明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年06月22日 15:52:01
We are back with the stars of Two Broke Girls欢迎回来 嘉宾仍是《破产》的主演and animals enthusiast Kat Dennings and Beth Behrs.动物死忠粉 kat和bethSo umm...and before you got this,所以 在出演此片之前You actually were on Sex and the City. Yes.你参演过 欲望都市 是的And you were a nanny. yeah ,so much.而你是一个保姆 是呀 真的I think we have the clip of sex and the city right? Oh my good.我们找到了欲望都市里的那段 是吧 我的天哪How old were you there?你那时多大14 ,maybe just turned 14.14 好像刚满1414 on sex an the city, lets take a look.14岁出演 欲望都市 我们来看一下where is that little brat mitzvah beast?那个乳臭味干 要办犹太人成人礼的小恶魔在哪儿Jenny. so ladies, is everything fabulous?jenny 女士们 一切都还好吗it is now. I didnt know you were here.现在不错 我不知道你会在这里And I didnt know you knew Carrie Bradshaw.我不知道你认识carrie bradshawYou are fabulous.你真厉害Your column about secret sex,你专栏提到的秘密性爱Hello,my life.根本就是我的生活Seriously, my ex was so completely about the sex when we were alone.说真的 我跟前男友相处时 他想要的只是性But at school in the hallway, I didnt exist.但是在学校走廊时 他根本无视我的存在Sassy mouth . I know.嘴好毒 是啊God. and your aunts in the audience . thats horrible.天啊 而且你姨妈还在观众席里 太糟糕了Yeah, even horrible.是啊 更糟了And you were a nanny even all through when you are shooting the pilot你在拍摄试播集的时候 还一直当着保姆cause you didnt trust the show was gonna go. I was.因为你不太相信这部剧会爆红 是的well, I mean... you know. you never know and I stayed...我的意思是 你事前不会知道I kept my job because i didnt wanna , you know我没把工作辞掉因为我不想 你知道Be jobless if we didnt go, but...right.万一剧黄了我就成无业游民了 好吧So lets talk about...下面我们聊聊I saw the picture of your pets which,我看过你们宠物的照片you know, who who isnt obesessed with their own pets.谁不迷恋自己的宠物小宝贝呢I mean everybody , so you take lots of pictures.大家都是一样 我看你们拍了很多照Yeah,we are.是的 我们确实是so...so you have a little puppy thats cute你养了一只很可爱的小and you have a kitten.你家有只猫星人And lets... who are we showing first?我们先来展示哪个好呢Lets take a look. okay.一起来看看 好的注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201402/274899

  Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:Ever since I asked my sister, ;Vera,; to drive me to an upcoming surgery appointment,自从我要求我“维拉”开车载我来到即将到来的手术预约后,shes been pestering me for access to my doctor so she can question him about my health and stop him from doing the surgery.她就一直缠着我找我的医生,这样她就可以问他关于我的健康状况并且阻止他做手术。I told Vera that my doctor refuses to talk to her.我告诉维拉我的医生拒绝同她讲话。She doesnt believe me, but its the truth.她不相信我,但这是事实。He cant talk to anyone about my medical status.他不能对任何人说出我的医疗状况。Now she wont speak to me.现在她都不跟我说话了。I have begged her to forgive me, but havent heard a word either by phone or e-mail.我恳求她原谅我,但通过电话或电子邮件没有听到过只言片语。She means a lot to me.她对我意味着很多。I need her in my life, and Ive told her that several times.我的生命中需要她,我已经好几次这样告诉过她。Please advise. Bereft Sister.请给出你们的建议。贝拉福特。Dear Sister:亲爱的贝拉福特:It sounds as if Vera has been bossing you around for a long time and doesnt like being denied the opportunity to keep doing it.听起来好像维拉很长时间以来一直指挥你并且不喜欢被拒绝继续这样做的机会。If you want Vera to consult your doctor, you can give him permission to discuss your status with her.如果你希望维拉咨询一下你的医生,你可以允许他和她讨论你的医疗状况。If you think her concern is intrusive, say nothing more.如果你认为她的担忧是侵入性的,就什么也别说。We suspect Vera will eventually come around, although she wants to punish you a bit first.虽然她首先想着怎样教训你,但我们怀疑维拉最终会过来的。201309/256164

  Science and technology科学技术Invasive species入侵物种Boom and bust繁衍与湮灭Invasive Argentine ants may be less persistent than once feared入侵性阿根廷蚂蚁可能没有想象的那么可怕Ready for take-off随时准备离开DESPITE their name, Argentine ants are a well-travelled lot.如果不顾它们的恶名,阿根廷蚂蚁可以说是很好的旅行家。Human commerce has allowed them to hitch rides from their homeland to every continent on the planet, with the exception of Antarctica.人类的商业活动将它们带到了世界各大洲,南极洲除外。And when they arrive, they often thrive.并且当它们到达时,它们就会繁衍。At least 15 countries now host colonies, which frequently prosper at the expense of native species.目前,至少15个国家受到外来物种的入侵,这种入侵是以牺牲本土物种为代价的。This flexibility, combined with an aggressive temperament, makes them one of the worlds best-known and most-hated invasive species.这种侵略性及适应性使得它们成为世界上最著名同时也是最令人深恶痛绝的入侵物种。Yet, as any general knows, establishing a beachhead is not the same thing as conducting a successful, long-term occupation.但是,众所周知,建立一个滩头阵地不同于成功地进行一次长期占领。Argentine-ant colonies sometimes collapse suddenly, and with no obvious explanation.阿根廷蚂蚁的入侵有时突然毫无缘由地停止。In a paper just published in Biology Letters, a group of researchers at Victoria University of Wellington, in New Zealand,在最近发表在《生物书简》上的一篇文章中,新西兰惠灵顿维多利亚大学的一组研究人员,led by Meghan Cooling and Phil Lester,由梅根?库灵和菲尔?莱斯特领导,describe their attempts to study such disappearances systematically.描述了他们对这种系统性消失的研究。The researchers examined 150 sites across the country where Argentine-ant nests had been recorded.研究者们考察了全国范围内150个已经被记录下来的阿根廷蚂蚁据点。At 40% of them they found that the ants had vanished.他们发现其中的40%已经消失,At many of the other sites, ant numbers were much reduced,而在其他的据点,蚂蚁数量减少,with areas that once sported dozens of nests over hundreds of hectares reduced to just one or two colonies covering much smaller tracts of land.原来几百公顷的面积上有几十个蚁巢,而现在一片小面积土地上只有一两个聚居群。