汉中哪割包皮去哪家医院好养心时讯

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年11月19日 22:18:49
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Business.商业。Cosmetic treatment for men.男士美容。Beauty and the beasts.美女和野兽。More men are enduring jabs and cuts to look younger.为了看上去年轻,越来越多的男士宁愿接受注射和整容。IN GEORGES ROMANS clinic in London, women queue to see a cosmetic dermatologist renowned for zapping wrinkles and smoothing brows. These days, alas, they have to share the waiting room with men. In the past few years Dr Roman has treated a succession of bankers and businessmen in London and Paris. They dont want to look beautiful, he says, just ;fresher and less worried;.伦敦的乔治斯·罗曼的诊所外,女士们排着队来找这位在消除皱纹和眉间除皱方面著名的整容皮肤专家。啊呀,如今男士们也加入了进来。在过去的几年里,罗曼医生已经为伦敦和巴黎的一批家和商业人士进行了治疗。他说道,这些男士不是想看起来帅气,只是想;更加年轻,不再眉头紧锁;Typically, a swift shot of Botox, a toxin which freezes muscles, targets the deep forehead cleft which can descend on men over 40, especially if they spend all day frowning at a screen. Other favoured treatments are lasers, which perk up skin-tone, and cosmetic fillers for those deep grooves between the nose and the mouth. Englishmen, says Dr Roman, are big spenders. This is just as well: Botox treatment starts at £300 (7). Fiddlierprocedures can cost twice as much. The French tag along with their wives; Britons sidle in alone.通常,只需注射一针肉毒杆菌毒素即可。这种毒素可以麻痹肌肉,作用于额头深层的皱纹。尤其是男士年过四十,整天对着电脑屏幕最容易生皱纹。有些人则青睐激光治疗来改善肤色,以及在鼻与口之间的皱纹里填充整容化学材料。罗曼医生说,英国的男士很舍得花钱。情况确实如此:治疗起价为300英镑(477美元),而要进行一些更为细节的治疗则要花双倍的钱。法国的男士通常由妻子们带着来整容,而英国男士则喜欢一个人悄悄来接受治疗。Botox was used 336,834 times by American men in 2010, up 9% from , according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. But women are still 15 times more likely than men to have their faces frozen. ;I cant understand what puts people off,; grouses抱怨 David Pyott, the boss of Allergan, which makes Botox. Looks matter in the marketplace. ;Do you want to have working for you a really old investment banker, a really old lawyer?; asks Mr Pyott.据美国整形外科协会称,2010年,美国男士用肉毒杆菌治疗高达336834人次,比年上涨了9%。但女士用肉毒杆菌治疗的人数是男士的15倍之多。生产肉毒杆菌毒素的爱力根公司总经理大卫?波尔特抱怨道:我无法理解是人们为什么不敢注射肉毒杆菌。长相在商业活动中确实很重要。;你真的发自内心想要一个年老的投资家,或一个年纪大的律师为你工作?;Less invasive male maintenance is growing, too. Mintel, a market-researcher, says sales of mens beauty products in France, Germany, Spain, Britain and Italy rose by 8% between 2005 and 2010, despite the recession, and will grow another 8% by 2014. Moisturisers dominate in France, Britain and Spain. Germans and Italians prefer to buy deodorants.男士护理产品也在缓慢的发展壮大中。据市场研究院明特尔说,在2005至2010年间,法国,德国,西班牙,英国,意大利的男士美容产品尽管受到了经济萧条的影响,但是销量已经增长了8%,到2014年前将再增长8%。法国,英国和西班牙男士喜欢用保湿品。德国和意大利男士则更喜欢购买除臭产品。Matthew Soobroy, a stylist with Londons Charles Worthington hairdressers, detects a ;major leap; in men wanting their hair dyed, or their beards trimmed precisely to emulate the facial foliage of actors such as Michael Fassbender. The mere male may be getting smoother, but hes still a rugged beast at heart.造型师马修·苏伯雷和伦敦查尔斯?维新顿的发型师们发现,有越来越多的男士愿意染发,或者模仿诸如迈克尔·法斯宾特等男明星的造型来修剪胡子造型。在外表上,男士可能变得更加整洁了,但在内心中,他们仍是邋遢的野兽。201208/193881Business商业Maps on smartphones智能手机的地图应用Lost敢问路在何方?The criticism heaped on Apple shows the growing importance of cartography苹果目前饱受批评,明在智能手机市场中地图绘制愈加重要Update: On September 28th Tim Cook, Apples chief executive, published an open letter apologising to customers for the shortcomings of the companys maps. Mr Cook even directed users to alternative map apps, writing that they could be downloaded from Apples App Store and that Googles and Nokias maps were available as web apps.最新消息:9月28日,苹果公司首席执行官蒂姆?库克发表了一封公开信,就该公司地图应用的缺陷向用户致歉。库克甚至引导用户去选择其他地图应用作为替代。他在信中写道,用户可以从苹果的应用商店下载这些替代性地图应用,而谷歌和诺基亚的地图可作为网络应用提供给用户。OLD hands at The Economist have fond memories of Mokaris, a café near our office in St Jamess. There was nothing fancy about the food, the prices or the service. Mokaris closed in 2005, and Francos, the smarter Italian restaurant next door, expanded to take over the premises. But in the parallel universe of the iPhone, hungry hacks can still enjoy an omelette and chips for around a fiver. Mokaris is still on the map-at least, the map on Apples new mobile operating system, iOS 6.在圣詹姆斯《经济学人》的办公室附近,有一家叫做 Mokaris 的咖啡馆。对于本报的老员工来说,这里有很多美好的回忆。这家咖啡馆的食物和务算不上一流,但价位也不是太离谱。2005年,Mokaris 关门大吉,店面被隔壁那家较为高档的意大利餐馆 Francos 盘了下来。但在 iPhone 所勾画出的;平行宇宙;里,本报员工若是饿了,仍然能花五英镑左右在这里享受一份煎蛋卷和一些薯条。Mokaris 还在地图上——至少,在苹果最新移动设备操作系统 iOS 6 的地图上还能找到它。Apples mobile maps used to be supplied by its friend-turned-archrival, Google. But this year Apple decided to put maps of its own into iOS 6, rather than be beholden to its foe. The new maps are built into the iPhone 5, which went on sale on September 21st, and appear when older devices are upgraded to iOS 6. The internet has been teeming with complaints about a lack of detail and a surfeit of errors. And unlike Googles maps, Apples lack public-transport information.苹果的移动设备地图应用曾经由谷歌提供(谷歌这位昔日的合作伙伴如今变成了苹果主要的竞争对手)。但今年,苹果不愿再受制于人,决定在 iOS 6里安装自主研发的地图应用。9月21日上市的 iPhone 5内嵌了新的地图应用;如果用户把老机型升级到 iOS 6系统,也可以使用它。但这种地图应用缺少详细信息而且漏洞百出,用户的抱怨声已经充斥整个网络。此外,和谷歌地图应用不同的是,苹果的地图应用并没有提供公共交通信息。