吉林省人民医院费用安心社区

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月28日 11:13:54
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Negotiation on customs cleatance 通关协商A: Shall we get down to the problem of customs clearance now?我们谈一谈通关的问题吧B: OK. According to the terms in our contract, you have to take charge of all the stuff in customs clearance.好的根据合同,通关事宜是由你方负责A: We get it. But in this project, we have some difficulty and obstacle in clearing customs.我们知道但是在这项工程上,我们在通关问题上有一些困难和障碍B: If so, we can have a discussion so as to have the problem solved.如果这样的话我们可以讨论与一下该如何来解决这个问题A: Thanks your understanding. As you know, we are not quite familiar with the procedures of customs clearance here and this will waste a lot of time and energy. And I believe you can see that the low efficiency due to the unfamiliarity will lead to the loss to both sides.非常感谢您的通情达理你们也知道,我们对这里的通关手续不是很了解,也就会造成大量时间和精力的浪费我想你方也知道这样的低效率会造成我们双方的损失B: That true. What can we do to help?确实是这样我们能帮上什么忙?A: Were grateful that you said that. Would you please assign someone who is familiar with the clearing procedure to work it out together with us?非常感谢您能这样你方可不可以派一个熟悉通关手续的员工来帮忙我们共同完成通关手续呢?B: All right. Sounds acceptable. Let do it.可以,能够接受那就这样办吧A: Thanks.非常感谢;work out;的意思是;找出处理某事物的方法,解决某事;,例如:work out a problema puzzle(解决一道难题疑问) 36Sales person: May I be of any assistance?Shirley: I want to have a look at the microwave ovens.Sales person: You can have a broad choice here. Are you interested in a particular brand?Shirley: Not really. What are these toys over there?Sales person: Maam, these are complimentary with each purchase. How about that one below the toys? This is the best seller. They are of the latest model that can be found in town.Shirley: I dont like its color. A bit too bright. Do you have a grey one?Sales person: Yes, we do. What a great taste you have! But we only have one left in stock.Shirley: Really? How so?Sales person: You know a good product will always sell! Would you mind waiting a while, well get it right away.Shirley: Okay.(The salesperson brings a beautiful grey microwave oven.)Sales person: Here it is. It very elegant, I think you will like it.Shirley: How about its quality?Sales person: Its durability will be a big surprise to you.Shirley: What about the price?Sales person: 500 yuan. And if you buy it today, there will be a % discount you.售货员:有什么能为您效劳的?雪莉:我想看一下微波炉售货员:这里有很多的(微波炉)供您选择您有喜欢的品牌吗?雪莉:没有那边的玩具是什么?售货员:女士,那是赠品对了,您看玩具下面的那款微波炉怎么样?那款很畅销他们是现在市面上能找到的最新款式雪莉:我不喜欢它的颜色有点太亮了(这款)你们有灰色的吗?售货员:是的,我们有您真有品位!但是我们只有一件,还放在仓库里雪莉:真的?为什么?售货员:好东西总是卖得快啊麻烦您能稍等一下吗?我现在马上去给您取来雪莉:好的(售货员拿来一款漂亮的灰色微波炉)售货员:就是这个了很漂亮,我想您会喜欢的雪莉:它的质量怎么样?售货员:它的耐用性会使您吃惊的雪莉:价格怎么样呢?售货员:500元如果是今天买的话,可以给您八五折 1898

  

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  本文选自Gossip Girl 《绯闻女孩,欢迎大家共同欣赏Dan: How's the braised quail? Waiter: Very good, sir.Dan: OK. And the, uh, the lay-pin?Waiter: Lah-pan. Lah-pan. It's delightful.Dan: OK, what is that again?Waiter: Rabbit, sir.Dan: Oh, well, I won't be having that. Um, how about chicken? You can't go wrong with chicken.Waiter: Yes, sir. Dan: Thank you. Waiter: Miss? Serena: Uh, I'll have the Lobster Bisque and Muscovy duck, please. Thank you. Waiter: Merci, mademoiselle. Dan: I can't believe the waiter got me. I was ...I was just here ... the other day. Yeah, I come here the crowd. You wanna play “mistress or second wife”? Because it's harder than it looks. Believe me. So is her face. Serena: Uh, will you excuse me? I, uh...I'm gonna go to the restroom to freshen up a little.Dan: Yeah, of course, of course. I think the bathrooms are ...Serena: Uh, don't worry. I'll find them.Dan: Oh, excuse me, sir. Uh, how much is that duck she just ordered?Waiter: $ 78, sir.Dan: OK, right. Thank you. Um, you know what? Can you just cancel my main dish, and I'll just have the appetizer as the main.Waiter: Of course, sir.Dan: Thank you, Merci.