And with the invaders gone, native ants seemed to be re-establishing themselves,随着侵略者离开,本土蚂蚁似乎在重建自己的种群,suggesting that the Argentine ants impact on biodiversity had been transient, rather than permanent.这表明阿根廷蚂蚁对生物多样性的影响只是暂时的。A statistical analysis of the data yielded an estimate for the likely survival time of a typical colony of between 12.9 and 15.3 years,数据统计分析估测了一个典型的聚居群可能的生存时间。and suggested that warm and dry conditions were more favourable for survival than cold, wet ones.该分析也表明,比起寒冷潮湿的条件,温暖干燥的环境更有利于生存。Exactly what caused the collapses is still not clear, although the researchers suspect that unfamiliar diseases may have played a role.尽管研究者们怀疑不熟悉的疾病可能起到了一定作用,但导致阿根廷蚂蚁消失的确切原因尚不清楚。y is not strength团结不是力量It is a plausible theory.这种理论可信。Because they grew from a small number of founder colonies,因为它们是从很小的群体发展起来的,or possibly even a single one,New Zealands Argentine ants are genetically similar to one another.新西兰的阿根廷蚂蚁之间的基因非常相似。That may be one reason for their success: ant researchers hypothesise that, being so closely related,这也许是它们成功的原因之一:蚂蚁研究者假定,the individual insects are unable to distinguish their nest mates from members of other colonies,关系紧密的个体昆虫不能够把同巢穴的同伴同其它聚居区的成员区分开来,which causes ants from different nests to co-operate as if they were kin,这导致来自不同巢穴的蚂蚁就像亲戚一样相互合作。and has led students of the field to speak not of hundreds of individual infestations, but of a single, country-spanning super-colony.这使得这一领域的学者不再谈及成百的个体侵扰,而是谈及单一的、跨越全国的超级群体。But a shallow gene pool can be a weakness, too.但是,一个浅薄的基因库也可能是一个弱点。If one nest proves susceptible to some environmental factor,如果一个巢穴容易受到某些环境因素的影响,be it disease, predation, or even a cold snap or wet spell,不管是疾病、掠食,亦或是寒流、潮湿期,then it is likely that all the other colonies will share that vulnerability.那么极可能其他的聚居群也有着同样的弱点。Now that they have documented the extent of the collapse the next step,库灵表示,他们现在已经记载了蚁群消失的范围,says Ms Cooling, is to test the hypothesis of genetic vulnerability and try to work out precisely what causes the sudden reversals of formicine fortune she has seen.下一步是验基因脆弱性这一假设,并努力找出导致蚁群突然转变的确切原因。And it is not just ecologists who will be waiting for the results.而等待这一结果的不止是生态学家。New Zealands government had reckoned it might have to spend NZm a year keeping the newcomers under control.新西兰政府估计,每年可能会花掉NZm用于控制新物种的入侵。If Mother Nature can do the job instead, then it would represent a tidy saving for the countrys exchequer.如果自然母亲能够完成这项工作,那将会为国库省下一大笔资金。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/244905。

  In the process, the culture and politics of Brithish isles were transformed.在这个过程中,英国群岛的文化和政治发生了很大的变化。Englands distinctive system of justice was established.英格兰建立起了独一无二的司法系统。Parliament was born and great Gothic cathedrals transformed the landscape.议会应运而生而且伟大的哥特式教堂发生了改变。The Plantagenets developed a new type of warfare in their attempt to claim Scotland.金雀花家族在对苏格兰的觊觎中发展出一种新型的战争。They conquered Wales and half of Island.他们征了威尔士的一半。And their great royal castles harmed their own power.而他们伟大的皇家城堡影响到了自己的权力。When the Plantagenets won the kingdom of England, its shattered and lawless.当金雀花家族在英格兰王国获得胜利,它变得离破碎而且无法可依。Under their rule,its transformed into one of the best governed states in precedent.在他们的统治下,变成了一个最好的治理国家的先例。But their story is one of intrigue,conflicts and violence.但他们的故事充满阴谋,冲突和暴力。They fought their enemies,but also turned on each other,sons made wars on fathers, brothers betrayed brothers,powerful queens conspired.他们同敌人战斗,但彼此也兵戎相向,儿子对父亲发起战争,兄弟背叛兄弟,强大的皇后密谋挑起事端。 201407/310878

  Finance and economics财经商业South Koreas housing market韩国住房市场Lumping it多轨并行Landlords are having to ditch a century-old rental system房东们正不得不抛弃持续了一个世纪的租房系统Jeonses future is hazy Jeonse的租房方式看不到未来MOST South Korean urbanites would leap at the chance to part with 0,000 to rent a smallish flat for three years in Seoul, the capital.大多数韩国城市居民可能利用这一机会放弃在其首都首尔以150,000美元的价格租住一间小型公寓三年。These days, however, most Korean landlords would spurn such a measly deposit.然而,近日大多数韩国的房东可能摒弃这一少得可怜的保金。Koreas unusual rental system, known as jeonse, does not involve monthly rental payments.韩国特殊的租房系统,被称为Jeonse,并不持付月租。Instead, tenants provide landlords with a deposit, typically between a quarter and half of the propertys value, to invest for the duration of the lease.相反,房客向房东提供一笔保金,保金的数额一般在房产价值的四分之一到一半,让他们在租期进行投资。Property owners keep the returns and then repay the lump sum at the end of the tenancy.房产所有者保存收益并在租期结束后,退还总额。Average deposits have now risen for 76 consecutive weeks in Korea, the longest streak ever.韩国平均保金现在已经连续上升了76周,这是有史以来历时最长的增长。Thousands of jeonse leases in the capital are now as high as 90% of the value of the house; they sometimes exceed it in areas where property prices have fallen since leases were agreed.在首都成千上万的Jeonse 租约价值现在高达房屋价值的90%,在有些房价下降的地区,他们有时候超过这个比例,因为租约在过去已经达成。The jeonse system was once prized by both tenants and landlords.Jeonse体系曾广受租客和房东的赞誉。In the 1960s rapid urbanisation drew farmers to Koreas thriving cities, boosting demand for homes at a time when capital was being mobilised for state-led industrial development.在1960年,高速的城市化促使农民前往新兴城市,对房屋的需求在资本因为政府主导的工业发展而被调动起来时呈现爆炸性的增长。The government thought property unproductive, so restricted banks from lending to developers, homeowners and tenants, says Son Jae-young, a professor of real estate at Konkuk University in Seoul.