Maps are becoming important strategic terrain. They are more than an aid to getting from A to B. Apps based on location-to summon a taxi, say-need maps inside them. Digital maps can include countless layers of information, plus advertisements from which money can be made. There are thousands of indoor maps, too, of airports, department stores and so forth. Smartphones also act as sensors, reporting their whereabouts, which can be used to improve maps. According to comScore, a data firm, in August 95% of American iPhone owners and 83% of owners of smartphones with Googles Android operating system used a mobile map.地图应用将成为智能手机行业重要的战略地带。它不仅仅是帮助用户从一地到另一地那么简单。基于定位系统的应用(比如叫出租车)需要在程序里内建地图信息。数字地图能够包含无数的信息层,生产商还可以在地图里做广告从而实现盈利。成千上万的室内地图应用也覆盖了机场、百货商店等场所。智能手机还扮演了传感器的角色,可以收集位置信息,用来完善地图应用。根据数据公司 comScore 的资料,今年八月份美国有95%的 iPhone 用户使用了移动设备地图应用;在谷歌安卓系统智能手机的用户中,这个比例也有83%。Being chucked off the iPhone is thus a blow to Google, though it may be enjoying Apples discomfiture. It could return by making a new maps app, which would have to be approved by Apple. Its chairman, Eric Schmidt, said on September 25th that it had ;not done anything yet;.因此,尽管谷歌可能会对苹果的窘境感到窃喜,但地图应用被 iPhone 抛弃对谷歌来说的确是一记重拳。该公司可以通过发布新的地图应用来重新回到 iPhone 市场,但这必须经过苹果的批准。9月25日,谷歌董事长艾瑞克?施密特称该公司;尚未采取任何行动;。Creating good maps demands a lot of time and money. Google has taken about eight years to build up its expertise: it has sent cars along the worlds roads and maintains a fleet of aeroplanes. Nokias mappers (who have been issuing reminders that they offer web-based maps for the iPhone) have a longer pedigree still. Apple, which has bought three mapmaking firms in the past three years and is supplied with data by TomTom, a Dutch company, has plenty of money to throw at catching up on maps, but it will take time. ;Over two to three years,; estimates Martin Garner of CCS Insight, a research firm, ;Apple can get up to good enough.;编写优秀的地图应用需要很长的时间和大量的资金。谷歌研发了八年左右才具备这方面的专长:该公司往世界各地派遣了道路勘测车辆,并且保有一批用于地图测绘的飞机。诺基亚的地图绘制历史更是源远流长(其制图人一直在提醒用户:诺基亚为 iPhone 提供基于网页的地图应用)。苹果在过去的三年里收购了三家地图绘制公司,还有荷兰公司 TomTom 为其提供数据。要想在地图应用方面后来居上,苹果有足够的资金;但这毕竟需要时间。研究公司 CCS Insight 的 Martin Garner 估计:;再过两到三年,苹果的地图应用就能达到一个不错的水准。;Meanwhile, Apple seems to be relying on three things. The first is speedy improvement. (It is reportedly trying to hire ex-Googlers.) The second is the embedding of useful content. Its new maps have spoken turn-by-turn driving directions, which Googles version for the iPhone did not, as well as reviews from Yelp, a local-listings company that offers pretty full coverage of eateries and bars in America but much less elsewhere.同时,苹果要想取得成功似乎还将仰赖于三个条件。其一是快速提高地图应用的质量(据说苹果在试图雇佣谷歌前员工)。其二是在地图应用里植入实用内容。苹果新的地图应用拥有语音智能导航系统(谷歌为 iPhone 提供的地图应用里没有这一功能),同时还有 Yelp 公司提供的点评功能(Yelp 是一家本地上市公司,为用户提供很全面的美国餐饮信息;但相比之下,其他地区的此类信息却少的可怜)。The third is the loyalty of Apples fans. More than 5m iPhone 5s were sold in the first three days. Although some analysts had expected more, that still beat the previous version, the 4S, by 1m.其三就是苹果拥趸的忠诚性。iPhone 5 发布不到三天就售出了500万台以上。尽管这个数字低于某些分析人士的预期,但仍然比前一代的 iPhone 4S 多出了100万台。Under the late Steve Jobs Apple paid fanatical attention to detail, so it is remarkable that its maps should have come up so short. But polishing its hardware was one thing; the struggle with maps ;has been the first really obvious head-butting of the wall,; says Carolina Milanesi of Gartner, another research firm. Past perfectionism over devices has won it time to improve its maps. In a market in which brands can fall fast, that is a rare luxury.已故的史蒂夫?乔布斯执掌苹果时,该公司曾极为注重细节。因此,如今的地图应用竟然出现了这么大的缺陷不免令人吃惊。但硬件水平的提高只是一方面;在另一方面,用研究公司 Gartner 的 Carolina Milanesi 的话来说:努力改善地图应用的苹果公司;这次真的明显是在自找苦吃;。苹果对于产品的旧式完美主义为它赢得了改善地图应用的时间。在竞争激烈、淘汰迅速的市场中,时间正是极为宝贵的。 /201210/202550

GEORGE BUSH wanted to close it. So did John McCain. And Barack Obama promised to do so within a year of taking office. But nearly three years since then, and ten years after the first inmates stepped through its barbed-wired gates in January 2002, the prison camp at Guantaacute;namo Bay remains stubbornly open.关塔那战俘营。乔治.布什曾想关闭它,约翰.麦凯恩也想这样做。奥巴马更是许诺在上任第一年内就将其废弃。而现在,他的总统任期已过了近三年;而自2002年一月,第一批战犯踏入铁丝网包裹的大门起,都已经过了十年。位于关塔那海湾的战俘营却依旧存在,照常运行。It is, perhaps, the most glaring failure of Mr Obamarsquo;s first term. On his second full day in office, surrounded by 16 retired generals and admirals, he signed the order to close the facility that he said had probably created more terrorists than it ever detained. With majorities in both chambers of Congress he looked set to make good on his pledge. There was just one problem: the president had a timetable, but no plan.或许没有关闭关塔那战俘营就是奥巴马第一任期内最大的败笔。在他正式行使总统职权的第二天,在16位退休将军和海军上将的注视下,他签署命令关闭关塔那战俘营,他曾表示由于这座战俘营的存在而引发出的恐怖分子有可能比在押者还要多。此时在国会两院中民主党都享有多数票优势,一切都与他许诺的也一般无二,看上去他就要关闭关塔那战俘营了。问题只有一个:总统有的只是张时间表,却没有任何操作计划。;Where are we going to send them?; asked Mr McCain after the order was signed. His Republican colleagues warned that dangerous terrorists could end up in local jails. In fact, Mr Obama had in mind a facility in Illinois similar to Americarsquo;s ;supermax; prisons, from which no one has ever escaped. But right-wingers stoked public d and polls soon showed significant disapproval of the closure. In the face of such opposition, and with little support from a White House distracted by health-care reform, the Democrats quickly backed down. In a series of votes, both parties signalled their displeasure with the presidentrsquo;s policy, blocking funds for Guantaacute;namorsquo;s closure and banning the transfer of detainees to American soil.