重点讲解:1. restroom n. 公共厕所,洗手间相关的说法还有:bathroom, toilet. appetizer n. 开胃菜例句:If your last name starts with A~D, please bring an appetizer. 如果你的姓以字母A~D打头,请自带开胃小吃3. go wrong with 出毛病,有问题例句:Yes, we do-but this time something go wrong with the transmission, and it is not able. 有,我们收到了但是这一次的传真好像在传送上有些问题,所以无法看得清楚. fresh up 梳洗,变得精神饱满“freshen”是“fresh”的动词形式,表示“变新鲜”的意思例句:Fresh up with Seven-up. 七喜助你精神焕发 539

  A: I'll be checking out of the hotel in about 30 minutes.B: Thirty minutes or 30 seconds, sir, it doesn't matter, I'm y you.A: Great! As you know, however, the day in New York has hardly begun.B: There's nothing like getting an early start, sir.A: What can I do with my baggage while I visit a few more tourist spots?B: You can leave your baggage in our storage space, with a deposit.A: Isn't my baggage enough of a deposit?B: I wish it was, but it isn't. They will still want a credit card.A: It's always something, isn't it? Let me think about this a second. B: Don't get that you have very little time, sir, bee you have to check out. 1951本对话选自Desperate Housewives 《绝望的主妇Lynette和Tom夫妇俩因为Tom说谎出去玩而争论起来Tom: It's a business meeting!Lynette: It's a frat party.Tom: Regional manager. Corporate manager. Head of sales. Lynette: Margarita. Cigar. Sombrero.Tom: Honey, what do you want me to do? Sit around the hotel all the time watching cable?Lynette: No, but when I say, we've been invited to a party, don't whine about your exhausting sixty-hour week. Put on your dancing shoes and take the mother of your children out a good time.Tom: Fine, you know what, you're right. Let's go to that party.Lynette: Can't. I aly cancelled the sitter.Tom: Okay, we'll, we'll throw the next one.Lynette: Throw a dinner party? I don't even have time to wash my face. No, you know what, I'm going to go to this one. You can stay home and babysitter the kids.Tom: Okay, I can handle that. 重点知识讲解:1. frat party 兄弟聚会 fratfraternal兄弟般的美国大学里一个独特的组织,就是“兄弟会”和“会”,在英语里面就是fraternity和sorority这是一个传统性很强的学生组织,在美国已经有很长的历史了“兄弟会”和“会”各自还分成很多个小组织,每个组织都有自己的名字,一般都是用两三个希腊字母表示,你会在他们居住的宿舍楼上看到这些名字所以当人们说Greek life的时候,意思就是“兄弟会”和“会”的生活,而说Go Greek的时候,意思就是参加fraternity或sorority,或者他们办的各种活动. margartia n.(由墨西哥龙舌兰酒、酸橙或柠檬汁以及橙味酒混合调制而成的)玛格丽塔酒,是鸡尾酒的一种3. sombrero n. (尤指墨西哥人所戴的阔边草帽或毡帽). cable cable television n. 有限电视5. whine about 因为……而抱怨;嘀咕(含有贬义)例句: I wish you'd stop whining about the bad weather. 你不要这样抱怨天气没完没了,好不好?6. sitterbaby sitter n. 临时替人照看孩子的人汉语译文:Tom: 那是个商务聚会Lynette: 那是一次兄弟聚会Tom: 地区经理,公司经理,销售主管Lynette: 鸡尾酒,雪茄,草帽Tom: 亲爱的,你想我怎么做?整天坐在旅馆里看有线电视?Lynette: 不是,只不过当我告诉你我们被邀请参加聚会的时候,不要抱怨说你这一周多辛苦穿上你的舞蹈鞋带着你的孩子妈妈,出去好好玩Tom: 好的,你说的对我们去聚会吧Lynette: 不行,我已经把保姆取消了Tom: 好吧,那我们举办下一次聚会Lynette: 举办聚会我都没有时间洗脸了不,你知道么,我要去这个聚会,你可以在家照看孩子们Tom: 好吧,我可以课后题目:学习完后,你知道"frat party" 的意思吗? 5

  

  