首尔建国大学不动产方面的Son Jae-young教授这样说道:政府认为房产对于生产力发展增益不大,因此限制向开发商、房屋所有人和租客贷款。In response jeonse emerged as a self-help funding mechanism.Jeonse 体系因此衍生为一个自助融资机制。Tenants deposits financed landlords properties, interest-free, while pushing renters to pool savings: over time, the deposit would become their own home-purchase fund. For decades, monthly rental was synonymous with poverty.租客的保金增长了房东的财产,而且没有利息,同时促使租房者积蓄存款;随着时间的发展,这些保金会成为他们自己的购房基金。在过去的几十年时间里,付月租是贫穷的代名词。Yet interest rates and property prices have sunk since 2008.然而利率以及房价自从2008年开始已经下降。To earn a decent return on their investments, landlords have been raising jeonse prices.为了赢取一个可观的投资回报,房主一直在提高 Jeonse的价格。Tenants have tended to take out low-interest loans to cover the hike.房客趋向于用低息贷款来付不断攀高的价格。Since such borrowing has almost doubled, from 33.5 trillion won to 60 trillion won, according to the Bank of Korea, the central bank.根据韩国中央—韩国的统计,自年以来,这样的借款几乎加倍,从33.5万亿韩元(31.5亿美元)增长到了60万亿韩元。That undermines one of the main advantages of this unusual system.该举削弱了这个独特系统的一个主要优势。Previously the large cash deposits that tenants had to build up helped shelter the Korean property market from bubbles, by restraining price increases, and from busts, by providing buyers with y pots of cash.之前租客累积的大额现金保金通过限制价格上涨避免韩国房产市场的泡沫并通过为卖方提供大量准备的现金防止破产。It also helped protect the banking system from losses on risky mortgages.它也有助于保护系统,免受高风险抵押贷款的威胁。Long considered a deal between individuals, the deposits are still not included in Koreas household debt statistics, nor in calculations of average loan-to-value ratios.因为长期以来被认为是个体间的交易,这项保金既不被纳入韩国家庭债务统计,也不被用于计算平均住房担保贷款率中。Central bank data on jeonse loans only go back to .中央有关jeonse贷款的数据只能追溯到年。But Sun Dae-in, the author of a recent book on Koreas housing market, says the deposits held by landlords must be seen as debts.但是,近期出版的有关韩国住房市场一书的作者Sun Dae-in 这样说道:被房东持有的保金必须被视作为债务。He estimates that about half of all jeonse money is used to finance a second or third property.他估计大约一半的Jeonse被用作购进第二或第三处房产。If added to housing loans, the average LTV ratio would jump from just under 50% to over 75%.如果增加到住房贷款,平均住房担保贷款 比率会从低于50%的水平攀升至超过75%。Last November the Bank of Korea estimated that a tenth of Koreas 3.7m jeonse landlords may find it hard to repay tenants deposits.上个十一月份,韩国估计370万 Jeonse房东的十分之一或许会发现付租客的保金有困难。Aly more landlords are choosing to rent their properties for a monthly fee: 40% did so last year, up from 34% in 2012.已经有越来越多的房东选择按月费的方式来出租他们的房产。But some homeowners would rather not ditch jeonse entirely: more than a quarter are using its hefty sums to pay off a mortgage on the rented property, according to the Bank of Korea.但是一些房屋所有者不愿意完全放弃Jeonse:根据韩国的数据,超过四分之一的人正通过其庞大的总量来偿还抵押他们已经出租的房产的贷款。They often offer tenants the option to substitute a monthly payment for an increase in the deposit.他们通常提供租客用月付方式来替代保金的增长的选择。A hybrid system, still unique to Korea, is taking root.一个依然有着韩国特色的混合系统正在生根发芽。 /201402/276299

  Japanese electronics firms日本电子企业Eclipsed by Apple苹果,你挡住了我的阳光Electronics companies in Japan are starting to turn themselves around, but they are a shadow of their former selves日本的电子公司的处境已经开始得到改善,但还是被旧模式所束缚FOR Sony it was a bittersweet moment. On July 1st the firm bid a final farewell to its Vaio personal computers, a global brand which won such a devoted following after its launch in 1996 that the late Steve Jobs, a fan of Sony in its glory days, once asked to equip it with his Apple Mac operating system. Cut off from its parent, Vaio is floundering. Since Sony announced its sale to a Japanese private-equity fund, in February, it has suffered a slump in its market share in Japan to just 2%, down from 10% at the start of 2014.对于索尼来说,这可谓是百味陈杂的一刻。7月1日,索尼正式告别它旗下的VAIO电脑。VAIO在1996年上市以来就广受欢迎,当年索尼的铁杆粉丝乔布斯曾经希望在VAIO上安装苹果的运行系统。如今独立经营的VAID正在苦苦挣扎:自从今年二月份索尼宣布将它出售给一家日本的私募基金后,它的市场份额从年初的10%暴跌至硕果仅存的2%。The vertiginous drop will have dismayed Sony, which had kept a tiny stake in the business. However, investors have put Sonys bosses under pressure to do something about the companys chronically poor performance. It has lost money in five of the past six years and is forecasting a further loss in the year to March 2015.由于索尼在此业务中仍持有少量股份,这种暴跌的确教人头疼。不过,投资者们已经开始督促索尼的高官们对该公司的长期疲软有所作为。在过去六年中就有长达五年的亏损,这样的情形预计还会持续到2015年三月。Vaio is the most significant business Sony has quit in recent times. Cutting it adrift may be the start of a far-reaching reorganisation. On the same day the firm shifted its loss-making televisions arm, once the core of its profits and brand image, into a separate legal entity. For now, Sonys chief executive, Kazuo Hirai, rules out an outright sale, and many people criticise him for not acting more drastically. Yet the firm admits that an alliance with another television-maker could be an option.VAID应当是近年来索尼所放弃的最为重要的业务了。这种放弃可能是长期机构调整的开始。就在同一天,索尼把曾经带来主要利润和品牌形象,最近却亏损连连的电视机业务转变成了独立的法人。目前,索尼公司的首席执行官平井一夫决定不采取直接出售的做法,因此而受到了行动不够彻底的批评。不过,索尼也承认还可能和其他电视制造商结成联盟。