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Russell T. LewisThe New York Times3-year return: 130%Age: 51CEO since: 1997 Lewis made major strides last year toward reinventing the Times as a national newspaper. Along with chairman Arthur Sulzberger Jr., whose family still owns a controlling interest, Lewis coordinated a billion plan that, among other things, introduced color. The two also transformed the paper into a six-section daily, opened printing plants in Washington, D.C., and Boston to improve northeastern distribution, and pushed the national edition into dozens of new markets. Revenue grew 2.5 percent to almost billion. 路易斯(Lewis)去年取得了令人瞩目的成绩,他使纽约时报重新成为全国性报纸。与主席小亚瑟?萨尔兹伯格(Arthur Sulzberger Jr.,其家族手中掌握着该报的控制权)一起,路易斯协调了一项10亿美元的计划用于引进色印刷及其它许多项目。另外,两个人将报纸变成了每天六部分,并在华盛顿特区和波士顿建立了印刷厂以促进西北部的发行工作,还将国内版打入了许多新市场中。其年收入增涨了2.5 %,达到近30亿美元。 Business philosophy: "The collective intellect and industry of a group yields greater results than any one individual." 生意哲学:“群体的智慧和劳动所取得的成绩永远大于任何个人。” Headaches: A slowdown in traditional newspaper advertising. The proliferation of media choices, especially the Internet, threaten to cannibalize both ership and prestige. 最头痛的事:传统报纸广告量下降。随着越来越多的媒体出现在人们面前,尤其是随着因特网的发展,报纸的读者群及影响面都有不同程度的下降。 True story: While on active duty as a National Guardsman delivering U.S. mail during a postal strike, he secretly gathered information for a Times story. Narrowly avoided court-martial but won a National Publishers award. 真人真事:在一次邮政大罢工中,路易斯作为一名国民警卫队士兵执行任务,负责投递邮件。他秘密地为纽约时报报道搜集信息,结果事后险些被送上军事法庭,不过却赢得了国家出版人大奖。 Management Style: "I'm more interested in making sure we have the right people in the right places than in telling people what to do." 管理风格:“我最关心的是我们是否有适合的人选处在适合的位子上,而不是不断地告诉人们应该做些什么。”Strength: Getting people with different styles, ideas, and backgrounds to cooperate. 优点:聚集了许多不同风格、拥有不同思想及背景的人在一起合作。 Weakness: Untested in standing up to the Sulzberger family during crisis or recession. 弱点:在危机或衰退中不知能否象萨尔兹伯格家族那样经受住考验。 Habits: Out the door by 6:15 a.m. Prefers face-to-face meetings to E-mail or phone calls. 习惯:每天早上六点十五分出发。与使用电子邮件或电话相比,更喜欢面对面的交流方式。Other interests: Fitness, running. Says he's a lousy golfer, but loves the game. Corporate goals. 兴趣爱好:健身,跑步。据称他的高尔夫球水平不高,但喜欢这项运动。 Increasing circulation by a quarter of a million copies daily and by 300,000 on Sunday in ten years. Opening four new printing-plant sites and increasing the number of registered users on the Times Web site from 6.2 million to 9 million by year's end. 公司目标:用十年时间使每日发行量增加二十五万份,在星期天增加三十万份。到年底新建四家印刷厂,并使在纽约时报网站上注册的用户由六百二十万增加到九百万人。 Personal goal: To protect the 150-year Times not only as a business but as an institution vital to the national conscience. 个人目标:保护具有一百五十年历史的纽约时报,不仅把它作为一个生意,而且作为全国公民真善美的家园。 Financial reward: 1998 salary of 3,100. Bonus of 0,000. 经济收入:1998年年薪五十万三千一百美元,奖金五十七万美元。 /200809/47532。

Several theories have been proposed for why religions and religious beliefs have evolved, but before now none of them have involved parasites.Previous theories have suggested that religions help enforce group cooperation. Another suggestion is that religious thoughts and practices are a side-effect of mental abilities that have evolved for other purposes. For example, prayer is a small step from our evolved ability to rehearse what we plan to say to someone who isn't physically with us right now.Crucially, none of these accounts can ily explain why the diversity of religions varies so much around the world. Brazil, for example, has 159 religions compared with Canada's 15, even though both countries are of comparable size.Now Corey Fincher and Randy