  Check term 商定条款A: We’d like to buy 00 tons of rice from your company. Can you give me an indication of your prices? B: With pleasure. You’ll find that we have given you the most favorable price in our business. A: OK, let me have a look. We shall be glad if you will e us the best discount cash off your list price cash this quantity. B: Please feel assured that we will give you the best discount we can give.A: Thank you very much. I also want to know how long it will take to make delivery.B: Three months. Would you accept delivery sp over a period of time? A: Yes, we normally do. A: 我们想从贵公司买00吨大米,可以了解下你们公司的大概价格吗?B: 我非常愿意给您提供信息您会发现我们给您提供的是最优惠的价格A: 好的,让我看一下对这样数量大又是现金付的货物来说,如果贵方能再给些优惠的话我们会很高兴的B: 请放心,我们一定会给您提供我们所能给的最大的折扣A: 非常感谢我还想了解一下你们通常要多久才能交货B: 三个月不知你们能否接受在一段时间内分批交货?A: 是的,我们通常接受 5

  .The Viruses We Carried Out Of Africa Helped Us Survive.优胜劣汰,古老病毒们有奇功Thanks to the science of viral molecular genetics, we now know quite a bit about the bugs that infected us along our evolutionary path, and we have found that these hitchhikers have done quite a bit to help us along the way. example, it was the evolutionary pressure they placed upon our immune system that made it as robust as it is today. Additionally, viruses may have played a role in the loss of specific receptors that we once possessed on the surface of our cells that infectious agents could latch onto and use to cause disease. By ridding the human body of this source of disease, viruses created a safer environment themselves, benefiting everybody involved.随着病毒分子遗传学的进步,我们才知道原来有那么多寄生虫在影响着人类进化准确地说,这些把人类当顺风车的寄生虫在人类迁徙进化的历程中帮了不少忙首先,这些外来微生物寄居在人体内,使人体产生一定排斥反应,从而形成一种迫使人类进化的推动力,正是在这种作用下,我们才有了今天这样强大的免疫系统另外,在人体细胞表面有一些可以和细菌等微生物结合的特定受体,这些细菌和受体结合发生复杂的反应,往往会导致人体受损生病这些黏附在细胞表面的受体,大大增加了人体患病的概率不过寄生在人体内的病毒可以清理掉许多细菌的;内应;,使人体摆脱这些疾病的干扰抵挡住其他外来者的入侵,不仅自己的生存环境更加安全,人体也是受益良多呐But they may have also played a role in ensuring that, among competing hominid species, it was Homo sapiens that came out on top. While our species was developing, disease and parasites encouraged genetic diversity and weeded out the unfit. Once the first Homo sapiens left the continent, they brought their infectious agencies and parasites with them. If youve about North American and European smallpox, you know how this goes. While it wouldnt have been the only factor, viral parasites would sp to other hominids like Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthals), who wouldnt have had any previous exposure to the new bugs and possessed a nasal structure that was less efficient at filtering air and keeping new viruses at bay. They would have devastated other hominid species, because the bugs were primed to live in similar environments, but the hominids were not primed to receive them. Models have shown that if Neanderthals had a mortality rate only percent higher than humans, it would have been sufficient to cause their extinction after 1,000 years of competition. While disease was doubtless not the only factor, it would have certainly played a large role.Most models of human disease evolution claim that they mainly evolved during the Neolithic era, after man moved out of Africa and populations increased, so there is some evidence of this selective viral pressure. Many of these early viruses have even been so successful that their genes have literally become a part of our DNA. example, the human genome has been found to contain genes from the borna virus that were gained about 0 million years ago. In fact, scientists have isolated about 0,000 elements of human DNA that have come from viruses, mostly within what is called our ;junk DNA.; The viruses that make up the majority of our junk DNA are called endogenous retroviruses, and they are so much a part of us that a scientist recently brought one ;back to life; and even infected hamsters and cats with it.