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Ant Financial, Alibaba Group#39;s financial service affiliate, announced last Tuesday that it has teamed up with 352 cities in 25 provinces to facilitate government-backed smart city projects, which its rivals - Baidu Inc and Tencent Holdings - also have their eyes on.阿里巴巴集团的金融务子公司蚂蚁金于上周二宣布,它已经与25个省份共352个城市合作,建设政府持的智慧城市项目,其竞争对手——百度公司和腾讯控股也关注这一项目。Ant Financial aims to offer cities a one-stop solution, including the establishment of credit systems and mobile public services, to advance the construction of new smart cities, said Ant Financial CEO Jing Xiandong during the China New Smart Cities Summit in Beijing on Tuesday.蚂蚁金CEO井贤栋在北京举办的中国新型智慧城市峰会上声称,蚂蚁金的目标是为城市提供一站式解决方案,包括建立信用系统和移动公共务,以推进新型智慧城市建设。Jing highlighted Ant Financial#39;s achievements in mobile public services, which he said now cover 150 million people.井贤栋强调了蚂蚁金在移动公共务方面的成就,他表示,现在该务已经覆盖1.5亿人。Users are able to make hospital appointments, pay utility bills and check for traffic tickets via Alibaba#39;s popular mobile payment tool Alipay, which currently has 450 million real-name registered users.用户可以通过阿里巴巴流行的移动付工具付宝(目前拥有4.5亿实名注册用户)进行医院预约、付公用事业账单和检查交通票据。A new smart city must focus on residents#39; needs and promote their quality of life, according to standards issued by the Standardization Administration of China on December 22.根据中国国家标准化委员会于12月22日发布的标准,一个新型智慧城市必须关注居民的需求并提高他们的生活质量。The two other Internet powerhouses in China also have their sights set on new smart city projects in recent days.中国的另外两家互联网公司近年来也对新型智慧城市项目有着自己的看法。Baidu signed a deal with Ningbo, East China#39;s Zhejiang Province, to move forward on local smart city projects by leveraging its artificial intelligence, big data and cloud computing technologies.百度公司日前与中国东部浙江省宁波市签署协议,利用其人工智能、大数据和云计算技术来推进当地智慧城市项目。In November, Tencent said it would work with Jiaxing, also in Zhejiang, to achieve similar goals via its big data and cloud computing technologies.在11月,腾讯也曾表示将与浙江省嘉兴市合作,通过大数据和云计算技术实现类似目标。Each of the three giants have distinctive advantages that can be complementary to each other while helping governments#39; efforts in the construction of smart cities.三大巨头都有独特的优势,可以互补,同时帮助政府努力建设智慧城市。 /201701/487721

While Europe grapples with an influx of people desperate to escape fighting in Syria, asylum seekers from Asian nations such as Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Vietnam are flocking to Hong Kong, along with a sprinkling from Africa.欧洲在大量涌入的拼命逃离战争的叙利亚难民问题上绞尽脑汁,而来自亚洲国家,如孟加拉国,印度,巴基斯坦和越南的寻求庇护者,以及一些非洲人都涌向了香港。Hong Kong has approved just 52 of more than 8,000 claims since 2009.香港自2009年以来仅在8000多名庇护申请者中批准了52名。There are more than 11,000 asylum seekers in the Asian financial hub, some still uncertain about their fate after waiting for more than 15 years.这个亚洲金融中心拥有超过11000名寻求庇护者,其中一些人等待了超过15年仍不确定其命运。;Our future is aly gone, so we are thinking of our kids#39; future,; said Adjouma Ibrahim, chairman of the Refugee Union, who has been in Hong Kong for 11 years. ;Our kids are stateless. We don#39;t have travel documents - nothing,; he told Reuters.“我们的未来已经消逝,所以我们在考虑孩子的未来,”在香港生活了11年的难民联盟主席Adjouma Ibrahim说道,“我们的孩子没有国籍。我们没有旅行件--什么都没有,”他接受路透社采访时表示。Ibrahim is from Togo in west Africa, and his son and daughter, despite both having been born in Hong Kong, are among the more than 580 refugee children denied the right of abode, making it impossible for young people to get jobs or leave.Ibrahim来自西非的多哥,他的儿子和女儿虽然出生在香港,却是和超过580名难民儿童一样没有居留权,因此这些年轻人无法找到工作或离开。