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2019年10月22日 23:54:53
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Jackson Pollock Invented a New Kind of Painting That Changed the Way People Looked at ArtWritten by Dana Demange (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:I'm Faith Lapidus.VOICE TWO:And I'm Bob Doughty with People in America in VOA Special English. Today, we tell about the famous artist Jackson Pollock who helped redefine modern art in the ed States. Pollock invented a new kind of painting that changed the way the world looked at art.(MUSIC)VOICE ONE: Jackson Pollock (Photo courtesy Estate of Hans Namuth, 1999) Until the twentieth century, most paintings were representational. This means that artists "represented" their subjects in a way that was realistic and recognizable. However, during the first half of the twentieth century, artists like Jackson Pollock started to explore other methods of representation. When he first began painting, Jackson Pollock painted representational objects such as people and animals. However, he is famous for helping to create a whole new art movement called Abstract Expressionism. An "abstract" image is one where the subject is not represented realistically. Instead, the artist uses color and shapes to suggest the most general qualities of the subject. "Expressionism" is a kind of art that expresses feelings and thoughts. Abstract Expressionism is art that shows emotions and ideas through non-representational forms.VOICE TWO:In Pollock's most famous works, there is no recognizable subject. His art works are large surfaces of canvas completely covered in different colors of paint. However, Pollock did not start out as a revolutionary painter. He developed the artistic process he became famous for over many years.(MUSIC)VOICE ONE: Jackson Pollock was born in Cody, Wyoming in nineteen twelve. He grew up in the states of Arizona and California. Pollock later said that the wide-open land of these western areas greatly influenced his expansive artwork. In nineteen thirty he moved east to New York City where he studied at the Art Students League. There, Pollock spent a few years studying with the artist Thomas Hart Benton who painted images of every day American life. Pollock's early works are similar to his teacher's kind of painting. However, Pollock slowly left this traditional art education behind. VOICE TWO:Pollock's work had many other influences. For example, he liked a group of Mexican painters who made murals. Murals are large images that the artists paint directly onto a wall. Some of these painters were working in New York City in the nineteen thirties, so Pollock was able to see them work. Pollock borrowed several methods and ideas from these artists. They included the use of large canvases, the method of freely applying paint and honoring old and new traditions.VOICE ONE:Pollock was also influenced by the Spanish artist Miro. Miro was part of a movement of surrealist painters. Surrealist artists thought that true art comes from a part of the mind called the unconscious. The unconscious controls the area of the mind that produces dreams. Pollock agreed with these artists that the unconscious mind was an important force in creating art.Also, when he was in his late twenties, Pollock suffered a mental breakdown. It was caused in part by depression and dependence on alcohol. As a result, he was treated by a Jungian psychoanalyst. This is a special kind of expert in emotional health who works to understand the unconscious mind, dreams, and emotions. Pollock was influenced by this kind of investigation of human relations and emotions. This "inside world" would become the subject of his paintings.VOICE TWO:In nineteen forty-four, Pollock married Lee Krasner who was also a skilled Abstract Expressionist painter. The next year they moved to East Hampton, a small town on Long Island in the state of New York. The couple wanted to get away from the busy life of New York City. In this country environment they could enjoy nature and have more time to work on their art.Next to their house Pollock set up a studio building where he could create his artwork. In this large studio Pollock created the paintings that would make him famous.