除此之外,这些病毒,寄生虫还发挥了另一项非常重要的作用在远古猿人时期,猿人为了生存要和其他物种竞争资源正是它们,帮助猿人进化成智人,登上食物链的最顶端在人类发展中,疾病使得人类遗传基因多样化以便更加适应环境的改变,帮助剔除不适应大自然的弱小个体当第一批智人离开原先居住的大陆时,这些传染性的病毒、寄生虫、细菌也跟着出发,散播到世界各地微生物的扩散曾给人类带来灾难性的打击,其中北美洲和欧洲的天花病毒大爆发影响最大,是人类抗击病毒历史当中最为沉重的一课尼安德特人的灭绝也和病毒、细菌传播有关,尼安德特人原本生活在欧洲,随着其他原人的进入,他们随身携带的病毒性寄生虫也传播开来一方面穴居的尼安德特人从未接触过这些外来物种,另一方面他们已经适应北欧的寒冷气候,鼻梁宽大,不能充分过滤空气中的外来微生物,因而这些微生物足以使他们致命尽管尼人的灭绝还受其他因素影响,但病毒入侵这一点不容忽视疾病是促进人类进化的一大驱动力随着人类离开非洲大陆,人口不断扩增,进入新石器时代,疾病与人类发展的关系更加密切研究发现,一些人的染色体中含有纳病毒的基因序列,而这段基因是在四千万年前和人类本身遗传物质融合的这表明许多古老的病毒通过逆转录将自己的基因嵌入到人类的DNA序列当中,这些对人体本身运作毫无用处的基因片段被称为;垃圾DNA;,而这种病毒被称为逆转录病毒科学家们从垃圾DNA中提取出一万对基因片段,经过加工处理使其重新具备合成蛋白质的能力,随后再植入到实验仓鼠和猫的遗传信息中惊人的是,这些休眠数十万年的病毒活力依旧,又开始在小动物的体内肆虐了9.Modern-Day Medical Uses Of Leeches And Maggots9.当代医学妙用水蛭、蛆 thousands of years, the European leech (Hirudo medicinalis) was used in medicine bloodletting purposes, treating a wide range of disorders from hemorrhoids to ear infections. The practice goes so far back in time that an Egyptian painting from 00 B.C. depicts their use. While some nations have never stopped using them, the practice fell out of favor in the Western world with the knowledge of bacteria and subsequent focus on the germ theory medical treatment.数千年以来,欧洲水蛭一直被用作放血术的实用药材,从痔疮到中耳炎各种病症,用途广泛欧洲水蛭的具体医疗用法可以从公元前00年前的埃及壁画中窥见一斑但后来随着人们对细菌的了解逐渐深入,开始应用微生物理论来解决医疗问题,便不再使用水蛭了In the 1970s and 1980s, though, leeches made a comeback. Cosmetic and reconstructive surgeons found that they were an effective method draining blood from swollen faces, black eyes, limbs, and digits. They are also helpful reattaching small body parts like ears and flaps of skin, because they draw away blood that could clot and interrupt the healing process. Leeches have saved people from amputations and may even relieve the pain of osteoarthritis. Even veterinarians sometimes use them.Maggots, on the other hand, are nature clean-up crew. Theyre great eating away dead or infected flesh, revealing the healthy tissue below in a process called debridement. They have also been found to be an effective treatment ulcers, gangrene, skin cancer, and burns, among other things.Maggots and leeches, as gross as they may be, are so effective that the FDA classified them as the first ;live medical items; in , paving the way an entire industry called biotherapy. An organization called Biotherapeutics Education and Research Foundation (BTERF) has even sprung up to raise awareness of the new uses these old critters, and there are several companies that sell them.然而,在上世纪七十年代到八十年, 这种水蛭又重新登上医学舞台当时的外科整容行业发现用欧洲水蛭将黑眼圈、大腿、手指、肿胀的脸里的淤血吸出来效果非常明显,除此之外,水蛭还可以促进血液流动,抑制伤口愈合以及将皮瓣组织重新连接起来蛆,这种无头幼虫专吃各种腐烂或受病毒感染的尸体医疗中常用它们清理腐烂的伤口,驱除异物,在治疗溃疡、烧伤、皮肤癌等许多方面效果都非常显著这种技术就叫做清创术许多人看到这种白色不停蠕动的无头虫感到很心塞,事实上,它们可是大自然的清理工呢尽管水蛭、蛆这些蠕动的软体动物让人觉得心塞无比,但它们的实用价值实在是高,在年被美国食品药品选为首推活药材可以说是它们创造了一个新兴领域——生物医学疗法由此也应运而生许多机构和公司开始推广这种新的医疗手段,并在市场上销售欧洲水蛭和无头幼虫8.Parasites And Our Immune Systems May Have Co-Evolved To Protect Us From Allergies8.为了抗过敏,我们的免疫系统和寄生虫实现了共同进化Researchers studying the effects of gastrointestinal parasites have come up with an astonishing theory: After parasites first colonized our gastrointestinal systems, they evolved over millions of years the ability to suppress our immune systems. At the same time, our own bodies evolved to partially compensate the effect.