Hong Kong pays 30 percent of the costs for refugee children to attend school, but few parents are able to pay the rest, as they cannot legally work while waiting for their status to be approved.香港政府付难民儿童上学30%的学费,但极少家长付得起剩余的部分,因为他们不能够在等待身份被批准的同时合法地工作。;One of the very negative parts of the system here in Hong Kong is children of asylum seekers and refugees,; said Mark Daly, a principal at law firm Daly and Associates, which focuses on human rights.“香港系统最负面的地方之一就是庇护寻求者和难民的儿童,”专注于人权问题的律师事务所--帝理律师行的首席律师Mark Daly说。Despite being born in Hong Kong and fluent in both English and the Cantonese regional dialect, they are not allowed to work, Daly said.Daly表示,虽然出生于香港,并会说流利的英语和粤语,但是他们仍然不准工作。The refugees have become a sensitive topic for residents and politicians, with media often blaming them for a spurt in crime. Such portrayals feed prejudice, said Rizwan Ullah, an educational adviser of the Pakistani Students#39; Association in Hong Kong.难民成为了居民和政客的敏感话题,媒体经常指责他们是犯罪高潮的始作俑者。不过香港巴基斯坦学生联盟的教育顾问Rizwan Ullah表示,这样的描述是充满偏见的。;These stereotypes bring prejudice, and that brings discrimination,; he said. ;These guys are not criminals. They just want a better situation.;“这些刻板印象带来偏见,而偏见则带来歧视,”他说,“这些人不是罪犯。他们只希望过得好些。”Politicians have pushed for tighter curbs after the government adopted a screening mechanism in 2014 to select those meeting the refugee criteria set out in international law. However, in a legislative document this year, it acknowledged the need to streamline the lengthy screening process. Over the past five years, it has more than doubled the number of staff handling claims.政府在2014年实行了筛选机制,选择那些符合国际法条件的难民,政客们从此推动了更严格的限制措施。然而,今年的立法文件承认了简化冗长的筛选流程的必要性。过去五年中,处理庇护申请的员工数量翻了超过一倍。 /201606/451666

Last weekend, I travelled to the Adirondack Mountains of Hamilton County, in upstate New York, for a Columbus Day vacation. 上周末,我前往纽约北部汉密尔顿县(Hamilton County)的阿第伦达克山脉(Adirondack Mountains)度过哥伦布日(Columbus Day)假期。Since the second presidential debate was scheduled for Sunday night, I’d planned to watch it in a local bar, hoping to gauge audience reaction.第二次总统候选人电视辩论安排在那个星期天的晚上,我计划在一家当地酒吧观看辩论,希望能看一看观众的反应。Everybody I knew from New York was on tenterhooks about the debate — taking place just days after the release of the shocking in which Donald Trump spoke about groping women. 在纽约,我认识的每个人都坐立不安,等待着辩论开场——因为就在仅仅数天前,唐纳德#8226;特朗普(Donald Trump)谈论他猥亵妇女的经历的令人震惊的视频刚刚曝光。I had unthinkingly assumed that, at this critical juncture in the election campaign, the debate would be airing on bar screens everywhere.我想当然地以为,在大选的这个关键节点,每个地方的酒吧屏幕上都会播放这场辩论。Wrong. 我错了。As I visited the main drinking joints of the local town, I was repeatedly rebuffed. 当我来到镇上的各家主要酒吧,我遭遇了一次又一次的生硬拒绝。Finally, the burly, mustachioed owner of one of the bars explained why: the local bars had agreed that they would not tune their TVs to the debate since they did not want to create trouble — or stir up argument in a region where most people aly backed the same party (Republican). 最终,一家酒吧留着卷曲八字胡的魁梧店主向我解释了原因:当地酒吧达成了一致,不会将电视调到播放辩论的频道,因为他们不想惹麻烦——也就是在一个多数人已经持同一个政党(共和党)的地区挑起争论。In any case, there was more interest in an American football game scheduled that night, featuring the New York Giants, than Trump and the scandal about the .