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2017年12月11日 13:33:18来源:快问共享

  • Frances ruling Socialist party and its leader Francois Hollande took a drubbing in local elections Sunday from the conservative UMP party led by former President Nicolas Sarkozy and the far-right National Front - or FN - party with its anti-immigration and anti-Islam platform.在法国星期日举行的地方选举中,执政党社会党及其领袖奥朗德受挫于前总统萨科齐领导的保守派人民运动联盟以及极右翼党派民族阵线。民族阵线以反移民和反伊斯兰作为竞选纲领。Voters went to the run-off polls to choose 4,108 people who will sit on 98 local councils.选民们在决选中投票选举98个地方议会的4108名议员。The Socialists lost about half of their councils to the conservative UMP party, opening the way for Mr. Sarkozy to mount a campaign for another bid at the presidency in 2017.社会党控制的大约一半地方议会被人民运动联盟拿走,萨科齐可以据此争取2017年再度当选总统。The FN did not win an entire council, but scores of its candidates across the country won seats on local councils. The FN wins are seen as the beginning of grassroots support for the presidential campaign for the groups leader, Marine Le Pen, who has been outspoken in her views against immigration and the integration of Islam into French society.民族阵线没有赢得所有议会的控制权,但该党候选人在全国各地的地方议会中都赢得了议席。民族阵线在选举中的斩获被视为该党领袖勒庞的总统竞选活动开始获得底层民众的持。勒庞公开反对移民,并反对伊斯兰教融入法国社会。Prime Minister Manuel Valls acknowledged the ;setback; for the Socialists and said the far-right FNs gains were ;too high.;法国总理瓦尔斯承认社会党“受挫”,并表示极右翼政党民族阵线赢得“太多”。Mr. Valls also said France had declared its ;anger at a daily life that is too difficult; and promised to ;redouble; the governments efforts to revive the French economy, the second largest in the eurozone.瓦尔斯还说,法国民众对日常生活过于艰苦感到烦恼。他保政府将加倍努力,振兴法国经济。法国是欧元区的第二大经济体。来 /201503/367255。
  • These are strange and unnerving times in global financial markets, and if Thursday’s jaw-dropping move in the Swiss currency didn’t prove it, nothing will.全球金融市场会经历一些让人不知所措的异常时刻,瑞士货币汇率周四令人瞠目结舌的波动就是最好的明。It is not every day that the currency of an advanced, economically important country rises by double-digit percentages against the currencies of other such countries within mere hours. But that is what happened to the Swiss franc on Thursday. It is up 18 percent against the euro as of Thursday morning, and at one point was up 39 percent. Currency strategists were searching for any analogue in modern history for a similarly abrupt move in major Western currency and coming up empty.一个拥有重要经济地位的发达国家的货币,兑换同类国家货币的汇率,在区区几个小时之内以两位数的百分比上涨,这可不是什么每天都能见到的事。然而在周四,这种情况就发生在了瑞士法郎身上。截至周四上午,瑞士法郎兑欧元汇率上扬了18%,而且曾一度暴9%。货币策略师们正在当代历史中寻找主要西方货币陡然大幅升值的相似状况,但一无所获。The Swiss move offers interesting lessons about the oddly precarious state of the global economy, but first it’s worth working through what exactly the Swiss National Bank has done.瑞士市场的波动提供了关于全球经济脆弱状况的有趣明,但首先,我们应该弄清楚瑞士国家银Swiss National Bank)究竟做了些什么。Back during the eurozone debt crisis in 2011, fear was high that banks in countries that use the euro would go belly up. If you were a company or rich person in a country like Greece or Italy or even France or Germany, fearful that the euro could go kablooey and your local banks with it, you were sorely tempted to catch a flight to Zurich or Geneva and deposit your money in a Swiss bank. Amid a general atmosphere of global panic, the same could be said of plenty of savers outside Europe: Russians, Middle Easterners, Chinese, you name it.2011年欧债危机期间,对欧元区各国央行可能破产的担忧四起。