江门福康泌尿专科医院泌尿科咨询大河卫生

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 江门福康泌尿专科医院泌尿科咨询赶集指南
The list of common universal complaints that most men are likely to have about women can be hilarious and fun to . Take a look at the list below and ask your man if he thinks about you the same way。 大部分男人对女人的抱怨听起来既好笑又有趣。读读下面列出的男人对女人的抱怨,然后再看看你那位是不是也这样抱怨过你吧。1. Women can never get bored of shopping女人对购物总是乐此不疲Every man in the world is likely to think that women are addicted to shopping. Men simply can’t seem to understand the meaning behind retail therapy or window shopping. They feel annoyed and frustrated because women like sampling and trying out a handful of clothes or accessories even if they are not going to buy them。几乎世上所有男人都会觉得女人是购物狂。他们搞不懂购物疗法或逛街有什么意义。就算不买,女人也总喜欢试用或试穿一堆衣配饰,男人对此感到很恼火很头大。2. Women spend money way too impulsively女人花钱太冲动Men don’t like the fact that women succumb to their whims and shell out money to buy anything that catches their fancy. Men wonder why women wouldn’t question whether they really need that thing or if that thing has any use, before they reach for their purses。男人讨厌女人总是突发奇想买些花里胡哨的东西。男人不明白,为什么女人掏腰包前,就不想想自己是不是真的需要或者东西到底有没有用?3. Women can be too demanding on men even when they are tired, have a headache or have just come back from work女人有时对男人太苛求——哪怕男人很累、头痛或刚刚下班One of men’s common complaints about women is that they can be emotionally draining on them sometimes. Men may not understand why women keep talking about problems and other silly things even when men show no interest in listening to their banter。男人对女人最常见的一个抱怨就是,女人有时会把男人当作“情感垃圾桶”。男人不明白,为什么女人总要喋喋不休讲些烦恼蠢事,哪怕男人根本就没兴趣去听她们取闹。4. Women spend too much time getting y女人花太长时间打扮For most men it is a universal truth that women spend loads of time getting y in front of the mirror, whether it is for a date, an important event at work, a social do or even a funeral. Since all men need to do is wear a fresh shirt, gel their hair and apply generous doses of deodorant, they tend to think that women take up way too much time dressing up。男人都知道,女人总喜欢在镜子前花很长时间打扮——不管是一次约会、一个重要的工作场合还是一场聚会,哪怕是参加葬礼,女人都要打扮一番。对男人来说,一件干净的衬衫、喷点发胶和香水就搞定了嘛,女人打扮起来真费时间!5. Women are too stuck up with the cleanliness of the house女人总是要屋子整洁有序Men wouldn’t mind wearing used socks or keep a wet towel on their bed. But these habits can be a big annoyance for any woman. Men are commonly seen complaining about women’s obsession with cleaning, organizing and categorizing。男人一点也不介意穿脏袜子或把湿毛巾扔床上。但女人绝对无法容忍这类“恶习”。所以呢,男人总是在抱怨女人的洁癖和井井有条。6. Women take the longest of time to make the silliest of decisions女人花很长的时间做很蠢的决定Men tend to think that women are very whimsical with decision making. On one hand, they may instantly decide never to talk to their best friend. On the other hand, they may take a few hours to decide which lipstick shade they should buy。男人普遍认为女人在做决定时非常异想天开、反复无常。有时候,她们会立马发誓永远不再跟闺蜜讲话;有时候,她们又花上几个小时讨论该用哪款唇膏。7. Women start nagging, especially after marriage结婚后女人变得唠叨不停Men feel annoyed when the women in their life start nagging them whether it is their mother, sister, girlfriend, aunt or wife. Many men are even afraid that their girlfriend may turn into a full time nagger after marriage. Women may have a compulsive nature of constantly giving instructions and men seem to hate this。男人特别讨厌身边的女人唠叨他们——老妈啦、啦、阿姨啦、女友或老婆等等。很多男人特怕女朋友结婚后变成“全职唠叨狂人”。大概女人天生就有点“好为人师”吧,但男人特讨厌这点。8. Women into things too much女人总是想太多Men are wired differently from women and they understand things better when they are direct and straightforward. They can be left baffled when women expect them to understand things that are not said or between the lines. Men hate the fact that women too much into things and deliberately create complications even when there is nothing to worry about。男人跟女人不同,他们喜欢简单直白地看问题。要是女人让他们琢磨沉默背后或字里行间潜藏的意思,那他们可要抓狂了。男人讨厌女人总是想太多,故意无中生有、莫名忧愁。9. Sometimes women take undue advantage of being female有时女人会利用性别优势Men may not say this explicitly but they may not like the fact that women are given a special advantage because of their gender. Women being offered seats in a packed bus, a drop off to wherever they need to go or a favor from their boss are the kind of things that men hold their grudges against。男人可能不会挑明,但确实讨厌女人因为性别身份而受到特殊照顾。挤公交时给女人让座、不能拒绝女人搭便车或公司要照顾女职员等等,其实都让男人心不甘情不愿。10. Women can be very moody女人有时非常情绪化A common complaint that men are known to have about women is regarding their unpredictable moods. Men may get annoyed with the fact that one moment, women are sunny and cheery and the other moment all hell could break loose。男人对女人另一个常见的抱怨就是——女人的情绪太难琢磨了!她们一会儿阳光活力,一眨眼又大发脾气、天下大乱了!男人真心受不了哇! /201308/252499China’s enrollment figures in private English as a Second Language (ESL) courses and related test preparation programs continue their longstanding high growth rates.长期以来,中国报名参加英语学习及相关考前培训的人数持续高速增长。Despite some prominent observers in the U.S. and U.K. lamenting the decline of these great countries and offering pessimistic views about the future, younger Chinese still correlate good English language ability with career success. This is sensible, practical, and smart.