命令签署后,麦凯恩先生提出了个问题:;我们该把这些战俘送到那儿?;他的共和党同僚预计这些危险的恐怖分子可能会最终投入到当地的监狱。事实上,奥巴马对此曾有设想,想在伊利诺伊州设置一所类似美国;超级监房;那样的设施,战犯一旦被投入监牢,就插翅难飞。但右翼分子煽动公众的畏惧情绪,投票结果也表明公众对关闭战俘营怀有极大的不满情绪。面对反对声浪,当时正被医疗保险改革搞得焦头烂额的白宫当局无暇他顾,对奥巴马提议的持更是少之又少。见势不妙,民主党人随即就打了退堂鼓。在此后一系列涉及关塔那战俘营的投票中,两党都发出对总统关于关闭战俘营决策不满的呼声,进而要求对关闭战俘营的相关资金加以封锁,禁止将在押人员转到美国本土。The White House fought back, defeating an effort aimed at stopping the government from putting the alleged architects of 9/11 on trial in federal court. Then came its boldest move. In November Eric Holder, the attorney general, announced that Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and his four co-conspirators would face justice in Manhattan. The trial would show that Americarsquo;s civilian courts could handle even Guantaacute;namorsquo;s worst. But just two months later, amid mounting security concerns and rising political pressure, the effort fell apart. Once again, the administration had underestimated the political and logistical challenges posed by its policies.白宫开始进行反击。在对被指控参与谋划9/11恐怖袭击的恐怖分子是否应该在联邦法庭上就审这个问题上,一举击败企图阻挠的势力。紧接着的举动震惊了所有人。在年9月,总检察官埃里克.赫德宣布哈立德bull;谢赫bull;穆罕默德和他的四名同谋者将在麦哈顿接受正义的审批。它将向世人表明,即使是关塔那战俘营中最棘手的案件,美国民政法庭也有能力处理。但仅仅两个月后,出于安全考虑的巨大忧虑以及不断增长政治压力,这一设想不得不草草收场,不了了之。又一次,政府当局对自己制定的政策没有充分考量,低估了在政治上的挑战和移交转移的难度。Succumbing to the obstacles placed in his path, in March last year the president lifted his moratorium on new military-commission trials at Guantaacute;namo and instituted a system for holding some detainees indefinitely. Civil-liberties groups called it an admission of defeat. PolitiFact, an outfit that assesses the accuracy of statements made by politicians, declared Mr Obamarsquo;s campaign promise ;broken;.许下承诺,无法实现;面对阻力,被迫让步;在去年三月,总统自食其言,重新允许在关塔那的特别军事法庭对在押战俘进行新一轮审判,并拟定相关条例无限期扣押某些战俘。民权解放组织称总统此举为承认失败。一家由政界人士创建,旨在评价政令履行程度的团队PolitiFact则宣称奥巴马先生在竞选期间做出的承诺已;随风逝去;。201201/168731

Yaeuml;l:Somebody bought my daughter a game called ;Cuddies;.Y:有人给我女儿买了款叫“Cudies”的游戏。Don:I love that game!Don:我喜欢那个游戏!Y:I dont know about that. But the little plastic tongue-like part of that strange insect like body did inspire me to wonder about taste and insects. Do insects have tongues? And if so, what do they taste?Y:我不太了解。但是那只奇怪的塑料昆虫有个部位跟人一样——很小,像舌头一样,这让我对昆虫和(它的)味觉产生了好奇。昆虫也有舌头吗?如果有,它们又是怎样品味的呢?D:Well,scientists have mapped out the Drosophila fruit fly equivalent of our tongue and have made some interesting discoveries. Taste receptors are actually located in a variety of places on the flys body, but its primary taste organ is called the labellum. Its positioned on the creatures head, and it looks like a hairy pair of lips.D:这样的,科学家已经提出果蝇属的果蝇有着跟我们舌头一样的(部位),还发现了一些有趣的东西。(果蝇的)味觉感受器实际上是位于果蝇身体的很多部位,但是它们最主要的味觉器官叫“唇瓣”。唇瓣位于果蝇的头部,看起来像一对长毛的嘴唇一样。The labellum does certainly look different from our tongue, and the genes involved in fruit fly taste are distinct from our own taste genes, but despite all that, taste in insects and mammals works similarly.唇瓣肯定看起来跟我们的舌头不一样。果蝇的味觉基因跟我们的味觉基因也是有区别的。但是尽管如此,昆虫和哺乳动物的味觉系统运作起来是相似的。Taste receptors send signals to the brain, and the fly responds accordingly—it chows down if the brain determines the food is safe, and it looks elsewhere if the food item is determined suspect. In particular, fruit flies respond to sweet and bitter tastes.味觉感受器想大脑传送新号,果蝇就会做出相应的反应。如果大脑鉴定食物是安全的话,果蝇就会吃下它;如果食物(的安全性)有待考,它们就会另觅(食物)。对于果蝇来说,它们尤其会对甜的和苦的(食物)有反应。They have such a wide variety of combinations of bitter-sensitive tasting cells that scientists believe that when it comes to bitter flavors, fruit flies have more discriminating tastes than us mammals. This knack for tasting bitter flavors may help them distinguish between harmful and safe bacteria on a spoiled piece of fruit.它们有着大量的对苦味很敏感的味觉细胞组合,这让科学家相信在遇到苦味的时候,果蝇会比我们哺乳动物更能够识别。(果蝇)品尝苦味的本领或许可以帮助它们在腐烂的水果上区分有害和安全的细菌。Y:And I supposed that understanding taste in insects may lead to better repellants to keep them off our fruit in the first place.Y:我觉得理解昆虫的味觉可能会帮助我们从一开始就让它们原理我们的水果。D:You got it!D:你已经会了! /201208/194976

  Night Vision And Humans: Why Cant We See Color?夜视:人类为何看不见颜色?When we are in a fairly dark room, or outside at night away from lights, we can still see, but we cant see the colors of things very well. Why is that?当我们在一个非常昏暗的房间或夜晚在无灯的户外,我们仍然可以看见物体,但很看不清楚物体的颜色,为什么会这样呢?There are two kinds of light-sensitive organs located in the backs of our eyes: rod-shaped and cone-shaped. Both rods and cones are sensitive to light. The difference between them is that the rods allow us to see in very dim light but dont permit detection of color, while the cones let us see color but they dont work in dim light.在我们眼睛的后部有两种感光器官:杆状体和锥状体,它们都对光线敏感。而它们的差别就在于,杆状体能让我们看见昏暗的光线下的东西,但无法辨别颜色;而锥状体能让我们辨别物体的颜色,但在昏暗的灯光下却无法发挥作用。When it gets dark the cones lose their ability to respond to light. The rods continue to respond to available light, but since they cannot see color, so to speak, everything appears to be various shades of black and white and gray.当光线变暗时,锥状体失去对光线做出反应的能力。而杆状体继续对光线做出反应,但由于它不能帮助人们识别颜色,因此所有的物体看上去都是不同形状的黑色、白色或者灰色。A curious thing is that in dim light you can see more clearly out of the side of your eye, because the light-sensitive rods are more highly concentrated off to the side in the back of your eye.奇特的是,在光线暗淡情况下,通过眼睛两边的余光你能看得更清晰,因为杆状体更集中地分布在眼睛后部的边侧。So, next time youre out on a clear night, notice how little color you can see, and how you can see objects like dim stars better out of the corner of your eye than from the center.所以,下次在一个晴朗的夜晚外出,留意一下你是不是看不见什么颜色,并且关注一下用眼角的余光看东西,例如晦暗的星星,会不会比正视看效果更好。 /201207/189284