在希腊、意大利,乃至法国或德国这样的国家,如果你是一家企业的负责人或者一位富人,担心欧元可能把当地的一同拖下水,你巴不得能跳上去苏黎世或日内瓦的航班,把钱存进一家瑞士。在全球恐慌的大环境下,可以说欧洲之外的储户也是如此:俄罗斯人、中东人、中国人,不一而足。All those people looking to park money in Switzerland, a country of only 8 million people, created incredible upward pressure on the Swiss franc. From the start of 2010 to mid-2011, the value of the franc rose 44 percent against the euro.这些人都想要把钱存到瑞士这个仅有800万人口的国家,从而为瑞士法郎构成了难以想象的升值压力。从2010年初011年中,瑞士法郎对欧元上涨4%。Think about that for a minute. It would be as if dollars in the state of Virginia (with a population similar to Switzerland) suddenly were worth 44 percent more than the dollars used in the rest of the country. Virginians would be wealthier, but it would be a catastrophe for businesses in the state. Suddenly their costs would be 44 percent higher, effectively, than that of competitors in other states. Tourism would dry up; why go to a Virginia beach when it is 44 percent more expensive than a North Carolina beach?让我们思考一下。这就好比弗吉尼亚州(人口与瑞士相当)的美元价值突然比美国其他地方高出4%。弗吉尼亚民众是更富有了,但这对于该州的企业来说却是个灾难。与其他州的竞争者相比,它们的成本突然跃升了44%。旅游业会枯竭;弗吉尼亚海滩的消费要比北卡罗来纳州的海滩高出44%,谁还会去那儿呢?That’s exactly the situation Swiss businesses faced. Swiss watchmakers, pharmaceutical firms and ski resorts were suffering mightily because a scary global economy made people want to park their money into Swiss banks.这正是瑞士企业面临的处境。那里的钟表制造商、制药企业和滑雪度假区遭受了重创,就因为可怕的全球经济让人们想要把钱存进瑞士的。The Swiss National Bank came to the rescue. After its earlier efforts to cut interest rates hadn’t done enough to dampen interest in the franc, it pulled out the big guns, and set a peg, announcing it wouldn’t allow the franc to appreciate such that one franc buys fewer than 1.2 euros. They backed it by going onto foreign exchange markets at will and buying euros as necessary to defend the peg.瑞士央行在这时挺身而出。早先下调利率的举措未能抑制对瑞士法郎的兴趣之后,它拿出了杀手锏,设定了一个汇率上限,宣布不会允许本国货币任意升值,而是要将汇率保持瑞郎士法郎兑.2欧元以下。他们到外汇市场大量买入所需要的欧元,从而守住这个上限。It worked for a long time. But now, the European Central Bank looks to be on the verge of an extensive new effort to try to pump money into the European economy to get it out of its doldrums, which is creating downward pressure on the euro. The pressure is particularly pronounced against the dollar, the benchmark of global commerce, which is rising in part because of a strong ed States economy and plans by the Federal Reserve to raise interest rates.在很长一段时间内,这种做法起了作用。但是现在,欧洲央行(European Central Bank)似乎即将采取大规模行动,设法为欧洲经济注入资金,使之摆脱低迷。欧洲经济的低迷正在促使欧元下行。在兑换美元——国际贸易的基准货币——的汇率方面,这种压力尤其明显。美元正在升值,这在一定程度上是因为美国经济走强,以及美联Federal Reserve)提高利率的计划。Meanwhile, Russia is a basket case, increasing the desire of Russian oligarchs to avoid exposure to a falling ruble.与此同时,俄罗斯深陷危机,从而增加了该国寡头规避因卢布不断贬值而带来的风险的意愿。All that means that the 1.2 euro peg is becoming more and more expensive to defend. And on Thursday, the Swiss National Bank, led by Thomas Jordan, basically waved the white flag.这一切都意味着,坚.2的汇率上限需要付出越来越高的代价。到了本周四,由托马斯·约尔丹(Thomas Jordan)所领导的瑞士央行基本举了白旗。