Thornhill have tested the idea that religious diversity is a side-effect of the fragmentation of cultures that tends to occur in the face of increased threat from infectious disease.Fincher and Thornhill used the World Christian Encyclopedia and the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network to compare the sp of infections and religions across 219 countries. Their results were clear: in regions with a greater variety of infectious parasites, the diversity of religions also tends to be greater. This association held strong even after exploring the impact of other potential factors, such as differences in democratisation and histories of colonisation.The researchers say the association between religion and parasites occurs because reducing contact with outsiders can help protect against disease. In turn, when cultures fragment and groups avoid making contact with each other, more religions are likely to spring up."Although religion apparently is for establishing a social marker of group alliance and allegiance, at the most fundamental level, it may be for the avoidance and management of infectious disease," Fincher and Thornhill said. The pair also believe that the diversity of languages and parasites tends to co-vary across the globe for similar reasons. 一些探索宗教和宗教信仰的演变原因的理论已经有人提出了,但到现在为止还没有任何相关理论涉及寄生虫。以前的理论认为,宗教促进人类的团体合作。也有的认为,宗教思想和实践是人类用于其它目的所形成的心智能力的一种副作用。举例来说,祈祷来源于人们排练对不在身旁的人说话的内容。最重要的是,所有这些理论都不能解释世界上宗教多样性的原因。例如,巴西有159种类型的宗教,而加拿大却只有15种,即使这两个国家的面积大小相关不大。现在科里#8231;芬奇和兰蒂#8231;陶希尔已经实他们的想法:宗教的多样性是文明分散的一种副效应。而文明分散往往是因为面临来自传染病不断扩大的威胁产生的。利用世界基督教百科全书、全球传染病和流行病学网络,芬奇和陶希尔在219个国家内对传染病传播与宗教传播进行比较。其结果是明确的:在传染性寄生虫种类繁多的区域,宗教的多样性也往往会更明显。这种联系对之后探讨其他潜在因素有很大的影响,如不同的民主化历程和不同的殖民统治历史。研究人员表示,宗教和寄生虫之间的关联是因为减少与外界接触可以帮助抵御疾病。反过来,当文明的片段或人类群体避免彼此接触,更多的宗教就有可能涌现。“虽然宗教表面是为团体同盟或忠诚建立一种社会标志,但根本上,它可能是为了避免和控制传染病, ”芬奇和陶希尔说。两人还认为,语言和寄生虫在世界各地的多样性可能出于同样的原因。 /200811/56479。

彼得原理、水桶定律、马太效应、蘑菇管理……听着是不是很耳熟,不管是初入职场的小菜鸟还是职场达人,这十大经典理论必须牢牢把握,不然难以在职场立足,更何况笑傲群雄啦!  1. The Peter Principle 彼得原理:晋升是最糟糕的激励措施  The Peter Principle states that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence", meaning that employees tend to be promoted until they reach a position at which they cannot work competently.  彼得原理是指:在各种组织中,雇员总是趋向于晋升到其不称职的地位。彼得原理有时也被称为向上爬的原理。  这种现象在现实生活中无处不在:一名称职的教授被提升为大学校长后,却无法胜任;一个优秀的运动员被提升为主管体育的官员,而无所作为。  对一个组织而言,一旦相当部分人员被推到其不称职的级别,就会造成组织的人浮于事,效率低下,导致平庸者出人头地,发展停滞。因此,这就要求改变单纯的根据贡献决定晋升的企业员工晋升机制,不能因某人在某个岗位上干得很出色,就推断此人一定能够胜任更高一级的职务。  将一名职工晋升到一个无法很好发挥才能的岗位,不仅不是对本人的奖励,反而使其无法很好发挥才能,也给企业带来损失。  2. Wine and Sewage Law 酒与污水定律:及时清除烂苹果  An interesting law calls “ wine and sewage law ” , means spoonful wine drinks a pail of foul water, those who get is a pail of sewage; Pour spoonful foul water into a pail of wine, those who get still is a pail of sewage.  是指把一匙酒倒进一桶污水,得到的是一桶污水;如果把一匙污水倒进一桶酒,得到的还是一桶污水。  在任何组织里,几乎都存在几个难弄的人物,他们存在的目的似乎就是为了把事情搞糟。最糟糕的是,他们像果箱里的烂苹果,如果不及时处理,它会迅速传染,把果箱里其他苹果也弄烂。烂苹果的可怕之处,在于它那惊人的破坏力。  一个正直能干的人进入一个混乱的部门可能会被吞没,而一个无德无才者能很快将一个高效的部门变成一盘散沙。组织系统往往是脆弱的,是建立在相互理解、妥协和容忍的基础上的,很容易被侵害、被毒化。破坏者能力非凡的另一个重要原因在于,破坏总比建设容易。一个能工巧匠花费时日精心制作的陶瓷器,一头驴子一秒钟就能毁坏掉。如果一个组织里有这样的一头驴子,即使拥有再多的能工巧匠,也不会有多少像样的工作成果。如果你的组织里有这样的一头驴子,你应该马上把它清除掉,如果你无力这样做,就应该把它拴起来。  3. .Buckets effect / Cannikin Law 水桶定律(短板理论): 注重团队中的薄弱环节  How much of a bucket filled with water, does not depend on the highest piece of wood on the sides of casks, but rather depends on the shortest piece on the sides of casks. According to this core content, Second, as long as the bucket, there are a sufficient height, a bucket of water can not be full.  水桶定律是讲一只水桶能装多少水,这完全取决于它最短的那块木板。  