  Science and Technology Human spaceflight科技 人类宇宙飞行Fifty years have elapsed since a Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, lit the blue touchpaper on the era of manned spaceflight.自从苏联宇航员尤里加加林点燃了载人航天时代开始的蓝色火绒线,五十年已经过去了。Progress was rapid-only eight years separated Gagarins flight from the infinitely more complicated mission that put Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the surface of the moon.进步是飞快的,加加林飞行仅八年后,人类完成了更复杂的行动,将宇航员尼尔·阿姆斯特朗和巴兹奥尔德林送达月球表面。Although the moon landings handed a temporary victory to America,尽管登陆月球对美国来说只是一时的胜利,the Soviet Union dominated manned spaceflight for the next decade,苏联在接下来的十年之内控制了载人航天,including some pioneering missions to the Salyut space stations to test the effects of long periods aloft and several extended missions to Salyuts successor Mir, in the late 1980s.包括在礼炮号空间站上进行一些开拓性对于长时间悬浮的测试,还包括在八十年代后期在礼炮号接任者米尔号空间站上的任务。Only with the rise of the Space Shuttle programme, beginning in 1981, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union a decade later, did America retake the crown.只有在1981年开始的空间航天飞机项目,以及十年之后的苏联解体,才让美国取得了空间技术领域的桂冠。Manned spaceflight is no longer a two-horse race.载人航天领域不再是两匹马的比赛。China entered it in 2003.中国在2003年也加入了竞争。A year later three privately financed suborbital missions were made in Mojave Aerospaces craft, SpaceShipOne.2004年,三艘私人融资任务在的在莫哈韦航天飞船“太空船一号”上进行。Rocketeering, though, has always been dangerous.尽管火箭技术一直以来都是危险的。Four missions have killed 18 astronauts between them.四次任务已经导致18名宇航员身亡。Two were Soviet (Soyuz 1 and Soyuz 11) and two American (the shuttles Challenger and Columbia).两次是苏联的火箭(联盟一号和联盟二号),两次是美国的火箭(挑战者号和哥伦比亚号)。Other astronauts have died in accidents on Earth.其余的宇航员是在地面事故中丧生的。After the losses of Challenger and Columbia,挑战者号和哥伦比亚号的事故之后,Americas shuttle fleet was grounded, which explains the big drop in missions following both accidents.美国的飞船舰队也着陆了,这就解释了两次事故之后空间任务的大量减少。 /201212/215029。

  Obituary;Brian Haw讣告;布莱恩·霍Brian Haw, peace campaigner, died on June 18th, aged 62布莱恩·霍——和平活动家,于六月十八日逝世,享年六十二岁When Brian Haw sat in his old canvas chair in front of his banner-hung tent in Parliament Square, people kept coming by. Tourists with their cameras. Teenagers drinking beer. Commuters on their way to work. Taxis, vans, bicycles. Bloody big black cars with lying politicians in them. Buses with passengers all on their phones or buried in their papers. Drivers who wound down the car window, not stopping, and shouted “Get a job!”国会广场上悬挂着标语的帐篷前,布莱恩·霍坐在他那老旧的帆布椅子上,过往路人川流不息。有带相机的游客,喝啤酒的少年,还有往返于工作路上的人群。的士、货车、自行车,还有说谎的政客们乘坐的超长黑色轿车都从此经过。公交车上乘客都忙着打电话或埋头于报纸。司机放下车窗,但没有停车,冲他喊道:“找份工作吧!”Wasnt that nice. But he had a job. He had it for ten years in sun, rain, sleet, snow. Never left the square. And his job was this. Get the people to wake up. Get them to realise that the USA and the UK were killing babies. Hundreds were dying every day in this place called Iraq and this place called Afghanistan. He had their photographs on his wall of shame. Bloated, pathetic, missing limbs. Sanctions were killing them. Sanctions and bombs. And especially, check out depleted uranium munitions. That poison was everywhere, in the air, in the water, even between the grains of sand. There wasnt a Hoover in the world big enough to suck up all that shit. And everyone was responsible. Everyone. Raping and pillaging and murdering the world. Just to get that stuff called oil. FOOD YES, BOMBS NO, his banners said. COLAT DAME, NO. A GENOCIDE TOO FAR. STOP KILLING MY KIDS.司机是出于好意。但他是有工作的。十年来不管是晴是雨,是霰是雪,他都坚守岗位,从未离开过广场。他的工作就是唤醒大家。让人们意识到美国和英国政府在杀害婴孩。在一个叫伊拉克和一个叫阿富汗的地方每天都有成百上千的婴孩死去。他把他们的照片贴在他的羞耻墙上。这些孩子或身体浮肿,或悲惨可怜,或缺胳膊少腿。制裁害死了他们。制裁和炸弹。特别地,看看贫铀弹的威力吧。有毒物质散发到了各个角落,空气中,水中,甚至沙土中。世界上可没有足够大的真空吸尘器能把那些毒物吸光。而且,每一个人都要负责。无一例外,人人都在榨取、掠夺地球的资源,使地球活力渐失。这一切都只是为了得到那个叫石油的东西。他的标语上书:“食物,可以,炸弹,不可以 ,蓄意破坏,不可以。这是大规模种族屠杀。停止杀害我的孩子们。”People from the whole wide world filmed him on a regular basis. They liked to photograph his old corduroy hat—more badges than hat—which said THE WAR IS THE ENEMY OF THE POOR and SUPPORT US TROOPS—BRING EM HOME! They asked him how he slept. (Badly. How would you sleep if 200 babies were dying every day?) They fussed over how he ate. (Mostly chips people brought him and coffee with five sugars. He was lean as a twig. But you know what? People in Calcutta would think he was a king to have so much pavement to live on.) They asked about the mice. They had nested in his sheepskin coat once. He was far more worried about the rats across the road.来自世界各地的人们经常拍摄他。他们喜欢拍他那顶旧灯芯绒帽子,更主要是为了拍上面的徽章,徽章上写着:战争是穷人的克星,帮助美军——让他们回家!他们问他是怎么睡觉的。(很难入眠。如果每天有200个婴孩死去,你还睡得着吗?)他们对他的饮食大为惊异。(大部分来自人们给他带的薯条和加五种糖的咖啡。他骨瘦如柴。但你知道吗?印度加尔各答市的人们会觉得他有这么宽的人行道可以住,是国王般的待遇了。)他们问老鼠怎么处理。有一次老鼠在他的羊皮大衣上做窝。相比他更担心马路对面的老鼠们。When he talked, he sounded tired. He was. Tired of the bollocks. Tired of people not taking responsibility for their inhumaneness to their fellow man. He probably smoked too much, too. Breathed in too much exhaust. Between sentences he would work his stubbly chin as if chewing on unpalatable facts. Then hed sing:他说话间透着疲倦。