In a news release, the bank said that it believed the franc was less overvalued now than it had been when the policy started, so no more peg. “Recently, divergences between the monetary policies of the major currency areas have increased significantly a trend that is likely to become even more pronounced,the announcement said.央行在一则新闻稿中表示,它认为目前瑞士法郎估值过高的程度,比开始实施这项政策时要低,所以无需再坚守汇率上限。“最近,各大货币区在货币政策上的差异已显著增加——这一趋势很可能会更加明显,”文中称。In other words, this situation is only going to get worse, which means we would be throwing Swiss francs down a money pit if we tried to continue defending the 1.2 currency peg.换而言之,情况只会越来越糟,这意味着,如果我们试图继续坚.2的汇率上限,就相当于把瑞士法郎往无底洞里扔。The central bank simultaneously cut interest rates, hoping to offset some of the damage in foreign exchange markets. It didn’t work. The Swiss franc-to-euro exchange rate moved back to where it was before the peg was introduced. Shares of major Swiss companies like Nestle plummeted. Exporters in Switzerland (and people thinking of traveling there, such as the global elite soon heading to Davos for the World Economic Forum) are in for serious sticker shock.瑞士央行在同一时间降息,希望能冲抵对外汇市场的一些损害。但是没用。瑞士法郎兑欧元的汇率回到了设定这一上限之前的水平。雀Nestle)等瑞士大公司的股价暴跌。瑞士的出口商(以及考虑前往该国的人们,比如很快将奔赴达沃斯出席世界经济论坛[World Economic Forum]的全球精英)会面临严重的“价签休克”。One can sympathize with the Swiss National Bank as it defended its peg in the face of mounting potential losses. But the bigger lesson here is this: The six years and counting of aggressive monetary activism out of major central banks like the Fed and E.C.B. may have rescued the global economy over and over. But it has also created a range of spillovers far beyond ed States and European borders that people all around the world will be grappling with for a long time to come.在面对日益严重的潜在损失时,瑞士央行坚守了它的汇率上限,这一点值得同情。不过,这里有个更大的教训:美联储和欧洲央行等各大央行为期六年而且仍在继续的积极货币政策,或许是多次拯救了全球经济,但是,它所产生的一系列后果,远远超出了美国和欧洲的范畴,而世界各地的人们将需要花很长时间来消化。来 /201501/355028。
  • In a blow to American hopes of reaching an international deal to fight global warming, India’s new environment minister said Wednesday that his country would not offer a plan to cut its greenhouse gas emissions ahead of a climate summit next year in Paris.印度新任环境部长周三表示,在明年的巴黎气候峰会之前,他的国家不会提交减排温室气体的方案,这对美国想达成一项应对全球变暖的国际协议的希望是个打击。The minister, Prakash Javadekar, said in an interview that his government’s first priority was to alleviate poverty and improve the nation’s economy, which he said would necessarily involve an increase in emissions through new coal-powered electricity and transportation. He placed responsibility for what scientists call a coming climate crisis on the ed States, the world’s largest historic greenhouse gas polluter, and dismissed the idea that India would make cuts to carbon emissions.环境部长普拉卡什·雅瓦德卡Prakash Javadekar)在接受采访时说,印度政府的首要任务是消除贫困,提高本国经济水平,他说,这必定会涉及新的燃煤发电和运输,从而增加排放。他把科学家称之为即将到来的气候危机归咎于美国,美国在历史上一直是世界上最大的温室气体排放国,他还表示对印度将减少碳排放量的说法不屑一提。“What cuts?Mr. Javadekar said. “That’s for more developed countries. The moral principle of historic responsibility cannot be washed away.Mr. Javadekar was referring to an argument frequently made by developing economies that developed economies, chiefly the ed States, which spent the last century building their economies while pumping warming emissions into the atmosphere bear the greatest responsibility for cutting pollution.