这就是说任何一个组织,可能面临的一个共同问题,即构成组织的各个部分往往是优劣不齐的,而劣势部分往往决定整个组织的水平。  水桶定律与酒与污水定律不同,后者讨论的是组织中的破坏力量,最短的木板却是组织中有用的一个部分,只不过比其他部分差一些,你不能把它们当成烂苹果扔掉。强弱只是相对而言的,无法消除,问题在于你容忍这种弱点到什么程度,如果严重到成为阻碍工作的瓶颈,你就不得不有所动作。  4. Matthew Effect 马太效应: 只有第一,没有第二  In sociology, the Matthew effect (or accumulated advantage) is the phenomenon where "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer". Those who possess power and economic or social capital can leverage those resources to gain more power or capital.  在社会学中,马太效应是指富者越富,穷着更穷。那些拥有权力和经济社会资本的人会夺取其他人的资源来增加自己的权力和财富。  《新约马太福音》中有这样一个故事:一个国王远行前,交给3个仆人每人一锭银子,吩咐道:你们去做生意,等我回来时,再来见我。国王回来时,第一个仆人说:主人,你交给我的一锭银子,我已赚了10锭。于是,国王奖励他10座城邑。第二个仆人报告:主人,你给我的一锭银子,我已赚了5锭。于是,国王奖励他 5座城邑。第三仆人报告说:主人,你给我的1锭银子,我一直包在手帕里,怕丢失,一直没有拿出来。于是,国王命令将第三个仆人的1锭银子赏给第一个仆人,说:凡是少的,就连他所有的,也要夺过来。凡是多的,还要给他,叫他多多益善,这就是马太效应。  这反应当今社会中存在的一个普遍现象,即赢家通吃。对企业经营发展而言,马太效应告诉我们,要想在某一个领域保持优势,就必须在此领域迅速做大。当你成为某个领域的领头羊时,即便投资回报率相同,你也能更轻易地获得比弱小的同行更大的收益。而若没有实力迅速在某个领域做大,就要不停地寻找新的发展领域,才能保获得较好的回报。  5. Zero-sum Game 零和游戏原理:在竞争与合作中达到双赢  The zero-sum property (if one gains, another loses) means that any result of a zero-sum situation is Pareto optimal (generally, any game where all strategies are Pareto optimal is called a conflict game). Situations where participants can all gain or suffer together are referred to as non-zero-sum.  零和游戏原理是指参与者们都受益或都受损失。  零和游戏是指一项游戏中,游戏者有输有赢,一方所赢正是另一方所输,游戏的总成绩永远为零,零和游戏原理之所以广受关注,主要是因为人们在社会的方方面面都能发现与零和游戏类似的局面,胜利者的光荣后面往往隐藏着失败者的辛酸和苦涩。  20世纪,人类经历两次世界大战、经济高速增长,科技进步、全球一体化以及日益严重的环境污染,零和游戏观念正逐渐被双赢观念所取代。人们开始认识到利已不一定要建立在损人的基础上。通过有效合作皆大欢喜的结局是可能出现的。但从零和游戏走向双赢,要求各方面要有真诚合作的精神和勇气,在合作中不要小聪明,不要总想占别人的小便宜,要遵守游戏规则,否则双赢的局面就不可能出现,最终吃亏的还是合作者自己。 /201108/149574。

化妆可是一门细活,熟练工可能也要花上半个小时,何况是初学者呢?这里有一些基本的化妆技巧,是由曾为英国达人和X Factor选秀选手化妆的职业妆师介绍的哦。Should you apply primer on top of freshly cleansed skin or on top of moisturiser?应该先涂隔离霜还是在保湿霜上面再涂隔离霜?Primer is a protective layer that seals in moisturiser and provides a smooth surface for foundation.隔离霜主要是在上粉底之前起一个保护性作用。If you have an oily complexion, you may feel that the primer without moisturiser is enough.如果你是油性皮肤,也许直接涂隔离霜感觉比较好。My routine is more about colour- correcting, treating and highlighting the skin. A product that gives you an immaculate canvas is a pore minimiser, which would be my equivalent to a primer.我的做法更注重脸部的色调,也就是调整、修复、强调肤色。能让面部肌肤平滑无暇的护肤产品能起到收缩毛孔的作用,我会用它来代替隔离霜。 /201107/145223。

摘要:访问英国的人会发现传统英国酒吧是最能领略当地文化的地方。但对于初来乍到的异国人来说,这些友善的酒吧却犹如潜藏着有惹事危险的"地雷区"。Visitors to Britain may find the best place to sample local culture is in a traditional pub. But these friendly hostelries can be minefields of potential gaffes for the uninitiated.An anthropologist and a team of researchers have unveiled some of the arcane rituals of British pubs--starting with the difficulty of getting a drink. Most pubs have no waiters--you have to go to the bar to buy drinks. A group of Italian youths waiting 45 minutes before they realized they would have to fetch their own. This may sound inconvenient, but there is a hidden purpose. Pub culture is designed to promote sociability in a society known for its reserve. Standing at the bar for service allows you to chat with others waiting to be served. The bar counter is possibly the only site in the British Isles in which friendly conversation with strangers is considered entirely appropriate and rea1ly quite normal behaviour. "If you haven't been to a pub, you haven't been to Britain." This tip can be found in a booklet, Passport to the Pub: The Tourists' Guide to Pub Etiquette, a customers' code of conduct for those wanting to sample "a central part of British life and culture". The trouble is that if you do not follow the local rules, the experience may fall flat. For example, if you are in a big group, it is best if only one or two people go to buy the drinks. Nothing irritates the regular customers and bar staff more than a gang of strangers blocking all access to the bar while they chat and dither about what to order. /200904/68468。