确实,他受够了政客的谎言。也因人们的没人性,不为自己的同胞承担责任而深感无力。也有可能是他吸烟太多,吸进了太多废气。说话间他会扬起他那胡子拉碴的下巴,似乎在沉思那些令他不快的事实。接着他会歌唱:Last night I had the strangest dream, Id ever dreamed before;昨晚我做了一个奇特无比的梦,一个从未做过的梦;I dreamed the world had all agreed, to put an end to war.我梦见世界大同,再无战争。He spoke like an evangelist, because he was one. His parents were Christian, and hed found Jesus too at Sunshine Corner beach school in Whitstable. After the merchant navy, he went missionising round Redditch in a minivan. He moved to Parliament Square in 2001 to express his Christian outrage about sanctions. Bushs and Blairs wars kept him there. He loved his neighbours kids as his own because he was a Christian. Other so-called Christians bombed them. Other “believers”, also in the square, didnt care. (WESTMINSTER ABBEY, WAKE UP!) If the people who had marched in 2003 against the Iraq war had stayed, like him, the politicians would have thought again.他说话就像一名福音传教士,因为他本来就是。他的父母都是基督教徒,呆在惠茨特布尔的阳光一角沙滩学校时他也投入了基督教门下。离开商船队以后,他驾驶一辆小型货车前往雷丁奇附近传教。2001年他来到国会广场以表达作为一名基督徒对于制裁的义愤。他留在那里是因为布什和布莱尔发起的战争。他爱其他国家的孩子就像爱自己的孩子一样,因为他是一名基督徒。而另一些所谓的基督徒则用炸弹轰炸他们。其他同样在广场上的“信徒”则漠不关心。(西敏寺,醒来吧!)如果2003年反抗伊拉克战争的游行人群像他一样坚守下去,也许政治家们会三思而后行。Police abuse粗鲁的警察His megaphone helped sp the message. ARREST GEORGE BUSH, WAR CRIMINAL! HI TONY! 45 MINUTES, MR BLAIR. MR B-L-I-A-R. They could hear him even in the Commons chamber. At first Tony Blair said good old Brian, what a champion of free speech. Yes, he was. He defended the right to free expression in front of Parliament: 350 years of peaceful protest. Some rapper boys from South London came up and hugged him once. They said they totally supported him, fuck Parliament, fuck em all. But he wouldnt have that. He just answered Love, Peace, Justice, stop killing my kids.他借助扩音器来传达信念。逮捕乔治·布什,战犯!你好,托尼!45分钟,布莱尔先生。布-莱-尔先生。即使在下议院会议厅里都听得到他的声音。起初,托尼·布莱尔评价他是个好老头布莱恩,言论自由的赢家。是的,他的确是。他守卫了自己在国会面前自由表达思想的权利:有着350年历史的和平抗议。曾有一次几个伦敦南部来的饶舌歌手和他拥抱。他们说完全持他的行为,去他的国会,去他们的。但他不会说脏话。他只用爱,和平,正义,停止杀害孩子来表达。The authorities soon got tired of him, though. Westminster Council tried to remove him because he was a nuisance and “obstructing the pavement”. It failed. By 2005 Tony decided hed had enough of the name-calling. The Serious Organised Crime and Police Act said Mr Haw had to give six days notice, if you please, of any demonstration within a kilometre of Parliament. How could he do that? The High Court ruled against it, and said he was legal. But the police never acted as though he was. Any morning they might wake him up with a siren, whoop, whoop, Are you there Brian, yank up his plastic, rifle through his private property right in front of Parliament. Who was abusing whom then? In 2006 78 of them came to tear down his wall of pictures, smashed it, trashed it, left it like a bomb site. Left him with one sign. He stayed, of course.然而,当局很快就对他厌烦了。西敏寺地方政府试图把他赶走,因为他是他们的眼中钉,而且“阻塞了人行道”。行动没有成功。到了2005年,托尼声称他听够了指责。严严重有组织犯罪和警察法规定霍先生如果一定要在距国会一千米内抗议的话就将被拘留六天。他要怎么办呢?高级法院否决了这一法案,并且称他的行为合法。但警察的行为就好像他是非法的一样。每天早晨警察都用呜呜叫的警笛将他闹醒,就在国会前面拉开他的塑料帐篷,迅速搜查他的私人财产。究竟是谁在谴责谁呢?2006年,78个警察拆倒了他的照片墙,将照片撕碎、丢弃,现场就像被炸弹轰炸了一样。只给他留下了一个签名。但当然,他还是留在那里。People asked him about his own kids, seven of them. An off-limits topic. Family was left behind when he came to the square. His wife had divorced him, hed learned. It wasnt his fault. He hadnt wanted to stay eight bloody years away from them, with the pollution and the drunks who broke his nose and the thugs who shouted “Wanker!” at him. He stayed because he wasnt finished yet. And you know what? It was never fundamentally about free speech and the rights of Englishmen and all that stuff. It was about the dead children. And not walking by.他有七个孩子,人们问起他自己的孩子怎么样,这是一个禁止谈论的话题。自从他到广场安家后,家庭就被抛之脑后了。他获知,他的妻子同他离婚了。这不是他的错。他也不想他妈的远离亲人八年时间,经历污染,还被几个醉汉打破了鼻子,还有暴徒冲他喊道:“蠢货!”。他留下是因为他还没有达成目标。你知道吗?从根本上说,这绝不是关于自由言论和英国人的权利或其他这类的东西。根本上说是为了那些死去的孩子,而不是为吸引路人。201206/187256

  The newness of the situation and the range of decisions youll face could leave you confused. Think about what you want from college and from friends. Study after breakfast, between classes, whatever works best for you. Dont cut off all social contacts. Theyre as vital to surviving in college as ing. Study Hegel first, then catch a late movie.新的环境和你将做出的诸多决定会令你不知所措。考虑一下你想从学校和朋友那儿得到些什么。早饭后或课间你最需要的东西是什么。不要断绝一切社会交往。在大学里生活,社交同读书一样重要,你可以先看会儿黑格尔哲学,然后再赶去看晚场电影。Study methods学习方法。Would you take a trip by stopping for directions at every station instead of ing a map? Of course not. Studying in college demands more ing and thinking, less memorization than in high school. Survey the material first to get a sense of it: formulate some questions. Jot down key ideas, tell yourself the essence of what youre and review it. Does it make sense? Were your questions answered?你去旅行会不会不看地图,而在每一站都停下来问方向呢?当然不会。大学学习要求比中学更多的阅读和思考,较少的死记硬背。首先要浏览材料以了解大概:提出一些问题,记下重要思想,自述你所读内容的要旨并加以复习。讲得有道理吗?你提出的问题解决了吗?The major choice专业选择。It is quite appropriate to view college as a broadening experience, a preparation for life. Indeed, many college students do not select their ultimate career path until after they graduate. So take occupational course if you like, but dont feel complled to mold your major to the market.把大学生涯看作拓宽经验的机会及对生活的准备是相当恰当的。实际上,许多大学生直到毕业后才选择最终职业。所以如果你乐意,你可以学与职业有关的课程,但不要强迫自己为适应市场而选择专业。201303/231382

  