(MUSIC)VOICE ONE: Jackson Pollock's action painting method During these years Jackson Pollock started to paint in a completely new way. He created art that was very physical. In fact, his method is sometimes called "action painting". Most artists painted on a surface that stood upright or vertical. But Pollock put his large canvases on the floor so that he could move around all four sides of his work. He also used very liquid paints so that he could easily drop the paint onto his canvases. This "dripping" method allowed him to make energetic works. His paintings are explosions of curving lines, shapes and colors. In his art you can see every movement that his arm made. You can see how he had to move his body around the canvas. Videos of Pollock painting show this process, which looks like a painterly dance.VOICE TWO:Unlike other artists, Jackson Pollock did not plan the way he wanted his paintings to look. Many artists plan their works by making small drawings before painting. Pollock developed what he called a "direct method," applying the paint directly onto an empty canvas. He painted by following his immediate thoughts and emotions. Pollock combined careful movement with exact color and line. Though his paintings appear accidental, they required careful control.Here is a recording of Pollock describing his way of painting. It was taken from a movie the British Broadcasting Corporation made about the artist in nineteen ninety-nine.(POLLOCK)VOICE ONE:As Pollock said, he wanted to create art that was a visual representation of the motion and energy of his "inside world." He was once asked why he did not paint pictures of objects people could identify. He answered that if you wanted to see a flower, you could go look at a real one. He said that what interested him was not outside objects. Pollock's works were both praised and criticized. His paintings were in several shows in galleries in the middle nineteen forties. However, Pollock did not produce his fully abstract "drip" paintings until later. In nineteen-fifty, the public saw these works at Betty Parson's Gallery in New York. Some art critics said this was one of the best shows of the year and that Pollock was one of the greatest painters in America. Others did not understand his work. One critic said that Pollock's art showed chaos -- complete disorder without any method. "Lavender Mist" by Jackson Pollock VOICE TWO:Today, Pollock's works sell for millions of dollars. But only one painting sold at this show. It was a famous work called "Lavender Mist". This painting now hangs in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. "Lavender Mist" represents perfectly what was so interesting about Pollock's work. The canvas is more than two meters tall and almost three meters long. The entire surface is covered in small rivers of white, black, grey, yellow, brown and pink paint. These colors and lines create a painting that is full of visual energy.VOICE ONE:Interestingly, there is no lavender, or light purple, color paint in this work. One of Pollock's friends suggested the name because the many other colors of paint created an atmospheric effect that looked like lavender mist. Usually, Pollock would simply name his paintings with a number and a date. He did not want the titles to explain to viewers what to see when they looked at his work.With paintings like "Lavender Mist" Jackson Pollock helped introduce the world to a whole new way of painting and thinking about art. But he did not live very long. He died in a car accident in nineteen fifty-six at the age of forty-four.(MUSIC)VOICE TWO:The home in East Hampton, New York where Jackson Pollock lived with his wife Lee Krasner is now a museum. At this special place you can see the rooms where these artists lived. Most importantly, you can see the studio where Pollock and Krasner created their work. On the floor of the studio is the evidence of years and years of Pollock's thrown paint. The floor looks just like one of Pollock's paintings.Experts say this museum is a cultural treasure. It is the place where Jackson Pollock helped introduce the world to Abstract Expressionism. Pollock helped break the traditional rules of representation and established America as an important center for modern art.