在研究了胃肠道中寄生虫对人类的影响后,研究人员提出了一个惊人的理论他们认为,从寄生虫入侵我们的胃肠道系统至今,为了抑制我们的免疫系统,它们一直在不断地进化着与此同时,为了抵消这样的影响,我们的身体也在不断进化着The astonishing part, and what this means human health, is that once parasites and harmless microorganisms present in water and soil have been largely removed from their natural environment inside of us in developed nations through the use of modern medicine, our immune systems actually overcompensate their loss, leading to allergies and even increased chances asthma and eczema. This ;old friends; hypothesis (sometimes referred to as the ;hygiene hypothesis,; though it actually more of a complementary theory) has gained more support in recent years as we identify new ways microorganisms have helped us survive over the eons. Clinical trials have been conducted using worms to test against multiple sclerosis, IBD, and allergies.The main proponent of the old friends hypothesis is Graham A.W. Rook of University College London. He first proposed it in , and since then, it has also been proposed as a possible cause of some ms of stress and depression.Some people have taken the old friends hypothesis to its ultimate logical conclusion that if removing our parasites from society has led to health problems, we should put them back. In , University of Wisconsin professor of neurology John Fleming conducted a clinical study in which he infected multiple sclerosis patients with parasitic worms to test their effectiveness against the disease. Over a period of three months, patients who had an average of 6.6 active lesions around their brain nerve cells were reduced to an average of two. When the trial was over, the number of lesions shot back up to 5.8 within two months. In earlier trials, the parasites appeared to have positive effects upon ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease as well.Parasite therapy is still in the experimental phases, however, and probably has negative effects that outweigh the positive ones. As of now, the FDA has classified the worms as biological products that cannot be sold until proven safe. Only one species, Trichuris suis, has been approved testing under Investigational New Drug (IND) status.对人体健康来说,最让人震惊的莫过于,一旦用现代药物将水和土壤中的寄生虫和微生物从人体内他们的生存环境中移除,我们的免疫系统实际上会因填补这种缺失而导致过敏,哮喘和湿疹发作的可能性也随之增加新技术的应用,使得我们能够辨别出那些千百年来帮助我们的微生物尽管还停留在基础阶段,;故友假设;(也称为卫生健康假设)也于近年来受到了日益广泛的持目前,人们已经在临床试验中对蠕虫进行了抗综合硬化症、炎症性肠病和过敏的测试这项;旧友假设;的主要提出者是来自伦敦大学学院的格雷厄姆A.W.路客他在年第一次提出这一理论,此后,医学界认为,该理论可以解释某些紧张和抑郁症的成因有些人在;故友理论;这个问题上走了极端,他们认为,如果把寄生虫从人体中移除会导致健康问题,那么我们就得把他们接回来年,来自威斯康辛大学的神经学教授约翰·弗莱明进行了一项实验在实验中,他通过寄生蠕虫在综合硬化症病人体内造成感染,从而观察病人的抗病效率在三个月里,病人大脑神经细胞周围活跃的病变数从原本的平均6.6个降到个但是,在实验结束后,病变的数量在两个月内反弹到了5.8个在早期的实验中,这些寄生虫确实对治疗溃疡性大肠炎和克罗恩氏病发挥了积极作用目前,寄生虫治疗还停留在试验阶段然而,它的消极作用超过了它的积极作用现在,在食品和药物对蠕虫进行限定性规定,安全性得到明以前暂时不能销售只许可猪鞭虫这一个品种进入新药的试验阶段7.Virotherapy7.病毒治疗One of the most exciting and promising branches of medicine in recent decades is virotherapy, a biotechnology technique to reprogram viruses to treat disease. In , researchers at UCLA announced that they had turned one of humanity deadliest enemies into a cancer-killer when they reprogrammed a modified strain of HIV to hunt down and destroy cancer cells. Around the same time, researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota modified the measles virus to do the same.