  Science and Technolgy科技Climate change气候变化Good news at last?最终难道是个好消息?The climate may not be as sensitive to carbon dioxide as previously believed气候对二氧化碳的敏感性,可能没有原来认识的那样强CLIMATE science is famouslycomplicated, but one useful number to keep in mind is ;climatesensitivity;. This measures the amount of warming that can eventually beexpected to follow a doubling in the atmospheric concentration of carbondioxide. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in its most recentsummary of the science behind its predictions, published in 2007, estimatedthat, in present conditions, a doubling of CO2would cause warming of about 3°C, with uncertainty of about a degree and a halfin either direction. But it also says there is a small probability that thetrue number is much higher. Some recent studies have suggested that it couldbe as high as 10°C.气候科学的复杂是出了名的,但;气候敏感度;是已知的一个非常必须被谨记的指标。这一指标用于衡量由于大气中二氧化碳的浓度增长一倍而引起的温度变化总量。最近一份联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会提交的研究预测报告公布于2007年。该报告预测,按照目前的情况,二氧化碳浓度增加一倍将会导致温度上升3°C,不确定度为±1.5°C。同时报告指出,还存在一种很小可能性,实际的数字也许比这个值要高很多。一些近期的研究认为这个指标高达10°C。If that were true, disaster beckons. But apaper published in this weeks Science,by Andreas Schmittner of Oregon State University, suggests it is not. In DrSchmittners analysis, the climate is less sensitive to carbon dioxide than wasfeared.如果这个情况是可靠的,大限将至。但本周,来自Oregon State University的Andreas Schmittner刊登在《科学》杂志上的一篇论文认为,事实并不是这样的。在Schmittner士的研究中,气候对二氧化碳的敏感性并没有达到大众所担心的水平。Existing studies of climate sensitivitymostly rely on data gathered from weather stations, which go back to roughly1850. Dr Schmittner takes a different approach. His data come from the peak ofthe most recent ice age, between 19,000 and 23,000 years ago. His group is notthe first to use such data (ice cores, fossils, marine sediments and the like)to probe the climates sensitivity to carbon dioxide. But their paper is themost thorough. Previous attempts had considered only small regions of theglobe. He has compiled enough information to makea credible stab at recreating the climate of the entire planet.现有的关于气候敏感性的研究大都依赖于那些回述至19世纪50年代的气象站检测数据。Schmittner士选择了非传统的途径。他的数据来自最近一次冰河期的高峰,一个距今19000年至23000年间的年代。他的团队并非第一个采用这种类型数据(来自冰核,化石,海洋沉积物或其他类似情形)来研究气候对于二氧化碳敏感性的团队。但原先做这种尝试的研究团队仅收集全球很小一部分地区的数据。而Schmittner士编制了足够多的信息以制作一个可以信赖的模型用于预计整个地球的气候变化。The result offers that rarest of things inclimate science-a bit of good news. The groups most likely figure for climatesensitivity is 2.3°C, which is more than half a degree lower than the consensusfigure, with a 66% probability that it lies between 1.7° and 2.6°C. More importantly,these results suggest an upper limit for climate sensitivity of around 3.2°C.其结果为气候科学提供一条珍贵的信息,也许是一条好小心。他的团队倾向于将气候敏感度标定为2.3°C,相比公认的数值降低了超过半度,其数值在66%的保率下介于1.7° C至2.6°C间。更重要的是,气候敏感度的上限应该是3.2°C。Before you take the SUV out for acelebratory spin, though, it is worth bearing in mind that this is only onestudy, and, like all such, it has its flaws. The computer model used is of only middlingsophistication, Dr Schmittner admits. That may be one reason for the narrowrange of his teams results. And although the studys geographical coverage isthe most comprehensive so far for work of this type, there are still blankareas-notably in Australia, Central Asia, South America and the northernPacific Ocean. Moreover, some sceptics complain about the way ancient data ofthis type were used to construct a different but related piece of climatescience: the so-called hockey-stick model, which suggests that temperatureshave risen suddenly since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It willbe interesting to see if such sceptics are willing to be equally scepticalabout ancient data when they support their point of view.当你正为此而兴奋地冲入你的SUV来一次飚车,或者诸如此类的行为,稍等片刻,你的大脑应该想一想,这个理论固然有它的瑕疵。Schmittner士承认,计算机模型的精度仅中等水平。这也许是其团队结果具有的一个局限性。另一个方面,尽管研究的区域覆盖范围在这一领域是最全面的,但仍然存在空白,特别是在澳大利亚,中亚,南美和北太平洋。另外,气候科学界一些对此持怀疑态度的人质疑,所使用的这些年代久远的数据,是一堆一个本质上不同但貌似有关联的片段,一个俗称为的曲棍球模型的现象。他们认为温度在工业革命初期,温度徒然升高。如果这些质疑者使用与怀疑那些年代久远的数据相同眼光审视他们持的观点,这将会是一个非常有趣的现象。 /201210/203210

  

  Chopsticks and Arthritis筷子与关节炎If youve ever tried eating with chopsticks, you know they can be a pain to learn how to use. According to a Boston University study, ever since their invention nearly five-thousand years ago, chopsticks have been a source of literal pain by exacerbating the onset of osteoarthritis in old age.如果你有用筷子吃过饭,你就知道学习使用它就是一种痛苦。波士顿大学的一项研究表明,因为他们(指中国人)发明筷子是在近5000年以前,所以(使用)筷子是造成(一个人)在老年时期产生骨关节炎的原因之一。Osteoarthritis is a disease of the joints caused by repeated use of a particular joint. Normally the ends of bones are covered with a shock-absorber-like pad of springycartilage that helps bone ends move more easily.骨关节炎是一种由重复使用某一关节而造成的关节疾病。通常情况下,骨头的末端是被一层类似可以防震的、有弹性的软骨覆盖的垫层。Over time, repeated use of the joint can wear the cartilage down like the eraser on a frequently used pencil. When cartilage wears down, bone end rubs against bone end on a joint, causing stiffness and often extreme pain. Over time, an unprotected joint can become deformed and parts of the rubbing bones can wear away and chip off, causing even more discomfort.随着时间的推移,对关节的重复使用会磨损该软骨,就像在经常使用的铅笔上面的橡皮擦一样。当软骨被磨损了,骨头末端就会与关节末端产生擦,造成(骨头)坚硬,而且时常极度疼痛。随着时间的推移,这个不受保护的关节就会变得畸形,与之擦的骨头部分会因为擦而磨损,造成更多的不适。