(MUSIC)VOICE ONE:This program was written and produced by Dana Demange. I'm Faith Lapidus.VOICE TWO:And I'm Bob Doughty. Join us again next week for PEOPLE IN AMERICA in VOA Special English.(MUSIC) Article/200803/29878赣州仁济不孕不育医院泌尿系统在线咨询有声名著之爱丽思漫游奇境记 Chapter2《爱丽丝漫游奇境记》(Alice's Adventures in Wonderland)是一部被公认为世界儿童文学经典的童话,由于其中丰富的想象力和种种隐喻,不但深受各代儿童欢迎,也被视为一部严肃的文学作品。作者刘易斯·卡罗尔还写有续集《爱丽丝镜中奇遇记》。故事讲述了一个叫爱丽丝的小女孩,在梦中追逐一只兔子而掉进了兔子洞,开始了漫长而惊险的旅行,直到最后与扑克牌王后、国王发生顶撞,急得大叫一声,才大梦醒来。这部童话以神奇的幻想,风趣的幽默,昂然的诗情,突破了西欧传统儿童文学道德说教的刻板公式,此后被翻译成多种文字,走遍了全世界。英文原著:爱丽思漫游奇境记PDF文本下载 Article/200911/88632上犹医院妇科地址I think the Vancouver Winter Olympics will be really special. Itrsquo;s such a great place to have the event. Irsquo;m not sure if I like the winter or summer Olympics better. Irsquo;d rather be a competitor in the summer games ndash; itrsquo;s warmer. The winter Olympics are definitely the most beautiful. Looking at skiers come down a snowy slope against a blue sky is a wonderful sight. I also love the winter Olympics because of the skating. Itrsquo;s amazing watching the speeds the speed skaters reach ndash; theyrsquo;re so fast. I also think the figure skaters put on a fantastic show. Another winter Olympic event I like is the luge ndash; I think people have to be crazy to sit on almost nothing and shoot down an ice tunnel at high speeds. I wonder who will win the most gold medals. Maybe itrsquo;ll be Norway, or Russia. Article/201107/144589It now occurred to the girls that their mother was in all likelihood perfectly ignorant of what had happened. They went to the library, therefore, and asked their father whether he would not wish them to make it known to her. He was writing and, without raising his head, coolly replied:两想到她们的母亲也许到现在还完全不知道这回事,于是便到书房去,问父亲愿意不愿意让母亲知道。父亲正在写信,头也没抬起来,只是冷冷地对她们说:;Just as you please. ;“随你们的便。”;May we take my uncle#39;s letter to to her?;“我们可以把舅舅的信拿去读给她听吗?”;Take whatever you like, and get away. ;“你们爱拿什么去就拿什么,快走开。”Elizabeth took the letter from his writing-table, and they went upstairs together. Mary and Kitty were both with Mrs. Bennet: one communication would, therefore, do for all. After a slight preparation for good news, the letter was aloud. Mrs. Bennet could hardly contain herself. As soon as Jane had Mr. Gardiner#39;s hope of Lydia#39;s being soon married, her joy burst forth, and every following sentence added to its exuberance. She was now in an irritation as violent from delight, as she had ever been fidgety from alarm and vexation. To know that her daughter would be married was enough. She was disturbed by no fear for her felicity, nor humbled by any remembrance of her misconduct.伊丽莎白从他的写字台上拿起那封信,俩一块儿上了楼。曼丽和吉蒂两人都在班纳特太太那里,因此只要传达一次,大家都知道了。她们稍微透露出一点好消息,便把那封信念出来。班纳特太太简直喜不自禁。吉英一读完丽迪雅可能在最近就要结婚的那一段话,她就高兴得要命,越往下读她就越高兴。她现在真是无限欢喜,极度兴奋,正如前些时候是那样地忧烦惊恐,坐立不安。只要听到女儿快要结婚,她就心满意足。她并没有因为顾虑到女儿得不到幸福而心神不安,也并没有因为想起了她的行为失检而觉得丢脸。;My dear, dear Lydia!; she cried. ;This is delightful indeed! She will be married! I shall see her again! She will be married at sixteen! My good, kind brother! I knew how it would be. I knew he would manage everything! How I long to see her! and to see dear Wickham too! But the clothes, the wedding clothes! I will write to my sister Gardiner about them directly. Lizzy, my dear, run down to your father, and ask him how much he will give her. Stay, stay, I will go myself. Ring the bell, Kitty, for Hill. I will put on my things in a moment. My dear, dear Lydia! How merry we shall be together when we meet!;“我的丽迪雅宝贝呀!”她嚷起来了:“这太叫人高兴啦!她就要结婚了!我又可以和她见面了!她十六岁就结婚!多亏我那好心好意的弟弟!我早就知道事情不会弄糟……我早就知道他有办法把样样事情都办好。我多么想要看到她,看到亲爱的韦翰!可是衣,嫁妆!我要立刻写信跟弟妇谈谈。丽萃,乖宝贝,快下楼去,问问你爸爸愿意给她多少陪嫁。等一会儿;还是我自己去吧。吉蒂,去拉铃叫希尔来。我马上就会把衣穿好。丽迪雅我的心肝呀!等我们见面的时候,多么高兴啊!”Her eldest daughter endeavoured to give some relief to the violence of these transports, by leading her thoughts to the obligations which Mr. Gardiner#39;s behaviour laid them all under.大女儿见她这样得意忘形,便谈起她们全家应该怎样感激嘉丁纳先生,以便让她分分心,让她精神上轻松一下。