After years of denial that surgery was needed, optimism is rising that Japans consumer-electronics firms are facing up to their steady loss of global market share (see chart 1). In 1982 we published a briefing on how “The giants in Japanese electronics” were set to keep conquering the world with all manner of exciting new gadgets: Video cameras! Fax machines! CD players! And they did, for a while. But now they all struggle to compete in the most important categories of consumer electronics against rivals such as Samsung of South Korea and especially Apple of the ed States.在多年的讳疾忌医之后,越来越多的人们认为日本的消费电子公司终于开始面对它们全球市场份额日渐萎靡的现实。在1982年,我们曾经发表了一份简讯,说的是“日本电子巨头”将如何通过它们的全新电子工具来征世界:摄像机!传真机!CD播放机!它们确实做到了,不过这成为历史。目前在重要的电子消费品方面,南韩的三星和美国的苹果势头强劲,日本公司的对抗之路走得艰难。Even at home in Japans thriving consumer-electronics market—only Americans have more devices per person than the tech-obsessed Japanese—former champions, including Hitachi, Panasonic and Sharp as well as Sony, have lost much ground. Local firms have largely ceded the PC market, and they are losing out quickly in mobile phones. They never really made their mark in smartphones, todays most-desired gadgets. Sonys Trinitron TVs and Walkmans once helped build a fearsomely large Japanese trade surplus, but nowadays the country suffers a deficit, and foreign smartphones account for about a fifth of it.日本人痴迷技术产品,人均电子设备持有量紧随美国,居世界第二。但即使是在日本,过去那些电子消费品市场的领头羊—包括日立,松下和夏普以及索尼,都风光不再。日本本土公司已经基本放弃了电脑市场,而在手机方面也形势不妙。在当今最受欢迎的智能手机方面,它们表现平平。索尼的Trinitron电视和随身听曾经为日本实现了令人羡妒的贸易顺差,可如今日本却赤字不断,而来自日本的智能手机大概造成赤字的五分之一。One consolation is that consumer electronics is an impossible business for nearly all firms, says Eiichi Katayama of Bank of America Merrill Lynch in Tokyo, so competitive has it become. A strong brand is no longer enough to justify a sharply higher price. This week Samsung said its operating profits were down, for a third quarter in a row, in the three months to June, as it was pressed from below by cut-price rivals like Xiaomi, a three-year-old upstart from China, and squeezed from above by Apple.东京美国美林的片山荣一称,电子消费品领域竞争激烈,几乎对所有的公司来说都是极为难做的业务,这对日本公司来说算是小小的宽慰。要想设立高价,只有优秀的品牌已经远远不够了。本周三星透露自己的营销利润在四到六月期间持续走低,而这样的低迷状态已经持续了三个季度—原因在于手机的高低端市场分别被苹果和小米机占据。That said, the Japanese firms have blundered for the past decade. They continued to obsess about fancy hardware, neglecting fast-growing software and services (such as Apples iTunes) and failing to spot consumers changing tastes. They were slow to recognise the developing world as a fast-growing market and not just a low-cost manufacturing base, says Peter Kenevan, a consultant at McKinsey in Tokyo.话虽如此,日本企业在过去十年的处境都颇为艰难,源于它们过分沉迷于花哨的硬件,却忽视了飞速成长的软件和务领域,也没能及时发现消费者悄然变化的喜好。麦肯锡东京分部的顾问皮特·科内宛称,这些企业一向把发展中国家当做低成本的制造基地,对于这些快速增长的市场的巨大潜力却反应迟钝。The Japanese firms now have some hard decisions to make, about which existing products they should give up on and which new ones to pursue. Sonys bosses are reportedly studying reforms made by Philips, a Dutch firm which has quit a number of poorly performing businesses. Last year it got out of making televisions, and a chunk of its lighting division is next out of the door.日本众企业现在需要痛定思痛,辨别哪些现存产品应当毅然地放弃,哪些新产品又应当不舍地追求。据说索尼的高官们现在正在向荷兰公司飞利浦的一系列变革学习—该公司目前已经放弃了几项表现不佳的业务:去年停止了电视机的生产,接下来要精简的就是一系列照明业务了。Panasonic is aly making an abrupt change of direction. Under Kazuhiro Tsuga, its newish chief executive, it is exiting both plasma televisions and consumer smartphones. Its new focus is on making equipment for energy-efficient homes. Car parts, including battery cells for electric and hybrid vehicles, are another strong area of growth. Mr Tsuga is also seeking ways to serve emerging Asian markets better. He recently shocked his fellow managers by saying Panasonic would set up a product-development headquarters in India, staffed chiefly by locals.松下已经做出了大幅度的政策调整。在新上任的首席执行官铁杉和弘的带领下,松下正在淡出等离子电视和消费者智能手机领域,转而聚焦于节能住宅设备制造。此外汽车零件也是成长势头猛烈的领域之一,其中包括用于电动和混合动力汽车的电池。和弘先生同时也在探索如何更好的务欣欣向荣的亚洲市场。最近,和弘先生就声称有意在主要聘用当地人的印度建立松下的产品发展总部。此番言论在高管中激起了不小的波澜。Other firms, such as Toshiba and Hitachi, which were aly less reliant on consumer electronics, are paying new attention to their heavy industrial businesses. All these moves should help solve a common structural problem in Japanese industry, which is that too many firms all make similar products. Some electronics giants are moving into a surprising new field: high-tech farming. Fujitsu, Hitachi, Panasonic and Sharp are converting disused factory space and opening high-tech greenhouses to grow vegetables, which are expensive in Japan.其他对于消费者电器依赖较少的日企,例如东芝和日立,则开始更多的关注它们的重工业业务。这些变动将有利于改善日本工业普遍存在的结构性问题,那就是企业的产品相似度太高。还有一些电子巨头则开始挺进全新的领域:高科技农业。富士通,日立,松下和夏普都在把废弃不用的工厂改造成为高科技温室,以种植在日本卖价颇高的蔬菜。The financial results of the changes have started to emerge. Aided also by a recent fall in the value of the yen, Fujitsu, Panasonic and Sharp all returned to profit in 2013. The other big electronics firms all improved their bottom lines, with the exceptions of Sony and NEC. Sony promises that 2015-16 will be the year in which it returns to profit. Its smartphones and tablets are at last gaining some traction, with the help of one simple, customer-centred innovation—making them waterproof. It will take little short of a miracle for it to make up the ground lost to Apple but such hints that the worst may soon be over have helped Sony, so far, to fend off calls by Daniel Loeb, an American activist investor, for a radical break-up of the company.