尽管美英两国的一些主流观察家都在哀叹美英地位的衰落,对未来充满了悲观情绪,但中国的年轻一代依然认为出众的英语能力是关乎事业成功的重要因素。这种看法非常明智和务实。An article in the Winter 2012 edition of the quarterly “City Journal” offers comparative profiles of the economic clout of the countries they describe as the “Anglosphere” (U.S., U.K., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Ireland) and those which comprise the “Sinosphere” (Greater China, including Taiwan and the Hong Kong and Macau S.A.R.s).《City Journal》2012(冬季刊)刊登了一篇文章,对所谓的“英语圈”(美、英、加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰、爱尔兰)与“汉语圈”(包括台湾、香港、在内的大中华区)的经济实力进行了一番对比。The authors, Joel Kotkin and Shashi Parulekar, take the view that despite many challenges, the Anglosphere is alive and well:该文作者Joel Kotkin和Shashi Parulekar认为,虽然英语圈面临着重重困难,但状态依然安好:It’s indisputable that the Anglosphere no longer enjoys the overwhelming global dominance that it once had. What was once a globe-spanning empire is now best understood as a union of language, culture, and shared values. Yet what declinists overlook is that despite its current economic problems, the Anglosphere’s fundamental assets — economic, political, demographic, and cultural — are likely to drive its continued global leadership. The Anglosphere future is brighter than commonly believed.英语圈曾主宰全球的时代已一去不返,这一点无可争辩。曾经一统天下的英语帝国如今只能作为语言、文化和共同价值的联合体。但“唱衰者”们忽略了一点,虽然目前经济问题重重,但英语圈的根本——经济、政治、人口、文化——仍会保持世界领先地位。英语圈的未来比人们通常认为的都更加光明。In economic terms, using purchasing power parity data, the Anglosphere remains by far the world’s largest economic bloc, representing more than 25% of world GDP.按照经济学中的购买力等价数据统计,英语圈至今仍是全球最大的经济体,代表了全球25%的GDP。The Sinosphere is a strong second, accounting for just more than 15%. India, by comparison, accounts for some 5.4% of world GDP.汉语圈势头强劲,排名第二,但GDP只占全球15%多一点。相比之下,印度在全球GDP中所占的比例为5.4%。The Anglosphere’s per capita GDP is more than 5 times that of the Sinosphere, and 13 times that of India.英语圈的人均GDP相当于汉语圈的5倍,是印度的13倍。Although the Sinosphere has experienced explosive growth in the number of companies large enough in revenue terms to make the FORTUNE Global 500 list, it still has a long way to go in terms of having big global companies which are also widely admired for their innovation, their values, governance and management style.虽然汉语圈按公司收入能跻身《财富》世界500强的大企业在数量上经历了爆炸性的增长,但想要拥有在创新、价值观、公司治理、管理方式等各方面都广受尊重的大型跨国企业,该地区还有很长的路要走。Due in part to educational and legal infrastructure (e.g. intellectual property protection), the Anglosphere is home to the vast majority of the world’s software, biotech, and aerospace companies – industries where R amp; D and innovation are crucial elements of success.考虑到教育和法律基础建设(如:知识产权保护)的缘故,世界主要软件、生物技术和航天企业多选择在英语圈落户,因为这些行业的成功很大程度上取决于研发和创新。In countries lacking an adequate intellectual property rights protection regime, for example, companies will not invest the huge sums required to develop big new high-tech products. The current estimated average investment in R amp; D to develop a major new pharmaceutical product is in the range of US billion.例如,在缺乏适当知识产权保护的国家,企业不会投巨资开发大型高新科技产品。目前开发一剂重点新药的平均投资预计应在10亿美元左右。The article also states that some 40% of Europeans speak English versus 19% who speak French; while pointing out that English has been formally or informally embraced as an important language of business and science in many developing countries, including India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa. Obviously this phenomenon is rooted in large part to a legacy of the colonial era, but English has survived the test of time for practical reasons. That is unlikely to change any time soon.文章还指出,欧洲人中有40%会讲英语,但只有19%会说法语;同时还指出,在包括印度、马来西亚、巴基斯坦、孟加拉、尼日利亚、肯尼亚、南非在内的一些发展中国家,英语在商务和科学领域中被正式或非正式地作为重要语言。当然,这种现象很大程度上带有殖民时代的烙印,但英语凭借其实用性还是经历住了时间的考验,而且这种状况在短时间内不会有所改变。One other factor which the authors cite as a positive force for relative Anglosphere economic growth is demographics. Between 2000 and 2050, the US workforce is projected to grow by 37%. During the same time frame, due to aging, China’s workforce is projected to shrink by 10%, and Japan’s by 40%.作者提到另一个促进英语圈经济增长的积极因素是人口。从2000年至2050年,美国的劳动力预计将增长37%,而同期中国的劳动力将减少10%,日本将减少40%。Immigration trends are also a contributing factor, During the past ten years, 14 million people immigrated legally to the Anglosphere. In 2005 alone, among the top ten countries around the world in terms of immigrant arrivals, the US accepted more new immigrants than the next nine countries combined.个中缘由少不了提到移民潮。过去十年,前往英语圈的合法移民达到1,400万人。2005年在全世界接纳移民最多的十个国家中,美国接纳的移民数量超过了另外九个国家的总和。The moral of the story is that for young people in China considering their career plans, good abilities in both English and Chinese language will be extremely valuable assets no matter which direction they want to go.由此可见,对那些正在规划职业道路的中国年轻人来说,无论朝哪个方向发展,良好的中、英文语言能力都极具价值。One more word of advice to my younger friends: first and second language studies do not end with graduation. That’s really where they begin. So, study hard, and be prepared to keep it up for your whole lifetime. The time and effort invested will produce some of the best dividends you can imagine.我还要多劝年轻朋友们一句:学习母语也好,外语也好,都不能以毕业作为终点,其实那只是起点而已。要时刻努力,并作好终身学习的准备。你投入的时间和精力会为你带来可以想见的最好的回报。 /201302/226623