Held at the height ofParis fashion week which kicks off on Tuesday, the event organised by Paris' Galeries Lafayette department store is bidding for a spot in the Guinness Book of Records.  这场秀将在下周二开幕的巴黎时装周期间举行,组织方巴黎“老佛爷”百货公司有意让其写入吉尼斯世界纪录。  Would-be models aged 16 and over were asked to post pictures of their look on the store's website, with 700 finalists chosen from among 3,600 people to take part in the flagship catwalk show on Thursday on Boulevard Haussmann in central Paris.  有意参演、并且年龄在16岁以上的人们可将自己的照片上传到该百货公司网站。届时,将从3600名应征者中挑选出700名模特于下周四在巴黎市中心奥斯曼大道举办的大型时装秀上亮相。 Smaller events, to be held Thursday in Berlin and Saturday in 54 sister stores across France, have drawn over 10,000 registrations. Put end-to-end the catwalks measure some two kilometres (1.2 miles).  下周四在柏林、以及下周六在法国54家“店”上演的小规模秀场已经吸引了超过1万人报名。所有T台首尾连接起来约有2千米(1.2英里)长。  Currently, the Guinness fashion show record is for 250 people to t the catwalk at the same time in 10 different locations.  目前的吉尼斯时装秀世界纪录为250人同时在10个不同的地方走秀。 /201010/116701。

To see what patterns of behavior most Americans consider "normal", I asked an ad agency--whose researchers are experts in uncovering consumer buying habits and motivation--to tell me how Americans wash their hair, go to bed, change a tire. In some instances, the results are entirely predictable; in others, downright surprising. Four times as many men as women hug their spouse first thing when they walk in the door after work. When no one's around, men are also more likely to drink straight from a carton or bottle. And they're more likely to salt food without tasting it first.There are some other glaring male/female differences. Who'd have guessed women are more likely to squeeze the toothpaste tube from the middle--or worse, from the top!Although both men and women swear an average of 16 times a day (much more if we have kids), courtesy lives in America. Most men let women get off the elevator before them. When it comes to opening the car door for the opposite sex--a sign of chivalry--a full 70% of men usually do. And most people acknowledge a sneeze: only 13% remain mute. (Most folks prefer "God bless you.")It's on the road where we really demonstrate good manners. If upset with another driver, 54% of us do nothing. Less-popular responses: shouting dirty words (17%), making angry gestures (16%), and the rest: flashing our lights.When it comes to changing a tire, we're fairly self-reliant. More than a third of female road warriors would tackle it themselves, although 6% of female drivers with a flat confess they'd simply stand there and "look pathetic and hope someone would help." But before chests are puffed out thish manly pride, consider this: twice as many men as women hail a cab for a trip of less than two blocks.We're lazy in other areas too. 90% of us use an alarm clock to wake up in the morning. Most of us rarely change our answering-machine message, and almost a quarter of us slip into our shoes without untying them. And while more than one out of then shop for Christmas year-round, 22% of men and 9% of women putting off until the last day or two.Americans are compulsive about cleanliness. Almost half of us change the toweles daily or after every shower. On the other hand, 21% of us don't make the bed every day--and 5% admit they never do!There's a lot of diversity out there. So, whatever you prefer, remember there's always someone else on this planet just like you. /200902/63338。