What does this have to do with chopsticks? Any repetitive motion involving the fingers can amplify the effects of naturally occurring cartilagedecay. If youve ever used chopsticks you know that pinching them together puts stress on the thumb and forefinger.这与筷子又有什么关系呢?包括手指在内的任何一个重复性的动作都会比自然发生的软骨衰退效果严重。如果你有用过筷子你就会知道将它们夹在一起会将压力施在大拇指和食指上。Imagine making this motion at every meal every day of your life and you begin to understand how chopsticks can harm your joints. According to the Boston University study, the thumb joint is the primary victim of chopstick use.试想如果你每天每餐都这样,你就会明白筷子是如何伤害你的关节了。根据波士顿大学的研究,使用筷子的主要受害部位就是大拇指。If youre an adventurousdiner and occasionally like to eat Asian food using authentic dining implements, dont worry. Only regular use over many years is cause for alarm.如果你是个爱冒险的食客,不时的喜欢吃要使用点用餐工具的亚洲食物,不要担心。因为只有超过数年的定期使用才会造成危险。 /201211/208401

  

  Books and Arts; Book Review;Mass murder;文艺;书评;大屠杀;History and its woes;How Stalin and Hitler enabled each others crimes;历史及其悲哀之处;斯大林和希特勒如何纵容彼此犯下大罪;Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. By Timothy Snyder.血染之地:希特勒和斯大林之间的欧洲,作者Timothy Snyder。In the middle of the 20th century Europes two totalitarian empires, Nazi Germany and Stalins Soviet Union, killed 14m non-combatants, in peacetime and in war. The who, why, when, where and how of these mass murders is the subject of a gripping and comprehensive new book by Timothy Snyder of Yale University.在20世纪中期,欧洲大陆的两大集权帝国,纳粹德国和斯大林治下的苏联,在和平时期和战争时期杀死了1400万非战斗人员。这些大屠杀所涉及的人,屠杀的原因、时间、地点以及过程就是耶鲁大学的Timothy Snyder的这本引人而内容全面的新书的主题。The term coined in the books title encapsulates the thesis. The “bloodlands” are the stretch of territory from the Baltic to the Black Sea where Europes most murderous regimes did their most murderous work. The bloodlands were caught between two fiendish projects: Adolf Hitlers ideas of racial supremacy and eastern expansion, and the Soviet Unions desire to remake society according to the communist template. That meant shooting, starving and gassing those who didnt fit in. Just as Stalin blamed the peasants for the failure of collectivisation, Hitler blamed the Jews for his military failures in the east. As Mr Snyder argues, “Hitler and Stalin thus shared a certain politics of tyranny: they brought about catastrophes, blamed the enemy of their choice, and then used the death of millions to make the case that their policies were necessary or desirable. Each of them had a transformative Utopia, a group to be blamed when its realisation proved impossible, and then a policy of mass murder that could be proclaimed as a kind of ersatz victory.”本书题目中所造的词语是其主题的浓缩。“血染之地”就是指从黑海至波罗的海这片土地,在这片土地上,欧洲最杀人如麻的政权犯下了最为残暴的恶行。这片血染之地夹在两个恶魔般的计划之间:阿道夫-希特勒的种族优越思想和东扩的念头,以及苏联按共产主义模式再造世界的强烈欲望。这就意味着对于那些与这两个计划的格格不入的人,就要被毙、饿死或用毒气毒死。就像斯大林将社会主义集体化的失败归咎于农民身上那样,希特勒把在东方的军事失败归咎于犹太人。正如Snyder所说,“故斯大林和希特勒的暴政是有着某些共同之处的,他们都带来灾难,归罪他们的自己所指的敌人,然后用数百万人死亡的代价来明他们的政策是必要或理想的。二人都建立了变种的乌托邦,当发现政策根本不现实时,就归咎于一群人,然后就可以把大屠杀政策宣称为一场虚假的胜利了。”Mr Snyders book is revisionist history of the best kind: in spare, closely argued prose, with meticulous use of statistics, he makes the er rethink some of the best-known episodes in Europes modern history. For those who are wedded to the simplistic schoolbook notions that the Hitlerites were the mass murderers and the Soviets the liberators, or that the killing started in 1939 and ended in 1945, Mr Snyders theses will be thought-provoking or shocking. Even those who pride themselves on knowing their history will find themselves repeatedly brought up short by his insights, contrasts and comparisons. Some ghastly but well-known episodes recede; others emerge from the shadows.Snyder的书是一本最好的修正史:用简练而论严密的笔法,加上对统计数据的精妙运用,本书使读者对欧洲现代史上最著名的一些章节作了一番再思考。对于那些已经接受了单纯的教科书观点(即希特勒一方是大屠杀的凶手,苏联人是解放者,或者屠杀始于1939年,结束于1945年)的人来说,作者所述之事将是发人深思、震人心魄的。就算那些以自己的历史知识为傲的读者也会一再地为作者的广见识、鲜明比照和比喻手法而受益匪浅。一些苍白可怖但广为人知的历史片段逐渐模糊,另一些片段从阴影中开始浮现。Sometimes the memories are faded because so few were left to remember. Those who suffered horribly but lived to tell the tale naturally get a better hearing than the millions in unmarked graves. Mr Snyders book straightens the record in favour of the voiceless and forgotten.有时,记忆的褪色是因为没有几个人能活到现在。那些历经苦难但活下来的人,他们讲的故事自然比那数百万无名冢所述更有受众。Snyder的大作理清了曲直,只为那些已无法出声或已被忘却的冤魂。He starts with the 3.3m in Soviet Ukraine who died in the famine of 1933 that followed Stalins ruthlessly destructive collectivisation. He goes on to mark the 250,000-odd Soviet citizens, chiefly Poles, shot because of their ethnicity in the purges of 1937-38. Sometimes the NKVD simply picked Polish-sounding names from the telephone directory, or arrested en masse all those attending a Polish church service.作者从1933年造成330万人死亡的乌克兰饥荒写起,这次饥荒紧随斯大林的残酷而毁灭性的集体化运动。然后又写到25万余苏联公民,主要是波兰人,在1937-38年的大清洗中被杀害,只因为他们的种族。有时内务人民委员会只在电话号码簿上挑一些发音像是波兰人的名字,或是成批逮捕去波兰教堂礼拜的人。Some stories remained untold because they were inconvenient. About as many people died in the German bombing of Warsaw in 1939 as in the allied bombing of Dresden in 1945. Post-war Poland was in no state to gain recognition for that. The Nazi-Soviet alliance of August 1939 was “cemented in blood”, Stalin said approvingly. Few wanted to remember that two years later, when the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. The Western allies did little to stop the Holocaust. Few wanted reminding that the only government that took direct action to help the Jews was the Polish one: seven of the first eight operations conducted in Warsaw by the underground Polish Home Army were in support of the ghetto uprising. (After the war, the Communist authorities executed as “fascists” Polish soldiers who had helped the Jews.)