无论如何,比起特朗普和有关那段视频的丑闻,人们对预定当晚播出的一场纽约巨人队(New York Giants)的橄榄球比赛更感兴趣。It is a trivial tale. 这是个微不足道的小故事。But it also points to a lesson that journalists, social scientists, writers and anyone who studies others for a living needs to remember: namely, that we are all creatures of our own cultural environment, prone to lazy assumptions and biases. 但它给记者、社会科学家、作家以及任何靠研究他人为生的人指出了他们需要记住的一个教训:即我们都是自身所在的文化环境的产物,容易受到想当然的假设和偏见的影响。Sometimes these seem laughable (like my own naivety over the TV debate); sometimes they matter (most journalists completely failed to recognise the appeal of Trump until just before he won the Republican nomination). 有时这看起来很可笑(比如我自己在播放电视辩论上的想当然);有时很重要(多数记者在特朗普赢得共和党总统侯选人提名前完全没有认识到他的吸引力)。Either way, our biases are important. 无论是哪一种,我们的偏见很重要。And that, in turn, suggests we could all benefit by looking at a concept that I first learnt about when I was studying anthropology: the dirty lens problem.这进而暗示,我们都可以从研究一个概念中受益——脏镜头问题,这是我在学习人类学时首次接触到的。This dirty lens tag refers to the idea that when scientists peer at an object through a microscope, their view can be distorted by a clouded lens. 脏镜头指的是,科学家在通过显微镜观察物体时,他们的视野可能会因为模糊的镜头而扭曲。In a laboratory, smudges and smears can usually be wiped away with a cloth. 在实验室里,可以用一块布来擦去这些污渍。But in the social sciences, the lens is our mind, ears and eyes, and it is harder to spot and remove our mental smudges. 但在社会科学中,镜头是我们的思想、耳朵和眼睛,发现并消除我们精神上的污渍更困难。There is no cloth.也没有什么可供擦去污渍的布。Is there any solution? In anthropology classes at university, we were urged to do four things. 有什么解决方法吗?在大学里的人类学课程中,我们被敦促去做4件事。First, to take the obvious (but oft-forgotten) step of recognising that our lenses are dirty. 首先,采取显而易见(但常常被忘记)的一步,认识到我们的镜头是脏的。Second, to consciously note our biases. 第二,有意识地注意到我们自身的偏见。Third, to attempt to offset these biases by trying to see the world from different perspectives; we must listen and look without preconception. 第三,尝试通过从不同视角来看世界,从而抵消这些偏见;我们必须不带任何先入之见地去听去看。Last but not least, to remember that our personal lens will never be perfectly clean, even if we take the first three steps. 最后,同样重要的是,记住我们个人的镜头永远不会绝对洁净,哪怕我们做到了前三步。We must be humble and remember the limits of knowledge. 我们必须保持谦逊,记住认识存在局限。(Or as I sometimes joke to colleagues: on a good day, we journalists probably get 40 per cent of the truth; but what keeps me going is that I think that the FT tends to get a much higher percentage than most of its rivals.)(或者,就如我有时对同事开玩笑说:在好的情况下,我们记者很可能获得了40%的真相;但让我继续前行的是,我认为英国《金融时报》很可能比大多数竞争对手获得了更高百分比的真相。Putting this four-step mantra into practice is painfully hard. 把这四步真言付诸实践是一件非常困难的事情。One problem is that these days the media landscape — and the academic world — is so resource-constrained that it is difficult to find enough time to clean our lens. 一个难题是,近来媒体界——以及学术界——的资源都如此有限,以至于很难抽出足够时间来清洁我们的镜头。It is doubly hard when commentators and journalists are under pressure to perform (offer views) rather than absorb (listen quietly and patiently to what others say).让事情倍加艰难的是,员和记者还面临着压力,必须拿出表现(发表观点)而不是吸收(安静耐心地倾听别人在说些什么)。And in today’s cyber-saturated age there is another problem: although our smartphones give us the illusion that we are all hyperconnected all of the time, in reality, there is an ever-present tendency to self-segregate into echo chambers, because we tend to choose our news from customised sources. 而在今天的网络饱和时代,存在另外一个问题:尽管我们的智能手机让我们产生了我们无时不刻都处于超连接状态的错觉,但现实是,在回音室里自我隔离的倾向越来越严重,因为我们倾向于选择定制新闻来源。