Fugitive National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden may have few choices about where he can live, but he suddenly has a number of options about who he can marry.在逃的美国国家安全局(National Security Agency)承包商员工爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)在何处安身的问题上或许没什么选择余地,但对于能娶个什么人,他一下子有了诸多选择。Superstar Russian spy Anna Chapman has professed her love for the admitted leaker of highly classified details of U.S. surveillance programs.超级明星、俄罗斯间谍查普曼(Anna Chapman)已经向斯诺登示爱。斯诺登曾承认是美国监控项目高度机密信息的泄密者。“Snowden, will you marry me?!” the 31-year-old femme fatale wrote on Twitter.这位31岁的美女在推特(Twitter)上写道:斯诺登,你愿意娶我吗?She later asked, “NSA, will you look after our children?”她后来问道:美国国家安全局,你们会照顾我们的孩子吗?When asked by email if she was serious, Ms. Chapman told the Wall Street Journal “you are welcome to use your imagination.”当《华尔街日报》的记者通过电子邮件问她是否是认真的,查普曼说,你们尽可以发挥自己的想象力。On the flip side of the political spectrum, opposition activist Maria Baranova chimed in hours later with a similar offer.政治立场与查普曼对立的反对派活动人士巴拉诺娃(Maria Baranova)在几个小时后也向斯诺登示爱。“I would also like to offer Snowden my heart and mostly my passport! Edward! Marry Me!” she also posted on Twitter. She later said hinted to this newspaper that she may not have been 100% serious.她还在推特上写道:我还想把我的心和我的护照献给斯诺登!爱德华!娶我吧!她后来向《华尔街日报》暗示说,她可能并非100%的认真。Mr. Snowden, 30 years old, has been trapped in the transit zone of Moscow’s Sheremetyevo International Airport since arriving on a flight from Hong Kong on June 23, two days after U.S. authorities has unsealed a criminal indictment charging him with espionage.30岁的斯诺登自6月23日从香港飞抵莫斯科以来,一直困在莫斯科谢列梅捷沃国际机场(Sheremetyevo International Airport)的过境区。在他飞抵莫斯科的两天前,美国当局公布了指控其犯有间谍罪的刑事起诉书。He left behind a fiancé and 0,000 a year job with government contractor Booz Allen Hamilton when he decided to flee the ed States before turning details of the program over to reporters.当初他决定逃离美国、向记者披露美国国家安全局监控项目的细节时,抛在身后的是一位未婚妻和一份在政府承包商思艾伦公司(Booz Allen Hamilton)年薪20万美元的工作。Ms. Chapman was tossed out of the ed States with nine other Russia spies in 2010. Since then she has been a minor celebrity in Russia, getting jobs as a model, a spokesperson. Most recently she has hosted a show on Russian television called “Secrets of the World.”2010年,查普曼与另外九名俄罗斯间谍被美国驱逐出境。她的发言人说,之后她在俄罗斯一直小有名气,做起了模特的工作。最近,她在俄罗斯电视台上主持一档名为“世界的秘密”(Secrets of the World)的节目。Hours after offering her hand in marriage, REN-TV, which broadcasts her show, posted an “exclusive” teaser on its Facebook page promising to show “Anna Chapman hunting for Snowden at Sheremetyevo.” The link, however, was to a YouTube promo for her show from April in which she subdues several masked men in a shadowy corridor.在查普曼示爱几个小时后,播出其节目的电视台REN-TV在Facebook页面上发布了“独家”预告片,承诺将播出查普曼在谢列梅捷沃国际机场搜寻斯诺登的过程。不过,链接转到了4月份YouTube 上她的节目的宣传片。在片中,她在一条昏暗的走廊中制了数名蒙面男子。 /201307/247226Who is smarter: a person or an ape? Well, it depends on the task. Consider Ayumu, a young male chimpanzee at Kyoto University who, in a 2007 study, put human memory to shame. Trained on a touch screen, Ayumu could recall a random series of nine numbers, from 1 to 9, and tap them in the right order, even though the numbers had been displayed for just a fraction of a second and then replaced with white squares.人猿相比,谁更聪明?这个问题取决于比较的是什么方面。比如说在日本京都大学(Kyoto University)2007年的一项研究中,一只名为“步”(Ayumu)的雄性小黑猩猩的就让人类自愧不如。步通过一块触摸屏接受训练,它能够记得由一到九任意组合而成的一组共九个数字,并能以正确的顺序在屏幕上把它们点出来,尽管这些数字只显示了短短一瞬间便被白色的方格所取代。I tried the task myself and could not keep track of more than five numbers -- and I was given much more time than the brainy ape. In the study, Ayumu outperformed a group of university students by a wide margin. The next year, he took on the British memory champion Ben Pridmore and emerged the #39;chimpion.#39;我自己也尝试了这项测试,但我能回忆起的数字不超过五个──尽管我获得的时间比那只聪明的黑猩猩要长得多。在这项研究中,步的表现也比一群京都大学的学生好出一大截。它在第二年还战胜了来自英国的记忆测试冠军──本?普里德莫尔(Ben Pridmore),一举成为“猩猩冠军”。How do you give a chimp -- or an elephant or an octopus or a horse -- an IQ test? It may sound like the setup to a joke, but it is actually one of the thorniest questions facing science today. Over the past decade, researchers on animal cognition have come up with some ingenious solutions to the testing problem. Their findings have started to upend a view of humankind#39;s unique place in the universe that dates back at least to ancient Greece.你会如何对黑猩猩、大象、章鱼、马进行智商测试?这听起来可能像是故意开玩笑,其实它是科学界当下面临的最棘手的难题之一。过去十年间,研究动物认知能力的科研人员想出了一些有独创性的解决方法。他们的发现开始逆转至少可追溯至古希腊时期的有关人类在宇宙中的独特位置的看法。