;For we must attribute this happy conclusion, ; she added, ;in a great measure to his kindness. We are persuaded that he has pledged himself to assist Mr. Wickham with money. ; ;Well, ; cried her mother, ;it is all very right; who should do it but her own uncle? If he had not had a family of his own, I and my children must have had all his money, you know; and it is the first time we have ever had anything from him, except a few presents. Well! I am so happy! In a short time I shall have a daughter married. Mrs. Wickham! How well it sounds! And she was only sixteen last June. My dear Jane, I am in such a flutter, that I am sure I can#39;t write; so I will dictate, and you write for me. We will settle with your father about the money afterwards; but the things should be ordered immediately. ;“哎哟,”母亲叫道,“这真是好极了。要不是亲舅父,谁肯帮这种忙?你要知道,他要不是有了那么一家人,他所有的钱都是我和我的孩子们的了;他以前只送些礼物给我们,这一次我们才算真正得到他的好处。哎哟!我太高兴啦。过不了多久,我就有一个女儿出嫁了。她就要当上韦翰太太了!这个称呼多么动听!她到六月里才满十六岁。我的吉英宝贝,我太激动了,一定写不出信;还是我来讲,你替我写吧。关于钱的,问题我们以后再跟你爸爸商量,可是一切东西应该马上就去订好。” Article/201205/180670石城县妇幼保健所医术信得过

赣州中心医院预约安远医院人流要多少钱I’m afraid of the dentist. Always have been, for as long as I can remember. Even if the dentist is really, really kind and gentle, I’m still afraid. Even if the dental surgery is colourful and there’s relaxing music, I’m still afraid. Dentists for me haven’t changed a bit. When I was a child, I hated the sound of the drill. That sound is still there today. When I was young, I hated the smell. Same smell today. I can’t wait for the day scientists invent something so we never need dentists. The strange thing is, when I was younger, I wanted to be a dentist. I thought it would be good to treat people just like me. I felt I would understand others who have the same fear. I think I would have been a good dentist. Article/201104/131645大余县人民医院医院账单Have you ever thought about why people are ticklish? According to scientists, ticklishness is a defense mechanism humans developed against bugs, spiders, and other critters that may be touching our skin. Feeling ticklish is our built-in response to predators or threats, and combines the sensations of touch and pain. The part of the brain that is associated with tickling is the cerebellum. It monitors our movements, but ignores movements not perceived as a threat. For example, we do not notice our vocal chords moving when we speak, but we may jump if someone touches us on the shoulder. This selective perception is probably the reason why we cannot tickle ourselves.We only feel ticklish if we detect a sense of invasion or attack. If we try to tickle ourselves, our brains anticipate this "attack" and prevent us from feeling panicked. Strangely enough, even if a person knows that they are about to be tickled, the fear of being touched may cause the same "ticklish" reaction. Some people laugh even before being tickled. A scientific study was recently done in England to determine whether or not people can tickle themselves. Volunteers were attached to a brain-scanning device and were tickled on their palms with a piece of soft foam . The participants' brain scans were monitored while they were being tickled, and when they tickled themselves. It was found that during self-tickling, the cerebellum alerted another area of the brain about what to expect, so the ticklish feeling was diminished. Researchers did find a way, however, for people to tickle themselves. When volunteers activated a robot by remote control to tickle them after a short delay, the volunteers felt as if someone else were tickling them. It seems that the cerebellum sends a signal to disregard the forthcoming movement, then moves on to other things. Your brain "forgets" that you are tickling yourself—even with a delay as short as a fifth of a second. So it is possible to tickle yourself—but only by remote control. What will science discover next? 你有没有想过人为什么会怕痒?根据科学家的观点,怕痒是一种防御机制,是人类把它培养来对付那些可能接触我们皮肤的虫子、蜘蛛或其他生物。怕痒是我们对侵扰者或威胁产生的内在反应,它使触觉和痛觉结合起来了。 脑部与怕痒有关的部位是小脑。小脑监控我们的一举一动,但对其认为不具威胁性的活动,往往会忽视。举例来说,我们说话时不会察觉声带的振动,但是如有人触摸我们的肩膀时,我们可能会吓一跳。这种选择性的知觉或许就是我们无法自已哈痒的原因。 我们只会在察觉受到侵犯或攻击时才会觉得痒。如果试着替自己哈痒,脑部会自动预感到这种“攻击”从而使我们感觉不到惊吓。奇怪的是,即使有人知道他要被哈痒了,担心被人触摸,也会引起同样“怕痒”的反应。有些人甚至还没被哈到痒就先笑了。 英格兰近期做了一项关于人是否可以替自己哈痒的科学研究。自愿受测者接上脑部扫描仪,并用一块软泡沫绵给手掌哈痒。参与者在被哈痒和自行哈痒时,脑部扫描状况都受到监视。结果发现,在自行哈痒的过程中,小脑会向脑部的另一部位发出警告,使其预先防范,所以痒的感觉就消失了。然而,研究人员也发现了可以替自己哈痒的方法。自愿者用遥控器操纵机器人,延迟片刻之后再让机器人为自己哈痒,自愿者就会觉得好像是别人在给他们哈痒。看来小脑在发出信号忽视即将到来的动作,然后将注意力转移到其他事物上。尽管只有零点二秒的时间差,脑部就会“忘记”你在替自己哈痒。所以自己给自己哈痒仍有可能,只不过需要依靠遥控器。谁知道接下来科学还会有什么新发现呢? Article/200803/28212章贡医院医生有哪些

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