If you don’t agree with this, look at who you follow on Twitter or who your Facebook friends are — and consider how much this shapes your concept of the news. 如果你不认同这一点,看一看你在Twitter上关注了哪些人,或者你的Facebook朋友都是谁,然后想一想这在多大程度上塑造了你对新闻的概念。Then try deliberately changing your electronic news sources for a week or replacing who you follow.之后在一周时间里试着有意识地改变你的电子新闻来源或者关注不同的人群。Difficult or not, we need to teach our kids — and ourselves — to think about our dirty lens. 无论困难与否,我们都需要教我们的孩子,以及我们自己,思考一下我们的脏镜头。Periodically, we should try to embrace a completely different world view, or at least listen patiently to others.我们应该定期尝试接触一种完全不同的世界观,或者至少耐心地倾听别人所说的话。There is another principle that we need to remember: a decade ago, when the 2008 financial crisis hit, I decided (somewhat cynically) that the only way for a country to avoid a massive banking crisis was to have regular, small bank failures. 我们还需要记住一个原则:10年前,2008年金融危机来袭时,我(或多或少有些愤世嫉俗地)得出一个结论,一个国家避免大规模业危机的唯一方法是时常经历一些小规模的倒闭。Frequent, tiny failures are perhaps the only thing that really stop regulators and bankers from getting too complacent. 频频发生的小规模破产或许是唯一一件能真正阻止监管者和家变得过于自满的事情。So too with our minds — and dirty lenses.同样的道理也适用于我们的思想——和脏镜头。In that sense, then, I am grateful to those bars in Hamilton County — and the way they wrongfooted my assumptions on Sunday night. 因此,在这个意义上,汉密尔顿县的那些酒吧,以及周日晚上他们让我的假设落空的方式,都让我心存感激。As it happens, in the end I did find an establishment that was showing the debate. 事实上,最后我还是找到了一个播放那场电视辩论的地方。But it was a hotel that catered to outsiders (like me.) It was still a fascinating, boisterous evening, and I learnt a lot. 但那是一家面向外来者(比如我)的酒店。那依然是一个迷人的、热闹的夜晚,我学到了很多。But the lesson that will stay with me from that night is that we all need to check our lens — with all its biases or dirt. 但从那个晚上起,有个教训将一直伴随我,那就是我们都需要检查一下自己的镜头——看看有没有偏见或者尘土。Particularly in this contentious election.尤其是在这场有争议的选举中。 /201610/472932

My patient and I both knew he was dying.我和我的病人当时都知道他将不久于人世。Not the long kind of dying that stretches on for months or years. 不是那种会拖上几个月甚至几年的濒死状态。He would die today. 他可能会在当天死去。Maybe tomorrow. 也可能是明天。And if not tomorrow, the next day. 如果不是明天,那就是后天。Was there someone I should call? Someone he wanted to see?我应该电话通知某个人,某个他想见到的人吗?Not a one, he told me. 这样一个人不存在,他告诉我。No immediate family. 没有直系亲属。No close friends. 也没有亲密的朋友。He had a niece down South, maybe, but they hadn’t spoken in years.他或许在南部有一个侄女,但他们好多年都没交谈过了。For me, the sadness of his death was surpassed only by the sadness of his solitude.在我看来,唯有他的孤独所带来的伤感,能压过他的死亡所带来的伤感。Every day I see variations at both the beginning and end of life: a young man abandoned by friends as he struggles with opioid addiction; an older woman getting by on tea and toast, no longer able to clean her cluttered apartment. 每一天,我都会在生命的起点和终点看到这类情况的种种版本:一个年轻的男人在竭力对抗毒瘾之际遭到友人的抛弃;一个上了年纪的女人靠茶和烤面包片度日,再也不能清理她那杂乱的公寓。In these moments, it seems the only thing worse than suffering a serious illness is suffering it alone.在这些时刻,唯一一件比承受严重病痛更糟糕的事情,似乎就是独自承受严重的病痛。Social isolation is a growing epidemic — one that’s increasingly recognized as having dire physical, mental and emotional consequences. 社交孤立是一种不断升级的流行病——人们日益认为它会对身体、精神和情感造成可怕的影响。Since the 1980s, the percentage of American adults who say they’re lonely has doubled from 20 percent to 40 percent.自从上世纪80年代以来,说自己感到孤独的美国成人的比例已经从20%上升到40%,整整多了一倍。