Aristotle#39;s idea of the scala naturae, the ladder of nature, put all life-forms in rank order, from low to high, with humans closest to the angels. During the Enlightenment, the French philosopher Rene Descartes, a founder of modern science, declared that animals were soulless automatons. In the 20th century, the American psychologist B.F. Skinner and his followers took up the same theme, painting animals as little more than stimulus-response machines. Animals might be capable of learning, they argued, but surely not of thinking and feeling. The term#39;animal cognition#39; remained an oxymoron.亚里士多德(Aristotle)的“自然阶梯”(scalanaturae)理念将所有生命形式按从低到高的顺序进行排列,其中人类的排序最接近天神。在启蒙运动时期,作为现代科学鼻祖之一的法国哲学家勒奈?笛卡尔(Rene Descartes)声称动物是没有灵魂的机械物。到了20世纪,美国心理学家B.F.斯金纳(B.F. Skinner)及其追随者也是同样的论调,将动物描绘得只比会应激做出反应的机器稍好一些。他们认为动物或许具有学习能力,但是肯定不具备思考和感觉的能力。如此一来,“动物认知”一词一直是个存有矛盾的词。A growing body of evidence shows, however, that we have grossly underestimated both the scope and the scale of animal intelligence. Can an octopus use tools? Do chimpanzees have a sense of fairness? Can birds guess what others know? Do rats feel empathy for their friends? Just a few decades ago we would have answered #39;no#39; to all such questions. Now we#39;re not so sure.然而,越来越多的据表明我们严重低估了动物智能的广度和程度。章鱼会运用工具吗?黑猩猩具有公平感吗?鸟儿能够猜到其他鸟儿知道的事情吗?老鼠对同类有同情心吗?就在几十年前,我们对所有这些问题的回答可能都是否定的,现在我们则没有那么确定了。Experiments with animals have long been handicapped by our anthropocentric attitude: We often test them in ways that work fine with humans but not so well with other species. Scientists are now finally meeting animals on their own terms instead of treating them like furry (or feathery) humans, and this shift is fundamentally reshaping our understanding.长期以来,动物实验都受到我们以人类为中心的态度的阻碍。我们常常以非常适合人类但不是那么适合其他物种的方法对它们进行测试。现在,科学家们终于根据动物自身的情况来对待它们,不再把它们当作毛茸茸(或是长着羽毛)的人类,这个转变从根本上重塑了我们对动物的看法。Elephants are a perfect example. For years, scientists believed them incapable of using tools. At most, an elephant might pick up a stick to scratch its itchy behind. In earlier studies, the pachyderms were offered a long stick while food was placed outside their reach to see if they would use the stick to retrieve it. This setup worked well with primates, but elephants left the stick alone. From this, researchers concluded that the elephants didn#39;t understand the problem. It occurred to no one that perhaps we, the investigators, didn#39;t understand the elephants.大象就是一个绝佳的例子。多年来,科学家们认为大象不能使用工具,它可能最多只会捡起根棍子挠挠发痒的后背。在早前的研究中,研究人员将食物放在大象够不着的地方,然后给它们一根长棍子,看它们是否会用它取到食物。这个实验的设计非常适合灵长类动物,但是大象却无视棍子的存在。于是乎,研究人员由此得出结论称大象不理解问题的要领。然而,没有人意识到可能是我们这些科研人员不了解大象。Think about the test from the animal#39;s perspective. Unlike the primate hand, the elephant#39;s grasping organ is also its nose. Elephants use their trunks not only to reach food but also to sniff and touch it. With their unparalleled sense of smell, the animals know exactly what they are going for. Vision is secondary.从大象的角度想想这个实验吧。与用手的灵长类动物不同,大象抓取物体的器官也是它的鼻子。它们不仅用鼻子抓取食物,也用它来闻嗅和触碰食物。凭借其无与伦比的嗅觉,大象确知自己拿的是什么,视觉对它们来说是次要的。But as soon as an elephant picks up a stick, its nasal passages are blocked. Even when the stick is close to the food, it impedes feeling and smelling. It is like sending a blindfolded child on an Easter egg hunt.一旦捡起棍子,大象的鼻腔通道马上就会被堵塞,所以即便棍子就在食物近旁,它也会阻碍大象的感觉和嗅觉。这就像蒙住小孩的眼睛让他去找复活节蛋一样。What sort of experiment, then, would do justice to the animal#39;s special anatomy and abilities?那么,什么类型的实验对大象的特殊身体构造和能力来说是公平的呢?On a recent visit to the National Zoo in Washington, I met with Preston Foerder and Diana Reiss of Hunter College, who showed me what Kandula, a young elephant bull, can do if the problem is presented differently. The scientists hung fruit high up above the enclosure, just out of Kandula#39;s reach. The elephant was given several sticks and a sturdy square box.在最近一次造访位于华盛顿的国家动物园时,笔者与亨特学院(Hunter College)的普雷斯顿?福尔德(Preston Foerder)和黛安娜?瑞斯(Diana Reiss)见了面。他们向我展示,如果用不同的方式提出问题,一头名为“坎杜拉”(Kandula)的小公象都会做些什么。他们将水果高高地挂在坎杜拉刚好够不着的象舍的上方,然后给了它几根棍子和一个坚固的方形箱子。Kandula ignored the sticks but, after a while, began kicking the box with his foot. He kicked it many times in a straight line until it was right underneath the branch. He then stood on the box with his front legs, which enabled him to reach the food with his trunk. An elephant, it turns out, can use tools -- if they are the right ones.坎杜拉没有碰那些棍子,过了一会儿之后,它开始用脚踢箱子。它沿着直线方向踢了很多次箱子,直到把箱子踢到树枝的正下方为止,然后便把前腿搭在了箱子上,这样一来它就能用鼻子够着那些水果了。事实明,大象也会使用工具──只要它们是适当的工具。While Kandula munched his reward, the investigators explained how they had varied the setup, making life more difficult for the elephant. They had put the box in a different section of the yard, out of view, so that when Kandula looked up at the tempting food he would need to recall the solution and walk away from his goal to fetch the tool. Apart from a few large-brained species, such as humans, apes and dolphins, not many animals will do this, but Kandula did it without hesitation, fetching the box from great distances.在坎杜拉大声咀嚼战利品的同时,研究人员说他们曾改变实验的设计,加大了坎杜拉获得食物的难度。