But that will not prevent another tragedy. For MH17 exposed an uncomfortable truth: there are no clear standards for determining whether a flight path is safe.当时的马来西亚仍沉浸在今年3月MH370航班失联的痛苦中,全国上下弥漫着怀疑的情绪。当我们开始明白发生了什么事情后,这种怀疑被愤怒所取代。击落MH17的人应为那些逝去的生命负责。我们将寻求通过各种途径将他们绳之以法。但这不能防止另一场悲剧的重演。因为MH17失事暴露出了一个令人不安的事实:在判断一条航线是否安全方面,缺乏清晰的标准。As airlines revealed their vastly different approaches to conflict zones, passengers were left wondering who ensures the safety of the skies. The International Civil Aviation Organisation, the UN global aviation body, issues advice on areas to avoid – but does not declare flight paths unsafe. Instead, individual countries are responsible for issuing warnings for their airspace.随着各航空公司公布迥然不同的经过冲突地区的航线,乘客不禁在想,谁来保天空的安全?联合国旗下的全球航空组织——国际民航组织(International Civil Aviation Organisation)会发布有关避让区域的建议,但没有宣布哪些航线是不安全的。各个国家负责发布有关各自领空的警告。Yet countries benefit from keeping airspace open because they collect fees for every aircraft that flies over their territory, a global revenue stream of more than bn a year. In fragile states, this conflict of interest could have dangerous consequences.然而,保持领空开放有利于各国,因为它们可以向飞越本国领空的飞机收取费用——在全球范围内,这项收入每年超过200亿美元。在脆弱的国家,这种利益冲突可能会带来危险的后果。Avoiding flying over every conflict zone is impractical; that would paralyse aviation and the world economy. Instead, passengers rely on airlines, regulators and aviation authorities to ensure safe passage. In this case, the system that governs global air safety failed. There are three things we can do to improve it.避开所有冲突地区是不切实际的;这将令航空业乃至全球经济陷入瘫痪。乘客依赖航空公司、监管机构和航空管理机构来确保飞行安全。在这种情况下,规范全球空中安全的体系却失灵了。我们可以采取三项措施来改善这个体系。First, airlines can share data about flight risk. In the weeks after MH17, it became clear that carriers differ vastly over conflict zones. Germany’s Lufthansa, which flew over Ukraine, avoided northern Iraq and Israel. Australia’s Qantas flew over Iraq but avoided Ukraine and Israel. British Airways flew over Israel but avoided Ukraine and Iraq. Why? Because airlines do not share their risk assessments. That must change.首先,航空公司可以共享有关飞行风险的信息。在MH17失事后的数周内,有一个事实浮出水面:航空公司飞经冲突地区的路线大不相同。德国的汉莎航空(Lufthansa)会飞经乌克兰,但避飞伊拉克北部和以色列。澳大利亚的澳洲航空公司(Qantas)飞越伊拉克,但避飞乌克兰和以色列。英国航空公司(British Airways)飞越以色列,但避飞乌克兰和伊拉克。为什么?因为航空公司不会共享它们的风险评估。这一点必须改变。Second, countries can share more information from their intelligence services. One reason carriers choose different routes is because they receive such information from their national agencies. But some countries have more extensive networks than others, and even the most comprehensive have blind spots. A system for sharing sensitive information would narrow the gaps in intelligence and aviation warning systems, providing greater protection for passengers.其次,各国可以共享来自情报机构的更多信息。航空公司选择不同航线的一个原因是它们从本国情报机构那里得到了相关信息。但一些国家拥有比其他国家更广泛的情报网络,而即便是最完善的情报网络也有盲点。共享敏感信息的机制将有助于弥补情报体系与航空警告体系所存在的缺陷,为乘客提供更有力的保护。Countries are understandably reluctant to share sensitive material. But, as the International Air Transport Association has pointed out, recommendations based on intelligence can be presented without compromising security. If sanitised information can be shared with civilian national carriers, it can be shared with other airlines.各国不愿共享敏感资料是有情可原的。但正如国际航空运输协会(International Air Transport Association)所指出的那样,可以在不损害安全的情况下,提出依据情报得出的建议。如果经过审查的信息可以与民用国家航空公司共享,那么这些信息也可以与其他航空公司共享。Third, we should improve the information published by national aviation authorities. Restrictions over Ukraine, for example, made no mention of the presence of surface-to-air missiles, or the recent downing of Ukrainian military aircraft. More comprehensive information would allow airlines to better understand why airspace is restricted.第三,改进国家航空管理机构的信息发布。例如,关于乌克兰的限制信息没有提及地对空导弹的存在,也没有提到最近乌克兰军机被击落的消息。更为全面的信息会让航空公司更好地了解空域被限制的原因。These changes require action. Strong words in the aftermath of one tragedy must become actions that will prevent another. After MH17, ICAO set up a task force on conflict zones. It is considering recommending enhanced warnings from national aviation authorities, and a central system for sharing flight risk information. We should seize this opportunity to fix the flaws in the global aviation system.实现这些改革要求我们付诸行动。在一场悲剧发生后所发表的强硬言辞必须转化为行动,以阻止另一场悲剧的发生。在MH17航班失事后,国际民航组织成立了一个负责冲突区域相关事项的工作小组。该小组正考虑建议加强来自各国航空管理机构的警告,并建立一个共享飞行风险信息的中央机制。我们应抓住这个机会,修复全球航空体系存在的缺陷。After Air France Flight 447 crashed in 2009, investigators called for new aircraft tracking standards. Yet progress fizzled out over questions of cost and implementation. We cannot afford to wait for another tragedy.在2009年法航447客机坠毁后,调查人员曾呼吁制定新的飞机跟踪标准。然而,由于成本和实施的问题,这一努力最终流产。等待另一场悲剧的发生是我们无法承受的。Information sharing can save lives; that was the conclusion of intelligence services after the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001. After MH17, we must choose collective security over national interest. We should commit to sharing flight risk information – among airlines, aviation bodies and nations. In so doing, we can honour those who lost their lives by making our skies safer for all.信息共享可能会挽救生命;这是情报机构在2011年9#8226;11恐怖袭击之后得出的结论。在MH17事件后,我们必须将共同的安全置于国家利益之上。我们应致力于在航空公司、航空组织和国家之间共享飞行风险信息。这样做,我们才能让我们的天空更加安全,以此来纪念那些逝去的生命。The writer is prime minister of Malaysia本文作者是马来西亚总理 /201409/329356