About one-third of Americans older than 65 live alone; half of those over 85 do. 65岁以上的美国老人约有三分之一独自居住,85岁以上者则有一半是如此。People in poor health — especially those with mood disorders like anxiety and depression — are likelier to feel lonely. 健康状况差的人——尤其是有焦虑、抑郁等情绪病的人——更有可能感到孤独。Those without a college education are the least likely to have someone they can talk to about important personal matters.想要谈论重要的个人事务时,没接受过大学教育的人最不可能找到倾吐对象。A wave of new research suggests social separation is bad for us. 一系列新研究表明,社会隔离对我们有害无益。People with less social connection have disrupted sleep patterns, altered immune systems, more inflammation and higher levels of stress hormones. 社会交往较少的人睡眠模式会紊乱,免疫系统会发生变化,更容易出现炎症反应,体内压力荷尔蒙的水平也更高。One recent study found that isolation increases the risk of heart disease by 29 percent and stroke by 32 percent.最近的一项研究发现,孤独会让罹患心脏病和发生中风的风险分别增加29%和32%。Another analysis that pooled data from 70 studies and 3.4 million people found that socially isolated individuals had a 30 percent higher risk of dying in the next seven years, an effect largest in middle age.对来自70项研究和340万人的数据进行了汇总的一项分析发现,处于社交孤立状态的个人在接下来的7年内死亡的风险比普通人高30%,这种效应在中年人身上最为突出。Loneliness can accelerate cognitive decline in older adults, and isolated individuals are twice as likely to die prematurely as those with more robust social interactions. 孤独可能会让老年人认知能力下降的速度有所加快,孤立的人过早死亡的风险比交际广泛者多出一倍。These effects start early: Socially isolated children have significantly poorer health 20 years later, even after controlling for other factors. 这些影响的种子可以在很早的时候种下:即使调整了其他因素,处于社交孤立状态的孩子在20年后的健康状况也非常差。All told, loneliness is as important a risk factor for early death as obesity and smoking.所有这些都表明,与肥胖、吸烟一样,孤独是导致早亡的重要风险因素。The evidence on social isolation is clear. 关于社交孤立的事实据颇为清晰。What to do about it is less so.但人们对于该如何应对社交孤立还不甚了然。Loneliness is especially tricky because accepting and declaring our loneliness carries profound stigma. 孤独是一个尤为棘手的问题,因为承认并宣示我们的孤独会让我们深深地感到羞耻。Admitting we’re lonely can feel as if we’re admitting we’ve failed in life’s most fundamental domains: belonging, love, attachment. 承认我们是孤独的,就好像是承认我们在生活的某些最基本的方面遭遇了失败:归属感,爱,依恋。It attacks our basic instincts to save face, and makes it hard to ask for help.它会触及我们想要保全脸面的本能,从而让求助变得更加困难。I see this most acutely during the holidays when I care for hospitalized patients, 在假期照顾住院治疗的患者时,我对这一点看得尤为清楚。some connected to IV poles in rooms devoid of family or friends — their aloneness amplified by cheerful Christmas movies playing on wall-mounted televisions. 有些患者待在一个亲友也没有的房间里打着点滴——壁挂式电视上放映的欢快的圣诞电影,尤为突显了他们的孤独。And hospitalized or not, many people report feeling lonelier, more depressed and less satisfied with life during the holiday season.此外,不论住院与否,很多人都表示,他们在假期会感到更孤独、更沮丧、更不满。New research suggests that loneliness is not necessarily the result of poor social skills or lack of social support, but can be caused in part by unusual sensitivity to social cues. 新研究显示,孤独不一定是社交技巧糟糕、社会持缺失的结果,但在某种程度上可以由对社交提示不同寻常的敏感引发。Lonely people are more likely to perceive ambiguous social cues negatively, and enter a self-preservation mindset — worsening the problem. 孤独的人更有可能对模糊的社交提示做出负面解读,并进入一种自我保护的思维模式——从而让问题变得更糟。In this way, loneliness can be contagious: When one person becomes lonely, he withdraws from his social circle and causes others to do the same.这样,孤独就具有了传染性:当一个人变得孤独的时候,会退出自己的社交圈,导致其他人也如此行事。