他们把箱子放在院子中一个不在坎杜拉视线范围内的区域,这样一来当它看着充满诱惑的食物时,它需要回忆起解决办法,然后离开目标去取工具。除了人类、猿类和海豚等脑袋较大的物种之外,能够做到这一点的动物并不多,但是坎杜拉毫不犹豫地采取行动,从很远的距离取来了箱子。Another failed experiment with elephants involved the mirror test -- a classic evaluation of whether an animal recognizes its own reflection. In the early going, scientists placed a mirror on the ground outside the elephant#39;s cage, but the mirror was (unsurprisingly) much smaller than the largest of land animals. All that the elephant could possibly see was four legs behind two layers of bars (since the mirror doubled them). When the animal received a mark on its body visible only with the assistance of the mirror, it failed to notice or touch the mark. The verdict was that the species lacked self-awareness.另一个与大象有关的失败实验是镜像测试,这个经典的测试可评判动物是否认得出自己在镜子中的形象。在早期的实验中,科研人员在象笼外的地面上放了一面镜子,但是这面镜子(毫不意外地)比这个陆地上的最大动物要小得多。大象有可能看到的所有东西只是两层栏杆(因为镜子的反射使栏杆变成了两层)后的自己的四条腿。当它的身体被做上只能借助镜子才能看到的记号时,它没能注意到或是触碰那个记号,于是研究人员下结论称大象缺乏自我意识。But Joshua Plotnik of the Think Elephant International Foundation modified the test. He gave the elephants access to an 8-by-8-foot mirror and allowed them to feel it, smell it and look behind it. With this larger mirror, they fared much better. One Asian elephant recognized herself. Standing in front of the mirror, she repeatedly rubbed a white cross on her forehead, an action that she could only have performed by connecting her reflected image with her own body.不过,非盈利组织Think Elephant International Foundation的乔舒亚?普罗特尼克(Joshua Plotnik)修正了这个实验。他给大象提供的是一面长宽均为八英尺(约合2.4米)的镜子,允许它们去触摸它、用鼻子闻它、从镜子后看它。有了这面更大的镜子,大象们的表现要好了很多。有一只母亚洲象认出了自己,它站在镜子前,不停地擦着额头上一个白色的十字架记号,她只有把自己在镜子中的形象与自己的身体联系起来才可能做出这一举动。A similar experimental problem was behind the mistaken belief, prevalent until two decades ago, that our species has a unique system of facial recognition, since we are so much better at identifying faces than any other primate. Other primates had been tested, but they had been tested on human faces -- based on the assumption that ours are the easiest to tell apart.这个认为我们人类具有一个独特的面部识别体系(因为我们在面部识别方面比其他灵长类动物的表现要好得多)、直到20年前还很盛行的错误理念的背后也存在一个相同的实验设计问题。尽管其他灵长类动物也接受了测试,但是它们的对象是人脸──这一设计的假设是我们人脸是最容易识别的。When Lisa Parr, one of my co-workers at Emory University, tested chimpanzees on portraits of their own species, they excelled at it. Selecting portraits on a computer screen, they could even tell which juveniles were born to which females. Having been trained to detect similarities among images, the apes were shown a female#39;s portrait and then given a choice between two other faces, one of which showed her offspring. They preferred the latter based purely on family resemblance since they did not know any of the depicted apes.我在埃默里大学(Emory University)的同事丽莎?帕尔(Lisa Parr)测试了黑猩猩对其同类的肖像的识别能力。它们在电脑屏幕上选择肖像时甚至还能分辨出哪些小黑猩猩是哪些母猩猩的孩子。研究人员对这些黑猩猩进行了识别肖像相似处的训练,然后向它们展示一幅母猩猩的肖像,随后又让它们在另外两幅脸部肖像(其中一幅肖像中的猩猩为母猩猩的孩子)之间做出选择。它们是完全根据家族相似性选出母猩猩孩子的那幅像的,因为它们并不认识画像中的那几只猩猩。We also may need to rethink the physiology of intelligence. Take the octopus. In captivity, these animals recognize their caretakers and learn to open pill bottles protected by childproof caps -- a task with which many humans struggle. Their brains are indeed the largest among invertebrates, but the explanation for their extraordinary skills may lie elsewhere. It seems that these animals think, literally, outside the box of the brain.我们或许还需重新思考有关智力的生理因素。以章鱼为例,它们在被人工饲养时认得饲养它们的人,并学会了打开带防止儿童开启的安全瓶盖的药瓶,这件事情很多人都难以办到。章鱼的脑袋在无脊椎动物中确实是最大的,但是能够解释它们这些非凡能力的或许另有原因。这种动物似乎的的确确是不经大脑思考的。Octopuses have hundreds of suckers, each one equipped with its own ganglion with thousands of neurons. These #39;mini-brains#39; are interconnected, making for a widely distributed nervous system. That is why a severed octopus arm may crawl on its own and even pick up food.章鱼有几百个吸盘,每个吸盘都各有含数千条神经的神经节。这些“迷你大脑”互相连通,构成了一个分布广泛的神经系统,这也是章鱼一条被砍断的腕足可能会独自爬行甚至是捡取食物的原因所在。Similarly, when an octopus changes skin color in self-defense, such as by mimicking a poisonous sea snake, the decision may come not from central command but from the skin itself. A 2010 study found gene sequences in the skin of cuttlefish similar to those in the eye#39;s retina. Could it be: an organism with a seeing skin and eight thinking arms?同样地,当章鱼变化肤色进行自我防卫,比如拟态成有毒的海蛇时,这个决定或许并不是来自作为指挥中心的大脑,而是来自皮肤本身。2010年的一项研究在乌贼的皮肤中发现了类似眼睛视网膜的基因序列。那么章鱼是否是一种皮肤具有视觉能力、八条腕足具有思维能力的生物体呢?A note of caution, however: At times we also have overestimated the capacities of animals. About a century ago, a German horse named #39;Kluger Hans#39; (Clever Hans) was thought to be capable of addition and subtraction. His owner would ask him the product of multiplying four by three, and Hans would happily tap his hoof 12 times. People were flabbergasted, and Hans became an international sensation.不过,这里还是要提醒一句,有时候我们也会高估动物的能力。大约在一个世纪前,德国一匹名为“聪明汉斯”(Kluger Hans)的马儿被人认为能够进行加减运算。其主人问它四乘以三等于多少时,它会欢快地轻踏12下蹄子。大家对此大吃一惊,而汉斯也成为了引起世界性轰动的明星。