这些改变已经在经济上面初见成效。在日元贬值的天时地利之际,富士通、松下和夏普都在2013年重新盈利。除了索尼和NEC以外的大型电子公司也都有所进步。索尼承诺自己将会在2015-16开始盈利。现在索尼的智能手机和平板电脑越来越受欢迎,这还要归功于一项简单而颇有人情味的创新—防水设计。当然,要想从苹果手里收复失地可谓天方夜谭;不过,这些转机还是能够暂时帮助索尼抵御丹尼尔·勒布要求分化该公司的激烈言论。此人是一位来自美国的激进投资者。Seeking a path to growth寻求成长道路For the foreseeable future, Panasonic, Sharp and Sony will continue to rely on consumer electronics for much of their sales and profits. Although Mr Tsuga has done a lot of restructuring and redirection at Panasonic, say executives in the industry, he has not yet found a reliable path towards growth. Films, music, television and financial services are solid businesses for Sony, but consumer electronics still accounts for 60% of its revenues.在可预见的未来,松下、夏普和索尼还是会继续依赖消费者电子产品来拉动销售额和利润。业内管理人士称,尽管松下的和弘先生已经在结构和策略上做出了不小的调整,他依旧还未找到一条持续成长的道路;尽管索尼的主要业务涵盖电影,音乐,电视,以及金融务,消费者电子依旧占据销售量的六成。If their chief executives were visionary leaders willing to take risks, Japanese electronics firms could do much to regain their lost lustre, says Roderick Lappin, who heads the Japanese operations of Chinas fast-rising Lenovo. Their unrivalled engineering, though often in excess of customers needs, is still an advantage, he says. They sit on a trove of intellectual property in the form of patents. Much of this could prove invaluable in the field of “wearable” technology or in the much-hyped “internet of things”, in which appliances, equipment and even pets may in future be wirelessly web-connected.罗德克·拉宾是中国新兴品牌联想在日本业务的负责人。他认为,只要这些日企的执行者们富有远见,甘愿冒险,回复往日荣耀不在话下。日本人的工程技术高超,虽然与客户的需求相比可能过犹不及,其数一数二的地位依旧是一项竞争优势。日本人拥有大量受专利保护的知识产权,这些在“可消耗”技术和炒的火热的“物联网”领域都非常宝贵。“物联网”可能在将来能把电器、设备甚至宠物通过无线网络连接起来。However, the Japanese firms will find themselves hindered by their old-fashioned corporate cultures. With a few exceptions such as Mr Tsuga, Japanese bosses, with an average age of 60, are extremely cautious. Years of losses and restructuring make it still harder for them to place bold bets on future technologies.可惜的是,日本企业受其传统企业文化掣肘不小。日企老板的平均年龄高达花甲,行事谨小慎微—和弘先生算是为数不多的特例之一。再加上连年亏损和结构调整,让这些老板们放手投资未来高科技可谓难上加难。In particular, they are still too attached to Japans culture of lifetime employment. At most large Japanese firms, around a third of permanent staff are surplus to requirements, yet cannot be fired due to the countrys unclear labour rules.最为突出的是,老板们依旧非常留恋日本文化特有的终身聘用制度。在大多数日本公司里面,大概三分之一的正式员工都是多余的,可是由于日本劳动法暧昧不轻,裁员基本没有可能。There is some hope that Shinzo Abes reforming government may take steps to make the labour market more flexible, which would help electronics more than any other industry. Had lay-offs been easier, Panasonic, Sony and others would have had far greater financial flexibility to cope with changing market conditions. Instead, their limited voluntary severance packages, typically offering two to three years pay, are cripplingly expensive. Those who accept them are often the most talented.安倍晋三的政府改革有望使劳动市场变得更为灵活,而电子产业将是其中最大的受益者。如果裁员能变得更容易的话,松下、索尼和其他公司都能从财务方面更好的适应千变万化的市场。现实情况却是,对企业来说,数量有限的资源遣散费(通常提供两至三年的工资)变得越来越昂贵,而愿意接受这些遣散费离职的往往还是企业中最有才华的员工。Since the firms are no longer run by their high-powered founders but by employees who rose through the same lifetime system, says Hidemi Moue, boss of Japan Industrial Partners, the private-equity buyer of Vaio, there is too little willingness to tackle these problems. In all, it will take a lot more than a few whizzy new gadgets to fix the Japanese electronics firms.接手VAIO的私募企业是日本产业合作伙伴。它的老板秀美马上称,由于这些日企的运营者已不再是那些效率奇高的创始人,而是跟企业共同成长起来的员工,所以解决这方面问题的决心自然而然就比较小了。总而言之,日本电子企业的问题可不是发明几个新式电子小工具就能解决的。 /201407/312741Global ageing全球老龄化A billion shades of grey十亿银发族An ageing economy will be a slower and more unequal one—unless policy starts changing now一个老龄化的经济体会发展地越来越缓慢,且社会不平等加剧—除非现在就开始政策改革WARREN BUFFETT, who on May 3rd hosts the folksy extravaganza that is Berkshire Hathaways annual shareholders meeting, is an icon of American capitalism. At 83, he also epitomises a striking demographic trend: for highly skilled people to go on working well into what was once thought to be old age. Across the rich world, well-educated people increasingly work longer than the less-skilled. Some 65% of American men aged 62-74 with a professional degree are in the workforce, compared with 32% of men with only a high-school certificate. In the European Union the pattern is similar.沃伦巴菲特,这个美国资本主义的象征式人物,将于5月3号主持伯克希尔·哈撒韦公司一年一度的股东大会。83岁高龄的他也正代表了当前人口发展趋势的一个令人震惊的缩影:高技术人才在步入老年之后仍然继续工作。在富裕的国家,受过良好教育的人比低端技术工人工作时间更长。在美国,拥有专业学位且年龄在62到74岁之间的人中有大约65%仍然在岗,相较之下,拥有高中文凭的人只有32%还在工作。在欧洲情况也类似。This gap is part of a deepening divide between the well-educated well-off and the unskilled poor that is slicing through all age groups. Rapid innovation has raised the incomes of the highly skilled while squeezing those of the unskilled. Those at the top are working longer hours each year than those at the bottom. And the well-qualified are extending their working lives, compared with those of less-educated people (see article). The consequences, for individuals and society, are profound.这种差异体现了一种受过高等教育的富裕阶层和缺乏技能的穷人阶层之间日益加深的社会分化,而且这样的分化遍布各个年龄层。快速的创新增加了高技术人才的收入,却压缩了低技术工人的薪资。处于高层职位的人的工作时间和底层工人相比逐年递增,有资质的人的工作年限也比没有的人要多。这样的结果不论对于个人和社会来说,都有着深远的影响。