有些故事仍然未见天日,因为不便讲出。1939年德国对华沙的轰炸造成的死亡人数和盟军在1945年轰炸德累斯顿造成的死亡人数不相上下。这一牺牲,战后的波兰从未正式获得承认。纳粹和苏联在1939年8月的结盟是“鲜血凝成的”,斯大林赞许地说道。没几个人愿意记起,两年后,德国就发动“巴巴罗萨”计划入侵苏联。西方盟国对大屠杀几乎未加阻止。没几个人愿意提起,唯一一个对犹太人直接给予帮助的政府恰恰是波兰政府。在地下的波兰国民军所组织的前八次行动中,有七次是为了持犹太区的起义。(战后,波兰共产主义当局将曾经帮助过犹太人的波兰士兵当做“法西斯分子”予以处决。)Stalin regarded all Soviet prisoners-of-war as traitors. Their German captors starved them to death in their millions; nobody dared mourn them. The Holocaust, too, did not fit into Soviet historiography, especially as post-war anti-Semitism intensified (“Every Jew is a nationalist and an agent of American intelligence,” Stalin said in 1952). Memorials to murdered Jews carried not the Star of David but the five-pointed Soviet one, and referred blandly to “Soviet citizens” or “victims of fascism”.斯大林把所有苏联战俘都当成叛徒。俘获他们的德军将他们上百万地饿死,没有人敢为他们哀悼。大屠杀也不合苏联的官修史要求,在战后反犹运动日益激烈之后更是如此。(斯大林在1952年曾说道:“每个犹太人都是民族主义者和美国情报人员”),被屠杀犹太人的墓碑上不是大卫星,而是苏联的五角星,他们被淡淡地归为“苏联公民”或“法西斯主义的受害者”。Many of the stories in the book are aly known as national or ethnic tragedies. Poles focus on the Warsaw uprising; Jews on Auschwitz; Russians on the siege of Leningrad; Ukrainians on the great famine. Mr Snyders book weaves the stories together, explaining how the horrors interacted and reinforced each other. Hitler learnt a lot from Stalin, and vice versa.书中很多故事都已作为国家或民族惨案而为人知晓。波兰人关注华沙起义;犹太人关注奥斯维辛,俄罗斯人关注列宁格勒围城战,乌克兰人关注那次大饥荒。本书将这些事穿插起来一起记述,解释了恐惧是如何相互影响和逐步扎根的。希特勒从斯大林那里学到了不少,二人彼此彼此。Mr Snyder shifts the usual geographical focus away from the perpetrator countries to the places where they first colluded and then collided. Germany and Russia (and Germans and Russians) mostly fared better, or less horribly, than the places in between (there were more Jews in the Polish city of Lodz alone than in Berlin and Vienna combined). No corner of what are now Belarus and Ukraine was spared. Much of Germany and even more of Russia was unscathed, at least physically, by war.作者将地理上的关注点从传统的两个罪恶国家,转移到了两国初次勾结而后又发生冲突的地方(即波兰)。德国和俄罗斯两国(德国人和俄罗斯人也是如此)所付出的代价在大都比两国之间其他欧洲地区更小,或者没那么可怕。(只在波兰城市罗兹的犹太人就比柏林和维也纳加在一起还多)。现在的白俄罗斯和乌克兰全境的每个角落都无一幸免。 而德国的很多地方和俄罗斯的更多地方都未遭受战争的伤害,至少未受有形的伤害。He also corrects exaggerations, misapprehensions and simplifications. The bestial treatment of slave labourers in concentration camps, and the use of gas chambers, are commonly seen as the epitomes of Nazi persecution. But the Germans also shot and starved millions of people, as well as gassed and worked them to death. In just a few days in 1941, the Nazis shot more Jews in the east than they had inmates in all their concentration camps.作者同样纠正了一些对历史的夸大、误解和简单化现象。在对纳粹迫害的记述概要中,经常可以看到集中营对奴隶劳工非人的虐待和毒气室的使用。但德国人除了用毒气毒死和活活累死大批人之外,也杀和饿死了数以百万计的人。仅在1941年的几天内,纳粹在东线杀的犹太人数量,就比所有集中营的囚犯人数还要多。“Bloodlands” has aroused fierce criticism from those who believe that the Soviet Union, for all its flaws, cannot be compared to the Third Reich, which pioneered ethnic genocide. Doing this, the critics argue, legitimises ultranationalists in eastern Europe who downplay the Holocaust, exaggerate their own suffering—and dodge guilt for their own collaboration with Hitlers executioners.“血染之地”已经激起了一些人的激烈批评,这些人认为苏联即使有千般缺点,也比不上第三帝国的罪恶,后者是种族屠杀的先锋。批评者认为,这种做法将使东欧的极端民族主义者合法化,这些极端分子漠视大屠杀,夸大自身遭受的苦难---而不愿直面他们与希特勒的刽子手们勾结的罪行。That argument is powerful but unfair. Many people say stupid things about history. Mr Snyder is not one. He does not challenge the Holocausts central place in 20th-century history. Nor does he overlook Soviet suffering at the hands of Hitler or the heroism of the soldiers who destroyed the Third Reich. But he makes a point that needs reinforcement, not least in Russia where public opinion and officialdom both retain a soft spot for Stalins wartime leadership. The Soviet Unions ethnic murders predated Nazi Germanys. Stalin was not directly responsible for the Holocaust, but his pact with the Nazis paved the way for Hitlers killing of Jews in the east.这理由很有力却不公平。很多人都对历史胡说八道,但作者不是其中之一。他既没有挑战大屠杀在20世纪历史中的中心地位,也没有无视苏联在希特勒的铁蹄下所受的苦难,以及摧毁第三帝国的士兵们的英勇。作者提出了的观点亟需声援,尤其是在俄罗斯这样一个国家,大众舆论和官方仍然对斯大林的战时领导心怀仰慕。苏联的种族屠杀要早于纳粹德国。斯大林对屠杀是没有直接责任,但他和纳粹的结盟为希特勒在东方屠杀犹太人铺平了道路。Mr Snyders scrupulous and nuanced book steers clear of the sterile, sloganising exchanges about whether Stalin was as bad as Hitler, or whether Soviet mass murder in Ukraine or elsewhere is a moral equivalent of the Nazis extermination of the Jews. What it does do, admirably, is to explain and record. Both totalitarian empires turned human beings into statistics, and their deaths into a necessary step towards a better future. Mr Snyders book explains, with sympathy, fairness and insight, how that happened, and to whom. Just dont it before bedtime.Snyder先生的这本严谨而微妙的著作,绕开了那些无意义的口号式的相互攻击,诸如斯大林是否和希特勒一样坏,或苏联在乌克兰或其他地方的大屠杀是不是和希特勒灭绝犹太人一样的道德犯罪。令人敬佩的是,这本书所给出的是解释和记录。这两个集权帝国都把活生生人变成了统计数字,把这些人的死亡变成了实现国家美好未来的必要步骤。Snyder的这本书怀着同情,正直而富有洞察力地解释了这一切是如何发生的,发生在了谁的头上。 只是不要在睡觉前读。 /201210/204952

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