That is, until Oskar Pfungst, a psychologist, investigated the horse#39;s abilities. Pfungst found that Hans was only successful if his owner knew the answer to the question and was visible to the horse. Apparently, the owner subtly shifted his position or straightened his back when Hans reached the correct number of taps. (The owner did so unknowingly, so there was no fraud involved.)这种情况直到心理学家奥斯卡?芬斯特(Oskar Pfungst)对汉斯的智能进行调查之后才发生改变。芬斯特发现,只有在其主人知道问题的并且在其可见范围之内时,汉斯才能答对题目。显然,当汉斯轻踏蹄子的次数达到正确数字时,主人就会微微地改变姿势或是直起背来。(其主人是在不知情的情况下这么做的,因此也不涉及到欺诈。)Some look at this historic revelation as a downgrading of Hans#39;s intelligence, but I would argue that the horse was in fact very smart. His abilities at arithmetic may have been flawed, but his understanding of human body language was remarkable. And isn#39;t that the skill a horse needs most?有些人认为,这个有历史意义的真相的暴露表明汉斯的智力不是那么高,不过笔者倒是认为这匹马实际上非常聪明。它的算数能力或许不尽如人意,但是它对人类身体语言的理解是非同寻常的。这难道不正是一匹马最需要具备的能力吗?Awareness of the #39;Clever Hans Effect, #39; as it is now known, has greatly improved animal experimentation. Unfortunately, it is often ignored in comparable research with humans. Whereas every dog lab now tests the cognition of its animals while their human owners are blindfolded or asked to face away, young children are still presented with cognitive tasks while sitting on their mothers#39; laps. The assumption is that mothers are like furniture, but every mother wants her child to succeed, and nothing guarantees that her sighs, head turns and subtle changes in position don#39;t serve as cues for the child.对现今被人称为“聪明的汉斯效应”的意识促使动物实验得到了极大改进。遗憾的是,这一点在类似的人类实验中常常遭到忽视。现如今,尽管每个动物实验室在测试动物的认知能力时都要把它们主人的眼睛蒙上或是要求他们把脸转向别处,在对人类儿童进行认知测试时,儿童却是坐在母亲的腿上接受测试的。这一举措的假设是母亲所起的作用就像家具,但是每位母亲都希望自己的孩子成功,没法保她的叹息、转头动作或是细微的姿势变化不会成为对孩子的暗示。This is especially relevant when we try to establish how smart apes are relative to children. To see how their cognitive skills compare, scientists present both species with identical problems, treating them exactly the same. At least this is the idea. But the children are held by their parents and talked to (#39;Watch this!#39; #39;Where is the bunny?#39;), and they are dealing with members of their own kind. The apes, by contrast, sit behind bars, don#39;t benefit from language or a nearby parent who knows the answers, and are facing members of a different species. The odds are massively stacked against the apes, but if they fail to perform like the children, the invariable conclusion is that they lack the mental capacities under investigation.当我们尝试去确认聪明的猿类与人类儿童相比有多聪明时,这一点就更是关系重大。为了了解这二者的认知能力相比如何,科研人员以完全平等的方式对待他们,向他们提出一模一样的问题──至少在科研人员看来是如此。然而,儿童往往有父母抱着或是有人对他们说话(比如说“看这个!”“小兔子在哪里呢?”),而且他们与之打交道的是自己的同类。相比之下,猿类往往坐在栏杆后,没有任何语言上的帮助,身旁也没有知道的父母可提供帮助,而且它们面对的是另一个物种。因此,取胜形势对猿类来说是极其不利的,但是如果它们未能像人类儿童表现的那么好,结论始终都是它们缺乏研究人员所调查的心智能力。A recent study, tracking the pupil movements of chimpanzees, found that they followed the gaze of members of their own species far better than that of humans. This simple finding has huge implications for tests in which chimpanzees need to pay attention to human experimenters. The species barrier they face may fully explain the difference in performance compared with children.近期一项跟踪黑猩猩瞳孔转动的研究发现,黑猩猩对同类目光的追随要比对人类目光的追随好得多。这个简单的发现对黑猩猩需要注意人类实验人员的测试具有巨大的影响。它们所面临的物种壁垒或许能够完全解释它们与人类儿童相比时表现的差距。Underlying many of our mistaken beliefs about animal intelligence is the problem of negative evidence. If I walk through a forest in Georgia, where I live, and fail to see or hear the pileated woodpecker, am I permitted to conclude that the bird is absent? Of course not. We know how easily these splendid woodpeckers hop around tree trunks to stay out of sight. All I can say is that I lack evidence.我们关于动物智能的许多错误观念的深层原因在于反这个问题。假如我在我所居住的佐治亚州穿过某个树林时没有看到北美黑啄木鸟或听到它的声音,我是不是就可以说这种鸟不存在呢?当然不能了。我们都知道这些美丽的啄木鸟能够在树干之间轻松地跳来跳去躲开人的视线。我只能够说我缺乏据。It is quite puzzling, therefore, why the field of animal cognition has such a long history of claims about the absence of capacities based on just a few strolls through the forest. Such conclusions contradict the famous dictum of experimental psychology according to which #39;absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.#39;因此,在动物认知领域中,人们仅仅在森林中溜达几步便声称动物缺乏某些能力的历史为何如此之长令人相当费解。此类结论与实验心理学中“找不到据不代表据不存在”的著名格言相悖。Take the question of whether we are the only species to care about the well-being of others. It is well known that apes in the wild offer spontaneous assistance to each other, defending against leopards, say, or consoling distressed companions with tender embraces. But for decades, these observations were ignored, and more attention was paid to experiments according to which the apes were entirely selfish. They had been tested with an apparatus to see if one chimpanzee was willing to push food toward another. But perhaps the apes failed to understand the apparatus. When we instead used a simple choice between tokens they could exchange for food -- one kind of token rewarded only the chooser, the other kind rewarded both apes -- lo and behold, they preferred outcomes that rewarded both of them.