Older, wiser and a lot of them数量众多的高技术人才变老了The world is on the cusp of a staggering rise in the number of old people, and they will live longer than ever before. Over the next 20 years the global population of those aged 65 or more will almost double, from 600m to 1.1 billion. The experience of the 20th century, when greater longevity translated into more years in retirement rather than more years at work, has persuaded many observers that this shift will lead to slower economic growth and “secular stagnation”, while the swelling ranks of pensioners will bust government budgets.世界的老龄人口正在以惊人的速度增长,并且他们越活越长。在未来的20年里,全球65岁以上的老年人数量将会翻番,从6000万到11亿。根据20世纪的经验来看,当长寿意味着更长的退休时间和更短的工作时间时,很多人都会感觉到明显的经济增速减缓和长期经济停滞,同时越来越多的养老金申领人口会导致政府的预算破产。But the notion of a sharp division between the working young and the idle old misses a new trend, the growing gap between the skilled and the unskilled. Employment rates are falling among younger unskilled people, whereas older skilled folk are working longer. The divide is most extreme in America, where well-educated baby-boomers are putting off retirement while many less-skilled younger people have dropped out of the workforce.当我们只关注于工作年轻人与闲散老年人的严重分化现象时,往往忽略了一个新的趋势,即不同人劳动技能之间日益加剧的差异。缺乏技能的年轻人的就业率在下降,而经验丰富的高技术人才却工作得越来越久。在美国,这样的分歧最为严重,婴儿潮时期出生的、受过良好教育的人们延迟退休,从而将技能不足的年轻人排挤出劳动力市场。Policy is partly responsible. Many European governments have abandoned policies that used to encourage people to retire early. Rising life expectancy, combined with the replacement of generous defined-benefit pension plans with stingier defined-contribution ones, means that even the better-off must work longer to have a comfortable retirement. But the changing nature of work also plays a big role. Pay has risen sharply for the highly educated, and those people continue to reap rich rewards into old age because these days the educated elderly are more productive than their predecessors. Technological change may well reinforce that shift: the skills that complement computers, from management expertise to creativity, do not necessarily decline with age.政策也要为此承担一部分责任。很多欧洲政府已经撤销了鼓励人们提早退休的政策。增长的寿命,再加上养老金计划从回报丰厚的固定收益型转为日趋紧缩的固定缴费型,这都意味着经济条件较好的人都不得不工作更长时间以保障一个安逸的晚年。另外,工作性质的改变也是原因之一。受过高等教育的人的工资显著增加,因为这些人的生产能力比前人更高,所以他们能将所得的高额酬劳储蓄起来作为晚年的保障。科技的转型也会增强这样的改变:像管理技巧和创造力这种不能够被计算机所取代的能力,不一定会因年龄老化而失去其价值。This trend will benefit not just fortunate oldies but also, in some ways, society as a whole. Growth will slow less dramatically than expected; government budgets will be in better shape, as high earners pay taxes for longer. Rich countries with lots of well-educated older people will find the burden of ageing easier to bear than places like China, where half of all 50-to-64-year-olds did not complete primary-school education.这种趋势不仅对那些幸运的老人们有好处,也令社会从中得益。经济增长不会像预期中那样急剧减缓:政府预算看起来会好得多,因为高收入者会纳税地更久。拥有大量受过良好教育的老年人的发达国家,其人口老龄化的负担会比其他地区轻得多,比如50至64岁人口中一半都没有完成小学教育的中国。At the other end of the social scale, however, things look grim. Manual work gets harder as people get older, and public pensions look more attractive to those on low wages and the unemployed. In the lexicon of popular hate-figures, work-shirking welfare queens breeding at the taxpayers expense may be replaced by deadbeat grandads collecting taxpayer handouts while their hard-working contemporaries strive on.然而,从社会的另一个层面来讲情形并非如此乐观。随着年龄增长,体力劳动将会显得力不从心,因此对于低收入者和失业者来说公共养老金会更有吸引力。最招人讨厌的公众形象可能会从“好吃懒做、靠纳税人供养的福利皇后”变成“欠债不还、当同龄人还在努力工作时却只会伸手向纳税人讨救济品的养老金爷爷”。(“福利皇后”通常指的是中年黑人妇女,她们每天无所事事,子女也不做事,光吃社会福利——译者注)Nor are all the effects on the economy beneficial. Wealthy old people will accumulate more savings, which will weaken demand. Inequality will increase and a growing share of wealth will eventually be transferred to the next generation via inheritance, entrenching the division between winners and losers still further.对经济的影响并不全是有利的。富裕的老年人会积累更多的储蓄,因此会降低需求。社会不平等会增加,其中很大一部分财富会以遗产的形式转移给下一代,使得成功者与失败者之间的贫富差距鸿沟日益加大。One likely response is to impose higher inheritance taxes. So long as they replaced less-fair taxes, that might make sense. They would probably encourage old people to spend their cash rather than salt it away. But governments should focus not on redistributing income but on generating more of it by reforming retirement and education.一个可行的措施是施行高额遗产税。只要能够代替其他更缺乏公平的税收,遗产税还是较为合理的。这能使老年人花掉他们的积蓄而不是存起来。但政府也应该通过改革退休政策和教育体系来创造更多收入,而不能仅仅停留在重新分配收入的层面。Age should no longer determine the appropriate end of a working life. Mandatory retirement ages and pension rules that discourage people from working longer should go. Welfare should reflect the greater opportunities open to the higher-skilled. Pensions should become more progressive. At the same time, this trend underlines the importance of increasing public investment in education at all stages of life, so that more people acquire the skills they need to thrive in the modern labour market. Today, many governments are understandably loth to spend money retraining older folk who are likely to retire soon. But if people can work for longer, that investment makes much more sense. Deadbeat 60-year-olds are unlikely to become computer scientists, but they could learn useful vocational skills, such as caring for the growing number of very old people.