Global warming is having an impact on human and natural systems world-wide, scientists warned in a report Monday, calling for swift action to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on the planet. 科学家们周一在一份报告里警告说,全球变暖正对人类和全球自然系统产生影响。他们呼吁迅速采取行动,缓解温室气体排放对地球的影响。The report, released by the ed Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, is the second portion of a four-part report, and follows the September release of the first portion, which focused on scientific evidence for global warming.上述报告由联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(ed Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,简称IPCC)发布,是一个由四部分组成的报告的第二部分,其中专注全球变暖科学依据的第一部分已在去年9月发布。#39;What happens in terms of impact of climate change in different parts of the world will be determined to a large extent (by how much) we are prepared and able to mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gasses,#39; IPCC Chairman Rajendra K. Pachauri said. IPCC主席帕乔里(Rajendra K. Pachauri)说:气候变化对世界各地产生怎样的影响,很大程度上将由我们准备且能够减少多少温室气体排放决定。The report said that besides an increase in global average temperature, climate change was having a widesp impact on everything from water resources to food production and weather patterns. 报告说,除全球平均气温增加以外,气候变化还对从水资源到食品生产及天气模式等一切事物产生广泛影响。It said that without action to address the problem, by the year 2100, hundreds of millions of people could be affected by coastal flooding and displaced due to land loss. 报告说,如不对这一问题采取任何行动,到2100年,受海岸洪灾和土地流失影响而背井离乡者可能会达到数亿人。#39;Impacts from recent extreme climatic events, such as heat waves, droughts, floods, and wildfires, show significant vulnerability and exposure of some ecosystems and many human systems to climate variability,#39; the report warned. 报告警告说,热浪、干旱、洪灾和森林大火等近期极端气候事件的影响显示出,一些生态系统和很多人类系统都非常容易受到气候变异的影响。The report said climate change may affect the reliability of pipelines and electricity grids, as well as tourism resorts, especially ski and beach resorts. 报告说,气候变化可能影响到管道、电网和旅游度假区的可靠性,特别是滑雪和海边度假地的可靠性。It also said climate change had the largest impact on people who are socially and economically marginalized. 报告还称,对于在社会上和经济上被边缘化的人来说,气候变化对他们的影响最大。#39;Climate change will exacerbate poverty in low and lower-middle income countries, including high mountain states, countries at risk from sea-level rise, and countries with indigenous peoples, and create new poverty pockets in upper-middle to high-income countries in which inequality is increasing,#39; it said. 报告称,气候变化将加剧中低收入国家的贫困状况,其中包括高山国家、因海平面的上升而面临危险的国家以及拥有原住民的国家,还将在贫富差距日益增大的中高收入国家产生新的贫困人口。But funding needed to offset the impact of climate change is lacking, the report warned, saying developing countries would need between billion to 0 billion a year to implement needed measures. And efforts to reduce the effects of climate change would only have a marginal effect on reducing poverty unless #39;structural inequalities are addressed and needs for equity among poor and non-poor people are met.#39; 但报告警告说,缺乏抵消气候变化影响所需的资金。报告说,发展中国家每年需要700亿至1,000亿美元实施必要的措施。此外,各种减少气候变化影响的措施对减贫只会产生微乎其微的效果,除非结构性贫富差距得以消除,贫困人口和非贫困人口要求平等的诉求得到满足。The report was the culmination of efforts by hundreds of scientists, and portrays a sobering picture of what civilization may face in the coming decades, and emphasized that climate change is happening now. 这份报告是数百名科学家汗水的结晶,它描绘出一幅令人深思的图景,显示出未来几十年人类文明可能面临的问题,它还强调气候变化正在发生。#39;Present-day choices thus affect the risks of climate change throughout the 21st century,#39; it said. 报告说,今日的选择因此会影响整个21世纪的气候变化风险。Economically, the report said a global temperature rise of 2.5 degrees celcius above preindustrial levels could lead to global economic losses between 0.2% and 2.0% of income. By the end of the century, it said climate change could reduce labor productivity by 11%-27% in humid, tropical areas. 报告说,就经济方面而言,如果全球气温较工业时代之前的水平上升2.5摄氏度,则可能使全球经济收入损失0.2%至2.0%。报告说,到本世纪结束,气候变化可能使潮湿、热带地区劳动生产率降低11%-27%。The IPCC#39;s credibility has come under scrutiny since a 2007 report that contained errors about the pace of the melting of Himalayan glaciers. 2007年,IPCC发布了一份报告,报告中有关喜马拉雅冰川消融的速度有误,此后IPCC的信誉一直受到质疑。 /201404/283466

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