以我们人类是否是唯一一个关心别的同类好不好的物种这个问题为例。众所周知,猿类在野外会主动互相帮助,比如说防备豹子或是用温柔的拥抱来安慰情绪低落的同伴。但是,数十年来这些现象都被忽视了,人们更关注的是那些认为猿类完全是自私的实验。研究人员在试验中利用某种器材对黑猩猩进行实验,查看它是否愿意把食物推给另一只黑猩猩。不过,这些黑猩猩不愿这么做也许只是因为它们对那种器材没有概念。当我们转而采用简单的选择,要它们在两个可以用来换取食物的标记中──其中一个标记只奖赏做出选择的猩猩,另一个则同时奖赏两只猩猩──做出选择,你瞧,它们会选择同时奖励它们二者的那个标记。Such generosity, moreover, may not be restricted to apes. In a recent study, rats freed a trapped companion even when a container with chocolate had been put right next to it. Many rats first liberated the other, after which both rodents happily shared the treat.此外,这种大度不仅仅体现在猿类身上。在最近一项研究中,即便身旁放了一个装有巧克力的容器,老鼠还是会去解救受困的同伴。许多老鼠会先解救同伴,在这之后才一同高兴地享用巧克力。The one historical constant in my field is that each time a claim of human uniqueness bites the dust, other claims quickly take its place. Meanwhile, science keeps chipping away at the wall that separates us from the other animals. We have moved from viewing animals as instinct-driven stimulus-response machines to seeing them as sophisticated decision makers.在我的研究领域,一个一成不变的历史现象是,每当有表明人类独特性的言论被推翻,其他相关言论就会迅速取而代之。与此同时,科学在不断地慢慢消除将我们与其他动物隔离的围 。我们已从把动物视为受直觉推动的应激反应机械发展到把它们视为可以做出决策的高级物种。Aristotle#39;s ladder of nature is not just being flattened; it is being transformed into a bush with many branches. This is no insult to human superiority. It is long-overdue recognition that intelligent life is not something for us to seek in the outer reaches of space but is abundant right here on earth, under our noses.亚里士多德的自然阶梯不是被简单地夷平了,而是正在被转变为拥有许许多多分的一丛灌木。这绝非是对人类优越性的亵渎。智能生命并不是需要我们去外太空寻找的东西,它就大量存在于地球之上,存在于我们的眼皮底下,然而这个认识来得太迟了。 /201305/237624

I have recently come to a useful conclusion about my weight and eating habits. My desire to be skinny is overpowered by my love of good food, including chocolate.关于我的饮食习惯和体重我最近得到一个有用的结论。我要变瘦的渴望被美食诱惑所击败了,包括巧克力。Now, I#39;m not obese or fat. I#39;m just not skinny. Maybe you could call me pudgy or plump. I#39;m the girl people say would look really good if I lost ten pounds or so.现在,我并不肥胖或脂肪多。我只是没那么瘦。也许你可以形容我胖乎乎的或丰满。如果我减了十磅左右人们会说看起来真好看,我是那种女孩。And I#39;ve lost weight before. I#39;ve been on diets. In the summer between tenth and eleventh grade I went cold turkey and stopped eating junk food. No candy, ice cream, soda or even pizza all summer. I noticed a change. My stomach was flatter. It didn#39;t stick out. My face got thinner and I didn#39;t worry about having a double chin when I smiled.之前我也减了一些。我一直在节食。在高一和高二之间的那年夏天我用冷火鸡法,停止食用垃圾食品。一整个夏天没有糖果、冰淇淋、汽水甚至披萨。我注意到一个变化。我的肚子是平的。它没有突出来。我的脸瘦了,我不再担心微笑时有一个双下巴了。But when I went back to school, not eating junk became a lot harder and I fell back into my old habits: eating what I felt like when I felt like it. Which is what I#39;m still doing now, a year and a half later.但是当我回到学校,不吃垃圾食品变得困难得多,我又回到了我的老习惯:想吃什么就吃什么。一年半之后,现在我还是这么做的。I#39;ve tried to diet since that summer. My friend and I devised a system where we could have two treats a week. For her it worked great. I learned that I was better doing all or nothing. Saying no to all sweets wasn#39;t fun, but at least I didn#39;t have to decide if I wanted to waste one of my week#39;s treats on the chocolate cake or wait and have a bag of chips. And did drinking a cup of soda count as one treat or did a full bottle count as one? And what about two chocolate chip cookies eaten at the same time?从那个夏天之后我试图饮食。我和我的朋友设计了一个方法,我们一周可以有两顿好吃的。她非常的顺利。我知道我要么不吃要么就放开吃才更好。拒绝所有的糖果并不好玩,但至少我不用决定我是否该将我一周两次零食中的一次浪费在巧克力蛋糕上或等着吃一袋薯片。喝一杯苏打水算一次还是一整瓶算一次?那一次吃两块巧克力饼干呢?All that thinking was too much work for someone like me. So that plan didn#39;t last long, at least for me. Since then I#39;ve been trying to avoid thinking about my diet. (I don#39;t do well thinking too much.) I eat more vegetables and fruit, and since that summer I#39;ve switched to eating whole wheat b for my sandwiches, though I don#39;t go as far as ordering whole wheat pizza. Because, come on, if you#39;re eating pizza, who do you think you#39;re kidding when you order whole wheat? It#39;s still not healthy. And in my opinion, if you#39;re aly going to be feeling guilty about eating pizza, you might as well enjoy it to the fullest.所有的思考对我这样的人来说都是太多的工作。所以计划并没有持续多久,至少于我来说。此后,我一直试图避免思考我的饮食。(我不擅长考虑太多。)我多吃蔬菜和水果,自从那个夏天我用全麦面包代替三明治,虽然我并没有到要订购全麦比萨的地步。好吧,因为如果你吃披萨,当你订全麦面包时你以为你是在骗谁?它仍然是不健康的。在我看来,如果你已经因吃了披萨而感觉愧疚,你不妨尽情地享受它。A few weeks ago, I came to the #172;realization that I liked being able to eat what I want and don#39;t like obsessing over calories and carbs. I#39;d liked this more than I want to be thin, or slender, or ten pounds lighter. Sure, I#39;d feel more self-confident if I didn#39;t think that certain shirts made me look pregnant. And yeah, I#39;d love to wear a bikini and not think about my thighs. But I don#39;t like stressing about everything I put in my mouth.几周前,我意识到我喜欢想吃什么就吃什么,不喜欢纠结于热量和碳水化合物。相比我想要更薄、更纤细或轻十磅,我更喜欢这个想法。当然,如果我不认为某些衬衫使我看起来像妇,我会感到更自信。是的,我喜欢穿比基尼,不用考虑我的大腿。但我不喜欢为放进我嘴里的每份食物而感到压力。