工作年限不应该被年龄所限制。强制性退休年龄和养老金制度会让人们不想工作那么久,所以是不合理的,应该被淘汰。社会福利应该能够反映出针对高技术人才的广阔机遇。养老金应该更加循序渐进。与此同时,这个趋势也显示出加强对各个年龄段的公共教育投资的重要性,令更多的人获得能够在现代劳动力市场中得以立足的技能。如今,很多政府都懒得为那些马上就要退休的老年人花钱进行重新培训,这是可以理解的。但是,如果人们能够工作的更久,这种投资是有意义的。年届60且欠债不还的人不太可能成为计算机科学家。但他们能够学习一些职业技能,例如照顾数量越来越多的老年人。Old power老人的力量How likely are governments to make these changes? Look around the rich world today, and it is hard to be optimistic. The swelling ranks of older voters, and their disproportionate propensity to vote, have left politicians keener to pander to them than to implement disruptive reforms. Germany, despite being the fastest-ageing country in Europe, plans to cut the statutory retirement age for some people. In America both Social Security (the public pension scheme) and the fast-growing system of disability benefits remain untouched by reform. Politicians need to convince less-skilled older voters that it is in their interests to go on working. Doing so will not be easy. But the alternative—economic stagnation and even greater inequality—is worse.政府作出改变的可能性有多大?放眼当今的发达国家,情况不容乐观。越来越多的老年选民会令投票结果失衡,政治家为了迎合他们而不会做出根本性的改革。尽管德国是欧洲地区老龄化速度最快的国家,也计划对某部分人降低退休年龄。在美国,社保(公共养老金体系)和快速增长的残障人士福利体系都被隔绝在改革的进程之外。政治家需要说那些缺乏劳动技能的老年选民:让你们继续工作是为了你们好。这么做可不容易。但是若非如此的话,后果将是经济萧条和更大的社会不平等,那就更糟糕了。 201405/296980

  Science and technology科学技术Drug research药物研究Toxic medicine毒类药品Snake venom is being used to cure, rather than kill蛇毒用于治病,不是杀伤THERE are no poisons, only poisonous doses.Thus did Paracelsus, the greatest of the alchemists, encapsulate an important piece of medical wisdom.曾经最伟大的炼金术士帕拉塞尔苏斯创立的一条重要的医学名言如是说:没有毒药,只有毒剂。In fact, that is only half the story,然而,这只说对了一半。for many materials which are toxic at high doses, when used sparingly and directed at specific targets, are not merely harmless, but actually beneficial.很多物质量大了以后就有毒性了。当计量后专用时,不仅无害,而且有益。Plant poisons, from digitalis to curare, are routinely employed as drugs.一些植物的汁液,都可用作常规药物。And now it is the turn of animal toxins, as researchers examine venoms secreted by snakes and lizards, to see if they, too, might be turned into treatments.而现在研究人员转向研究动物的毒液―蛇和蜥蜴分泌的毒汁,检验它们是否可用来治病。Snake venom, collected from farmed reptiles, has been used to make antisera for snake bites for decades by injecting it into mammals such as sheep and horses, and collecting the antibodies thus generated.圈养的蛇可收集蛇毒。几十年来,人们一直用蛇毒制作抗血清4治疗毒蛇咬伤,还把它注射到绵羊和马这样哺乳动物体内,收取抗体。Making drugs from the venom itself, however, is a fairly new idea.虽然蛇毒制药是一个全新的概念,But that is what Stefan Hailey of the University of Delaware and his colleagues hope to do.但特拉华州大学的史蒂芬?哈利和他们同事希望如此。In a paper published recently by Toxicon, they report how a protein called eristostatin, which can be extracted from the venom of the Asian sand viper, helps peoples immune systems fight malignant melanoma.最近,他们发表了一篇名为《毒素》的论文,介绍了从亚洲沙蝰的毒液中可以提取蛇毒蛋白质,这种蛋白质可激发人类免疫系统对抗恶性肿瘤。Previous studies have shown that eristostatin stops melanoma cells colonising the liver and lungs in mice.先前的研究发现蛇毒蛋白质能阻止黑色瘤细胞5在肝脏和肺的扩散。Dr Hailey is trying to work out how this happens.哈利正解密这一过程。Eristostatins day job is to stop victims blood clotting and thus plugging up damaged blood vessels after a bite.蛇毒蛋白质的功效是人被蛇咬伤后防止血液凝固堵塞血管。By increasing blood loss, it weakens victims.受伤者失血过多,逐渐虚弱。The molecule does this by glomming onto cellular fragments called platelets that are crucial to the process of clotting, thus disabling them.抗凝分子能抑制血小板这种在血凝过程中起关键作用的细胞碎片,使其失效。Dr Hailey hopes to make use of this tendency to encourage the immune system to attack melanoma cells.哈利希望利用这种性质趋向激发免疫系统对抗黑色瘤细胞。His idea requires eristostatin to be as attracted to cancer cells as it is to platelets.他的理论需要蛇毒蛋白像抑制血小板那样吸引癌细胞。Two observations suggest it could be.两项研究结果实了其可能性。One is that eristostatin has a particular affinity for melanoma cells, which presumably have a protein on their surfaces that is similar to the one which attracts eristostatin to platelets.一是蛇毒蛋白与黑素瘤细胞有一定的亲和性,黑素瘤细胞表面可能有一种蛋白质,类似于让蛇毒蛋白吸附血小板的蛋白。The other observation is that when eristostatin is attached to a cells surface it attracts the attention of T-lymphocytes.另一项是蛇毒蛋白附于细胞表面时,可吸引T形淋巴细胞6。These are immune-system cells whose job is to kill other body cells that have been infected with viruses, or which have turned cancerous.这些免疫系统细胞能吞噬被细菌感染的细胞或是癌化细胞。If melanoma cells could, in this way, be made especially attractive to T-lymphocytes, that might clear away the tumour completely.假如能让黑素瘤细胞像这样吸引T形淋巴细胞,那么就可能完全消除肿瘤。Dr Hailey and his colleagues used a technique called atomic-force microscopy to study the interactions between melanoma cancer cells and eristostatin.哈利和其同事用原子力显微镜7技术研究黑素次瘤癌细胞与蛇毒蛋白的相互作用。This technique allows the force required to pull the two apart to be measured precisely, to see whether there is a genuine attraction—which he found that there is.这种技术可以调节原子力把两者分开进行精确测量,看看是否真的存在吸引―经他实是存在的。If eristostatin does prove an effective means to treat cancer, it will join a growing stable of medicines derived from reptile toxins.假如蛇毒蛋白真能有效地治疗癌症,就会把它归到不断扩大的蛇毒提取药类里。Tirofiban, for instance, is a modified version of another anticoagulant—in this case from the venom of the African saw-scaled viper.例如,欣维宁是从锯鳞8的毒液中提取的,是改良了的抗凝剂。