“什么减排?”雅瓦德卡尔问道。“那是更发达国家的事儿。历史责任的道义原则不能被冲淡。”雅瓦德卡尔指的是发展中的经济体经常用的一个论点,即发达经济体,主要是美国,对减排负有最大的责任,那些国家用上个世纪建设了自己的经济,同时向大气层排放了大量的温室气体。Mr. Javadekar said that government agencies in New Delhi were preparing plans for India’s domestic actions on climate change, but he said they would lead only to a lower rate of increase in carbon emissions. It would be at least 30 years, he said, before India would likely see a downturn.雅瓦德卡尔说,新德里的政府机构正在准备印度应对气候变化的国内行动计划,但他表示,计划只会让碳排放量增长的速度放慢。他说,至少需0年的时间,印度才可能会看到排放量的下降。“India’s first task is eradication of poverty,Mr. Javadekar said, speaking in a New York hotel suite a day after a ed Nations climate summit. “Twenty percent of our population doesn’t have access to electricity, and that’s our top priority. We will grow faster, and our emissions will rise.”“印度的首要任务是消除贫困,”雅瓦德卡尔说,他是在联合国气候峰会后的第二天,在纽约的一个酒店套房里说这番话的。“我国有百分之二十的人口还没有用上电,这是我们的首要任务。我们将更快地发展,我们的排放量将上升。”India is the world’s third-largest carbon polluter, behind China and the ed States, and Mr. Javadekar’s comments are a first indication of the direction of the environmental policies of the new prime minister, Narendra Modi, the author of a 2011 e-book, “A Convenient Action.Although the book, a response to the movie “An Inconvenient Truth,presents the moral case for action on climate change, Mr. Javadekar said that coal, the world’s top source of carbon pollution, would provide more than half of India’s power for the foreseeable future.印度是世界第三大碳排放国,仅次于中国和美囀?雅瓦德卡尔的这番话首次表明了新任总理纳伦德拉·莫迪的环境政策指向,莫迪曾在2011年撰写了一本名为《不费事的行动A Convenient Action)的电子书。该书是对影片《难以忽视的真相An Inconvenient Truth)的回应,虽然书中提出了对气候变化采取行动的道义理由,但雅瓦德卡尔说,在可预见的未来,印度一半以上的能源将来自煤。煤是世界上碳污染的最主要来源。In coming decades, as India works to provide access to electricity to more than 300 million people, its emissions are projected to double, surpassing those of the ed States and China.在未来的几十年中,印度将努力亿以上的人用上电,该国的碳排放量预计将翻一番,超过美国和中国的排放量。As President Obama and Chinese leaders have signaled that they intend to enact policies to decrease their emissions levels in the coming years, cooperation from India on a global climate treaty is crucial. Without India, it will be more difficult to reach a lasting agreement.随着奥巴马总统和中国领导人都表示,他们打算制定在未来几年中减少本国排放量的政策,印度在全球气候条约上的合作变得至关重要。没有印度的参与,达成持久的协议将更加困难。As demand for electricity surges in India, Mr. Modi has said he plans to tackle climate change by increasing renewable power sources like wind and solar an effort that has won applause from international environmental groups. Mr. Javadekar said his government was also focusing on increasing investment in railways and public transport, in order to slow the growth in demand for cars.由于印度的电力需求激增,莫迪曾表示,他打算通过增加可再生能源、如风能和太阳能的使用,来应对气候变化,这个努力赢得了国际环保组织的赞扬。雅瓦德卡尔说,印度政府也在加大对铁路和公共交通的投资,以减缓对小汽车需求的增长。In addition, he said the Modi administration was working on efforts to replant forests and create new wildlife refuge areas to protect tigers. “The new motto is, development without destruction,Mr. Javadekar said.除此之外,他说,莫迪政府正在植树造林、以及为保护老虎设立新的野生动物保护区等方面做出努力。雅瓦德卡尔说,“我们的新口号是,不用破坏的发展。”