一项研究表明,为身材所困的年轻女性看到杂志广告上的超级模特或是有着“魔鬼”身材的女性,会食量大增;有意思的是,身材匀称的女性看到这样的广告后反而会吃得更少。 a picture of Jiang QinqinStudy: Magazine ads of thin models make women overeatResearch now shows a supermodel figure or the "ideal" thin woman image reflected in magazine advertisements trigger young women, obsessed with their own body image, to eat more. Interestingly, those with a more balanced healthy body image tend to eat less. The study done in Australia is important in bringing out the point that advertising not only affects the way we think but also our patterns of eating behavior. Fiona Monro, graduate student at the University of New South Wales, explains the results of the study published in the November edition of the journal, Eating Behaviors: "We would expect people who value the way they look would be reminded by viewing the image and not eat." "We're not sure why we found the reverse but possibly because of stress...[women obsessed with their appearance] see the idealized image and think about their own body so turn to food," she adds. Monro says, "They might think 'what's the point, I'm never going to look like that, I may as well eat; or the image makes them think they're thinner than they are so they eat more." Sixty-eight female university students took part in the study: two hours after their last meal, they were asked to prioritize the importance of physical attractiveness, health and physical fitness to find out whether they give importance to the way their body looks. Monro and her team were studying the phenomenon of "self-objectification," or the way people perceive themselves and their bodies as an object to be valued for outward show as opposed to intrinsic worth. (AHN) /200903/65394。

Teacher tells class that Santa isn't realA primary school teacher left a class of 25 pupils in tears when she told them Santa Claus does not exist.The supply teacher blurted out: "it's your parents who leave out presents on Chrsitmas Day" when excited youngsters got rowdy as they talked about Christmas.The class of seven-year-olds at Blackshaw Lane Primary School, Royton, near Oldham, Greater Manchester burst into tears and told their parents when they got home.The parents then complained about the incident and were sent a letter by the school saying the teacher has been disciplined over the gaffe.One father said: "My son came home and said that his substitute teacher had told the class that Santa doesn't exist and it's your mum and dad that put out presents for them."Apparently, they were all talking about Christmas and being a bit rowdy. She just came straight out with it."My lad was nearly in tears and so was everyone else in the class - especially as it was so close to Christmas. I thought it was wrong."He was distraught about it. He's only seven-years-old and it's part of the magic of Christmas to him."We told him that she did not believe in Father Christmas because of her religion and he's fine now."A lot of parents were disgusted and complained to the school. If she was a regular teacher then I think a lot more would have been done."Angela McCormick, the headteacher, refused to comment on the incident.Oldham Council's service director for children, young people and families, Janet Doherty, said: "This is a matter for the individual school to resolve."We have every confidence that the head will deal with it sensitively and appropriately." /200812/59101。