It is given to people with angina, and also to those who have had heart attacks.欣维宁针对心绞痛患者以及心脏病患者。依泰德森是人工的唾液素4。Exenatide is the synthetic form of a hormone called exendin-4 that occurs naturally in the saliva of the Gila monster, a venomous North American lizard.自然状态下,存在于北美一种毒蜥―希拉毒蜥的唾液中。It works as a treatment for type-2 diabetes because it increases insulin production in those whose blood-sugar levels are high.唾液素4可用于治疗2型糖尿病10,因为它能增高高血糖患者体内的胰岛素含量。And captopril, a blood-vessel-relaxing agent widely used to treat hypertension, is based on teprotide, from Brazilian arrowhead vipers, which helps the other toxins in the venom circulate quickly, and thus reach their targets rapidly.卡托普利11―血管放松剂,广泛用于治疗高血压。它由替普罗肽组成,从巴西箭头毒蛇12提取,能加速毒液中毒素循环,迅速到达患处。The year of the snake蛇年There are other venom-based drugs in the pipeline, too.还有其它蛇毒提取药物在研发。Crotoxin, a protein from the South American rattlesnake, though not yet approved for use, may one day be employed to treat cancers.响尾蛇蛋白是从南美响尾蛇中提取的一种蛋白质,虽然还没有实临床效果,但有一天会用来治疗癌症。Crotoxin seems particularly attracted to cancer cells.响尾蛇蛋白表面看来特别能吸引癌细胞。One portion of the molecule recognises a protein on the cells membrane, and links to it.响尾蛇蛋白分子的一部分能识别细胞膜,并依附其上。The other portion damages the membrane, triggering a mechanism called apoptosis which causes the cell to kill itself.另一部分能破坏细胞膜,产生一种让细胞死亡13的机制。Celtic Biotech, based in Dublin, is running a series of tests using this molecule on cancer patients at the Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris.位于都柏林的凯尔特生物技术人员正进行一系列的实验,用这种分子来治疗巴黎皮蓬杜欧洲医院的癌症患者。This year, Celtic plans to try it on people with several different sorts of cancer, since the firms researchers believe it should be effective on all solid tumours.今年他们计划对患有不同种癌症的患者进行治疗,因为公司的研究人员相信治疗固体肿瘤很有效果。If those trials are successful, though, they then plan to concentrate on lung cancer, the largest market.假如成功,他们就会专攻肺癌的治疗。Perhaps the most astonishing toxin-derived drug of all, however, is hannalgesin, which is made from king-cobra venom.这是从眼镜蛇王毒素中提取,可能是蛇毒提取药中最疗效最神奇的。Kini Manjunatha of the National University of Singapore is developing this substance as a pain-relieving agent.新加坡国大的齐尼教授正把这种物质研发成镇痛剂。He claims it is between 20 and 200 times more effective than morphine.他说作用是吗啡的20到200 多倍不等。Moreover, unlike morphine, which is usually injected, hannalgesin can be taken by mouth.再者,Hannalgesin不像吗啡通过注射,可口。He is planning to run the first clinical trials at the end of 2013 or in early 2014.他计划于2013年底或2014年初进行首次临床试验。Venom, then, is proving to be a trove of useful molecules.经实毒素就是有用的分子的集合。At a time when drug companies are struggling to develop new products,让制药公司通过自然选择对原料进行验,研发新药。a novel source of raw materials that have been road-tested by natural selection, and merely need to be subverted from their original purposes rather than created afresh, must be welcome.这个新方法肯定受欢迎,因为不需要创新,而只是转换了药性。It is not turning base metals into gold, as Paracelsus and his kind once attempted.这个过程并不是像帕拉塞尔苏斯这样的术士们把贱金属转换成黄金,But as a transformation of matter, it is surely a far more valuable trick.但从物质转换的角度来讲,一定是价值连成。 /201310/261923

  Have you ever gone to the store just for milk, but walked out with eight sale-priced cans ofsomething youd never tasted and eight candy bars?你是否亲身经历过下面的情况:走进超市时的你只是想买一瓶牛奶,但当你离开时,手上拿着八罐你从未尝过的打折商品,以及八条糖果。How does that happen?怎么会这样呢?Brian Wansink and colleagues have studied how people make decisions in stores.伊利诺斯大学食品与商标研究所的布莱恩·万斯克士研究了人们在商场里是如何作出购买决定的。The results areinteresting not only for merchandisers hoping to increase sales, but customers trying to resistthe temptation.研究结果无论是对想提高营业额的商家,还是对想要抵抗诱惑的消费者来说都十分有趣。One way stores increase sales is that standby of merchandising, the multiple unit price.商场提升营业额的一种方法就是备用促销,即多件商品组合标价。Thatswhen a sign lists the price for several items, instead of one, say,4 cans for .该销售模式下,一个标签上会有多件商品的总价,比如说4美元4罐。Of course, youcould buy one, but its hard to resist the suggestion to buy more.你当然可以只买一罐,但你很难抵抗再多买一点的心理暗示。Wansink found that multipleunit pricing increased sales by almost a third.万斯克士发现该销售策略能使营业额提高近三分之一。Heres an even more astounding technique.还有一种更令人张口结舌的方法。When Wansink put up a sign that said,Buy Snickers Bars for your Freezer, people tended to buy one.万斯克士首先打出一条标语:为您的冰箱添置一些士力架吧!这时人们往往会买一条。Next though, he changed the sign to ,Buy 18 Snickers Bars for Your Freezer.然而接下来他将标语换成为您的冰箱添置18条士力架吧!It probably sounded ridiculous to customers too, but they tripled their purchases to three candy bars, on average.这也许对顾客而言,也荒谬不已,但顾客们的平均购买量却增加到三根。The limit sign is another trick of the numbers that increases sales, even though stores usuallyintend it to do just the opposite.而限制购买的标语则是商场增加营业额的另一个常用伎俩,尽管商家的本意是完全与之相反的。Lets say soup is marked way down, to bring in customers.比如,商场正通过大幅调低汤罐头价格以招徕顾客。The addition of a sign limiting purchase to 12 cans had a dramatic effect in Wansinks study, increasingsales by 112%!而万斯克的研究发现,一条限购12罐的标语能起到惊人的作用:使营业额激增112%!To resist the power of supermarket suggestion, write a grocery list at home, including how muchyou need.如果你想抵抗超市的心理暗示的话,最好在家中就列好购物单,包括你所需要的。At the store, remember how the numbers games work!当你在超市里时,千万记住商家们是如何玩弄数字游戏的。 /201404/283745。




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