A number of recent scientific reports have concluded that carbon emissions must peak within the next few years, and then decline, if the global atmosphere is to avoid an average temperature increase of 2 degrees Celsius, a tipping point at which scientists project an unavoidable future of rising sea levels, increased droughts and flooding and other catastrophic impacts.最近几篇科学报告的结论是,要让全球大气避免平均上升2摄氏度的话,碳排放量必须在未来几年内达到峰值,然后下降,如果过了这个转折点,科学家们预测,未来将不可避免地出现海平面上升、干旱和洪水等灾难增加,以及其他灾难性的影响。Mr. Obama has pushed for policies to lower emissions in the ed States, and on Tuesday, the vice prime minister of China, Zhang Gaoli, said his country would try to reach a peak level of emissions “as soon as possible.”奥巴马已开始推行减少美国碳排放量的政策,中国国务院副总理张高丽在周二表示,中国将争取碳排放总量“尽早”达到峰值。来 /201409/332499。
  • President Barack Obama said on Thursday that the California shooting that left at least 14 people dead and wounded 21 others could be related to terrorism, but left open the potential that a workplace grievance may have been the motive.周四,美国总统巴拉克攠巴马(Barack Obama)表示,导致至4人死亡1人受伤的加州击案可能与恐怖主义有关,不过他并未完全排除职场受委屈是杀人动机的可能性。In a sign that authorities are considering the possibility of terrorism, the US president said the FBI had taken over the investigation from local authorities. But he said the motive for the attack in San Bernardino was still unclear and could be a mix of issues.奥巴马表示,美国联邦调查局(FBI)已从地方当局手中接手此案,这表明当局正在考虑恐怖袭击的可能性。不过,奥巴马表示,圣贝纳迪诺击案的动机仍不清楚,也可能出自多方面原因。The two suspects killed in a shootout with police on Wednesday were identified as Syed Rizwan Farook, 28, and his wife, Tashfeen Malik, 29. They had a massive arsenal of weapons on them during the shooting and at their residence in nearby Redlands, according to Jarrod Burguan, the San Bernardino police chief.周三与警方战中丧生的两名嫌疑人,身份分别被确认8岁的赛义德里兹万法鲁Syed Rizwan Farook)和他的妻子9岁的塔什芬氠利克(Tashfeen Malik)。根据圣贝纳迪诺警察局长贾罗德伯古Jarrod Burguan)的说法,击案发生时他们随身携带大量武器,而他们在附近雷德兰兹的住所也同样有大量武器。“It’s possible that this is terrorist-related but we don’t know,said Mr Obama in an Oval Office briefing, flanked by Vice-President Joe Biden, the FBI director James Comey and Loretta Lynch, attorney-general. “Our expectation is that this may take some time [to sort out]. There may be mixed motives.”在椭圆办公室内的一次情况简要介绍中,奥巴马表示:“该事件可能与恐怖分子有关,但我们并不确认。我们预计这个问题也许要过一段时间(才会弄清楚)。也许存在多种动机。”奥巴马发表上述讲话时,美国副总统乔拜Joe Biden)、FBI局长詹姆斯科米(James Comey)和司法部长洛蕾塔霠奇(Loretta Lynch)在其身边陪同。The suspects fired up to 75 rounds of ammunition at the Inland Regional Center, which provides services for more than 30,200 people with disabilities in Riverside and San Bernardino counties, said Mr Burguan. Authorities also found three pipe bombs combined into one device that was tied to a remote control toy car that failed to work.伯古安表示,嫌疑人在Inland Regional Center总共发射5发子弹。当局还找到一个由三节管状炸弹捆绑成的装置,绑在一个遥控玩具车上,不过未能爆炸。Inland Regional Center是一个务中心,为河滨市和圣贝纳迪诺.02万残障人士提供务。The suspects shot another 76 rifle rounds in the stand-off with police that followed a hunt for them. In all, they had a stockpile of about 6,000 rounds of ammunition, while 12 pipe bombs were found at their home, in addition to hundreds of tools that could be used to construct improvised explosive devices and pipe bombs, said Mr Burguan.伯古安表示,在警方对嫌疑人开展追捕之后,嫌疑人在和警方的对峙过程中又发射6发步子弹。加起来,他们总共拥有000发子弹的库存。与此同时,在他们家中还发现2枚管状炸弹,此外还有数以百计的可以制造简易爆炸装置和管状炸弹的工具 /201512/414581。
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