I#39;d like to exercise more, but I#39;ve stopped beating myself up every time I#39;ve meant to go running and decided in the end that I was too busy or too tired or just plain feeling lazy.我想多锻炼,但每次我打算去跑步时就停止了战胜自我,最后决定我太忙或太累或只是简单地觉得懒洋洋的。Looking at my friends, I see that we come in all shapes and sizes. And I#39;m sure that no one is entirely happy with the way they look. Everyone wants to change something. So do I, but I#39;m not going to let that take over my life anymore. So for the time being, I will continue to drink hot chocolate when I#39;m cold, and I#39;ll never turn down a piece of birthday cake. And as for losing those ten pounds? Maybe I#39;ll try again next year.看着我的朋友,我看到我们形态不一。而且我相信没有人完全满意自己的外表。每个人都想改变一些事情。我也一样,但我不会让那些占据我的生活。所以目前我寒冷时将继续喝热巧克力,我永远不会拒绝一块生日蛋糕。至于减掉那十英镑?也许明年我会再试一次。 /201306/243584Garden Islands花园群岛AZORES // Pico is the second-largest island in the Azores, with a unique topography defined by terraced hillside vineyards. These distinctive stone-walled lots are a Unesco World Heritage Site, rich with volcanic soil and densely planted with white Verdelho wine grapes. Fall marks the start of festival season here--capped in October by the annual food festival, where free-flowing Verdelho is served with local cheeses and charcuterie.亚速尔群岛(AZORES) //皮科(Pico)是亚速尔群岛第二大岛屿,它拥有独特地形,以梯田状的葡萄园区为主。这些特色鲜明的石垒 是联合国教科文组织世界遗产(Unesco World Heritage Site) ,它们富含火山土,上面密集地种植着酿造华帝露(Verdelho)干白酒所需的葡萄。秋季标志着此地佳节的开始——10月份将举办一年一度的美食节,到时会提供自由畅饮的华帝露酒以及当地的奶酪和猪肉熟食。ITALY // The Lake Region is best-known as the stomping ground of cinematic royalty. But Lake Como and Maggiore#39;s real stars are the island gardens developed over centuries by the region#39;s actual aristocracy. On Isola Bella, the Borromeo family has created a garden compound so fanciful it appears like a floating wedding cake. The nearby Villa Balbianello, set on a 12-hectare isthmus, pairs protected woods with meticulously tended gardens and elegant architecture.意大利 // 湖区(Lake Region)作为影片中皇室的落脚点而闻名于世。但科莫湖(Lake Como)和马焦雷湖(Maggiore)真正的明星是几个世纪以来由这一地区真正的贵族打理形成的岛屿花园。在美丽岛(Isola Bella)上,罗梅奥(Borromeo)家族已建立了一座梦幻的花园群区,它看起来就像一块漂浮的婚礼蛋糕。附近的巴比安内罗别墅(Villa Balbianello)坐落在12英亩(约合4.9公顷)的地峡上,它还坐拥起保护作用的树林、精心打理的花园与雅致的建筑。SPAIN // It#39;s easy to dismiss the Canary Islands as a package-tourism no man#39;s land. But that would mean missing out on the archipelago#39;s lush tropical landscapes and increasingly upscale waterfront resorts. Enjoy both at the Abama Golf and Resort ( abamahotelresort.com ), set on a cliff above a private slice of sandy shoreline. The 18-hole golf course is enlivened with over 25, 000 palm trees and hundreds of semitropical plants.西班牙 // 人们容易将加那利群岛(Canary Islands)视为组团旅游项目中的一处无人区而不予考虑。但这意味着将错过这些群岛上繁茂的热带植被景观以及不断增长的高档海滨度假村。在阿巴马高尔夫度假酒店(Abama Golf and Resort, 网址:abamahotelresort.com)享受前述两种景观吧。该酒店坐落在沙滩海岸线私人片区的一处悬崖之上。25,000多颗棕榈树和成千上百种亚热带植物给这片18洞的高尔夫球场增添了生机。Summer Sun夏日阳光TURKEY // The Aegean Riviera continues to rev up its boho bona fides as artists and designers join moguls and media makers along its crystalline coastline. The area#39;s latest gathering spot is the hamlet of Alacati, near Izmir. This season#39;s best beds are found at La Capria, a 20-room hotel with Moroccan-meets-Mediterranean furnishings and its own 25-meter gulet for island hopping in the late-summer sun. lacapriasuitehotel.com土耳其 // 随着众多艺术家与设计师加入到滑雪行列、媒体制造商来到其水晶般清澈透明的海岸线,爱琴海里维埃拉(Riviera)的波西米亚风潮继续升温。该区最大的聚集地是伊兹密尔(Izmir)附近的小镇阿拉恰特(Alacati)。你能在拉卡普里亚(La Capria)酒店里找到这个季节中的最佳床铺。该酒店拥有20个房间,内配有融合了洛哥与地中海风情的家具,它还拥有自己25米高的帆船,这是为夏末阳光中的环岛游配备的。(网址:lacapriasuitehotel.com)PORTUGAL // For centuries, the beach town of Cascais has lured both surfers and nobility to its sun-kissed shores, barely 45 minutes from Lisbon. Drenched in the stark Atlantic sun, the coastline is dotted with historic forts. Make like a soldier and head to the new 126-room Pousada de Cascais hotel, a converted 16th-century citadel that marries new-build rooms with a historic core--including a handful of guest rooms within the original barracks quarters. pousadas.pt葡萄牙 // 几个世纪以来,海滨小镇卡斯凯什(Cascais)不断吸引着冲浪者与名流显贵来到其阳光热吻下的海岸,该地离里斯本只需45分钟车程。沐浴在大西洋耀眼的阳光中,这片海岸线遍布着诸多历史悠久的古堡。你要像战士一样前往这座拥有126个崭新房间的卡斯凯什古堡酒店(Pousada de Cascais)——这座16世纪的城堡经过翻修后将新建的房间与历史核心因素融为一体——包括建在原先兵营宿舍内的少数几间客房。(网址:pousadas.pt)CYPRUS // The azure seas fronting the resort-town of Paphos are a world away from the island#39;s cookie-cutter package hotels. Here, where Aphrodite is fabled to have journeyed and Roman governors later ruled, archaeology is as abundant as the bronze sandy beaches. With summer weather lasting well into fall, book a room at the Modernist Almyra Hotel, where whitewashed villa suites include private rooftop decks. almyra.com塞浦路斯 // 度假小镇帕福斯(Paphos)前方的碧海是远离该岛上千篇一律酒店的另一个世界。传说爱和美的女神阿芙罗狄(Aphrodite)曾到过这里。后来,该地由罗马官员统治,所以这里的古迹多得就像古铜色的沙滩一样。由于夏季的天气会很好地延续到秋季,你就在现代主义雅尔蜜拉酒店(Modernist Almyra Hotel)预定一间房吧,这里刷得雪白的别墅套房配有私人屋顶甲板。(网址:almyra.com) /201310/260655

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