Dr John Cacioppo, a psychology professor at the University of Chicago, has tested various approaches to treat loneliness. 芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)心理学教授约翰#8226;卡奇奥波(John Cacioppo)士对各种应对孤独的方法进行了测试。His work has found that the most effective interventions focus on addressing maladaptive social cognition — that is, helping people re-examine how they interact with others and perceive social cues. 他经研究发现,最有效的干预以应对非适应性社会认知为重点——意即帮助人们重新审视他们与人互动和感知社交线索的方式。He is collaborating with the US military to explore how social cognition training can help soldiers feel less isolated while deployed and after returning home.他正与美国军方合作,研究社会认知培训如何能够有助于减少士兵在役期间和退役后的孤立感。The loneliness of older adults has different roots — often resulting from family members moving away and close friends passing away.老年人的孤独有着不同的根源——常常是由家庭成员从家里搬走或者亲密的朋友过世引起。Ideally, experts say, neighborhoods and communities would keep an eye out for such older people and take steps to reduce social isolation. 专家称,理想状态下,邻居和社区会密切关注这样的老年人,并采取措施减少他们的社交孤立感。Ensuring they have easy access to transportation, through discounted bus passes or special transport services, can help maintain social connections.通过提供公交车票折扣或者特殊交通务,确保他们有便捷的出行方式,可以帮助他们维系社会交往。Religious older people should be encouraged to continue regular attendance at services. 应该鼓励信教的老年人继续定期参加宗教仪式。Those capable of caring for an animal might enjoy the companionship of a pet. 有能力照顾小动物的人或许会享受宠物的陪伴。And loved ones living far away from a parent or grandparent could ask a neighbor to check in periodically.住在离父母或者祖父母辈很远的地方的人,可以拜托邻居定期查看其状况。But more structured programs are arising, too. 但更加有组织的项目也在涌现。For example, Dr Paul Tang of the Palo Alto Medical Foundation started a program called linkAges, a cross-generational service exchange inspired by the idea that everyone has something to offer.例如,帕洛#8226;奥尔图医疗基金会(Palo Alto Medical Foundation)的保罗#8226;唐(Paul Tang)士受人人都能有所贡献这一理念启发,创建了一个跨越代际的务交换项目,名为linkAges。The program works by allowing members to post online something they want help with: guitar lessons, a Scrabble partner, a ride to the doctor’s office. 项目成员可以把自己想要求得帮助的事项发到网上:学吉他,找猜字游戏玩伴,搭车去看医生。Others can then volunteer their time and skills to fill these needs and bank hours for when they need something themselves.然后其他人可以志愿贡献自己的时间和技能来满足这些需求,再把相应的小时数存进,等到他们自己需要帮助的时候便可以提现。In America, you almost need an excuse for knocking on a neighbor’s door, Tang told me. 在美国,几乎连敲响邻居的房门都需要一个好理由,唐告诉我。We want to break down those barriers.我们想打破这些藩篱。The program now has hundreds of members in California and plans to expand to other areas of the country with a recent grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.该项目目前在加利福尼亚州有数百名成员,最近收到了来自罗伯特#8226;伍德#8226;约翰逊基金会(Robert Wood Johnson Foundation)的一笔资助,打算向美国其他地区拓展。We in the medical community have to ask ourselves: Are we controlling blood pressure or improving health and well-being? Tang said. 我们这些医学界的人必须自问:我们是在控制血压,还是在提升人们的健康状况和幸福感?唐说。I think you have to do the latter to do the former.我认为只有做到后者才能做到前者。Increasingly, research confirms our deepest intuition: Human connection lies at the heart of human well-being. 一系列研究日益表明,我们内心最深处的直觉是正确的:人与人的交往在人类的幸福感中居于核心位置。It’s up to all of us to maintain bonds where they’re fading, and create ones where they haven’t existed.当关系变淡的时候,要靠我们所有人去维系;当关系尚未建立的时候,要靠我们所有人去建立。 /201612/485544


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