近十年来,病毒治疗可以说是最让人惊喜和有效的医学分科之一了病毒治疗通过生物科学技术来将病毒进行重新组合,从而达到治疗疾病的目的年,加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校的研究人员宣布他们已经成功把人类最致命的敌人变成了癌症克星他们对一个转化艾滋病菌种进行重新组合来狙击和摧毁癌细胞与此同时,明尼苏达州罗切斯特市的梅奥诊所的研究人员通过转化麻疹病毒也实现了同样的目的The technique is similar to the one used to breed genetically engineered plants, in that a virus is used as a gene-delivery vehicle. It has long been recognized as the most efficient means of gene transfer. This system is used the production of useful proteins in gene therapy and has great potential the treatment of immunological disorders such as hepatitis and HIV.Viruses have been known to have the potential to treat cancer since the 1950s, but the advent of chemotherapy slowed its progress. Today, virotherapy is proving to be extremely effective against tumors without harming the healthy cells around it. Clinical trials of oncolytic virotheraphy have shown low toxicity and promising signs of efficacy. In , a drug called talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) became the first drug based on a tumor-killing virus to succeed in late-stage testing.One of the biggest challenges facing researchers is how to deliver the virus where it will do the most good bee the body recognizes it as an intruder and mounts a defense. Current research is looking into finding natural tumor-targeting ;carriers,; cells that can deliver the virus without either the cell or the virus losing its normal biological functions.与培育基因工程植物一样,病毒在这项技术里同样扮演着基因载体的角色人们将它视为最有效的基因载体这个系统广泛应用于生产某种蛋白,这种蛋白可在基因疗法中使用同时,它在治疗免疫系统紊乱导致的肝炎和艾滋病时也有一定的潜力从二十世纪五十年代起,人们就已经知道了病毒在治疗癌症上的潜力但是,化学疗法的出现减缓了这一进程现如今,研究明,病毒疗法能够极为有效的抗击肿瘤而不伤害其周围的健康细胞在临床实验中,肿瘤的病毒疗法的毒性较低且效果显著在年,一种新的药物alimogene laherparepvec (TVEC)在最后阶段的试验中获得成功,成为第一种以抗癌病毒为基础的病毒研究人员面临的最大的一个挑战就是如何在人体对;入侵的病毒;进行防御之前,将病毒放置在它可以发挥最大效用的地方现阶段的研究致力于寻找一种自然的肿瘤靶向载体细胞,从而实现在放置病毒的同时不损伤细胞或病毒的正常生物功能的目的6.Using Viruses To Cure Bacterial Infections6.利用病毒治疗细菌感染Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically attack bacteria. First recognized by Frederick Twort in 19 and FelixdHerelle two years later, they have been used to study many aspects of viruses since the 1930s. They are especially common in soil, where many species of bacteria make their home.噬菌体是一类专门攻击细菌的病毒这种病毒是在19年由弗雷德里克·特沃特发现,19费力克斯·德海莱也发现该病毒自19世纪30年代以来,他们一直致力于对这种病毒的多方面研究这类病毒与细菌都生长于土壤之中,土壤是许多细菌的成长大本营Because phages disrupt the metabolism of bacteria and destroy them, it has been long recognized that they could play a role in treating a wide range of bacterial diseases. Because of the innovation of antiobiotics, though, phage therapy was mostly shelved until the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria generated a renewed interest in the field.An individual phage species is generally only effective against a small range of bacteria or even one specific species (its primary host species), which was originally seen as a disadvantage. As we have learned more about the beneficial aspects of our natural flora, though, it has come to be recognized as the advantage that it is. Unlike antibiotics, which tend to kill bacteria indiscriminately, bacteriophages can attack the disease-causing organisms without harming any other bacteria living inside us.While bacteria can develop resistance to both antibiotics and phages, it only takes a few weeks rather than a few years to develop new strains of phages. Phages can also have an easier time penetrating the body and locating their target, and once the target bacterium is destroyed, they stop reproducing and soon die out.因为噬菌体能打乱细菌的新陈代谢并破坏它们,所以科学家们意识到,噬菌体在治疗细菌性疾病方面能够发挥作用但是因为抗生素的革新,噬菌体的疗法被搁置了直到耐抗生素的病毒出现,科学家们才重新对这一领域产生兴趣一种噬菌体通常只对很小一部分的细菌有效,甚至只对一种细菌(主要宿主)有效在最初,这也被看成它的一个缺点但随着我们对自然植物特性了解的增多这却被看成了噬菌体的一个优点与抗生素任意地攻击细菌不同,噬菌体能在不伤害任何居住在我们体内细菌的情况下,攻击致病微生物虽然细菌会阻碍抗生素和噬菌体的生长,但是开发一种新的噬菌体只需花几个星期而不是几年时间,并且,噬菌体更容易穿透人体并且找到它们的目标,一旦它们的目标细菌被消灭了,这些噬菌体也会停止繁殖,并很快死亡翻译:murphy 前十网 88

  

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