楼主:好医媒体 时间:2019年10月20日 14:31:12 点击:0 回复:0
A common strategy examiners employ involvesasking a combination of both relevant (Did you rob the bank?) and irrelevantquestions (Have you ever taken anything that didn’t belong to you?). Since noone can really answer ‘no’ to the irrelevant questions without lying somewhat,the theory is that the physiological response to the irrelevant questionsserves as a type of baseline. The idea is to get a decent profile of what itlooks like when you’re lying when unstressed – this helps the person ingthe machine to be more confident that they are observing a response to astressed lie than if they were only comparing with obvious truths (such as ‘are you aman?’).测谎人员一个常见的策略是同时提出相关问题(你是否抢了?)和无关紧要的问题(你是否拿过不属于自己的东西?)。由于没有人能做到对无关紧要的问题不撒谎就回答“否”,理论上,将受试者对无关紧要问题的生理反应充当测试基准。这种思路是,得到受试者在无压力状态下撒谎的合理情况,与仅对照明显事实(如‘你是男性吗?’)相比,这样做这有助于测谎人员更相信自己对有压力状态下撒谎反应的判断。George Maschke, who has runantipolygraph.org since 2000, says the strategy for beating a polygraph is torecognise the control questions and augment your reactions to them.乔治·马施克(George Maschke)自2000 年起经营一家网站antipolygraph.org,他表示,战胜测谎仪的策略是,承认对照问题,并放大自己对它们的反应。“When you’re asked a control question, like ‘Did you ever lie to getout of trouble?’ you can try to solve a math problem as quickly as you can inyour head and that mental activity will tend to raise your sweating, yourbreathing, et cetera,” he says. “If you have a stronger reaction to the controlquestions than the relevant questions you will pass the test.”他说,“在被问到像‘你是否曾为了摆脱困境而撒谎?’这样的对照问题时,你可以试着在大脑中尽快解答一个数学题,这种心理活动会促使你出汗增加、呼吸加速,还有其他一些指标也会提高。如果回答对照问题时你的反应要比回答相关问题时还要激烈,那么你就能通过测谎测试。”Goodson says that although he cansuccessfully defeat a polygraph against novice students, defeating anexperienced examiner is harder. “Altering human physiology is not difficult,and there are many anti-polygraph websites that teach this. What these websitescan’t teach is how to alter one’s physiology that appears to a polygraphexaminer as a genuine or natural response to a polygraph exam question,” hesays. “When polygraph examinees try to alter or control their bodies’ normalreactions, it creates abnormal data that is easily recognisable by a polygraphexaminer trained to detect these unnatural physiological responses.”古德森表示,尽管他面对新手能成功骗过测谎仪,但欺骗有经验的测谎人员却并不容易。“改变人的生理反应并不难,有许多对付测谎仪的网站教人怎样做。但这些网站却无法教给人怎样在回答测谎问题时改变生理反应的同时,面对测谎人员还能做出真实或自然的反应,”他这样表示。“当受试者试图改变或控制身体的正常反应时,会产生异常数据,训练有素的测谎人员很容易就能发现这种不自然的生理反应。”Some researchers are also concerned thatwhen wrong, the tests produce more false positives (meaning innocent people whowrongly fail) than false negatives (meaning guilty people who wrongly pass), aphenomenon that can be seen in a 2004 report on the validity of polygraphs bythe British Psychological Society.有些研究人员也会担心,测试有误时,测试生成的错误阳性结果(意思是,无辜者错误地未通过测谎)多于错误的阴性结果(意思是,有过错的人错误地通过测谎),这种现象在2004 年英国心理学学会验测谎仪有效性的报告中就可以看到。According to Goodson, some people who aretelling the truth can fail polygraph tests by trying too hard to control theirbody’s responses. “When truthful persons alter their physiology, thinking theywill help themselves pass the polygraph, polygraph literature suggests thatmany of these truthful examinees are classified as deceptive when they do so,”he says.据古德森说,有些人说真话时过于努力控制自己的身体反应也通不过测谎测试。他说,“说真话的人也会改变自己的生理反应,以为这会有助于自己通过测谎,而测谎文献表明,许多这种说真话的受试者在试图这样做的时候也会被归入欺诈行列。”Many scientists are concerned that thetheory behind lie detectors is faulty, since a physiological response is notnecessarily linked to lying. A 2011 meta-analysis by the American PolygraphAssociation found that polygraph tests using comparison questions had incorrectoutcomes about 15% of the time.许多科学家担心,测谎仪背后的理论是错误的,因为生理反应与撒谎并不具有必然联系。美国测谎协会2011 元分析报告(A 2011 meta-analysis by the American Polygraph Association)发现,当时测谎测试使用的对照问题约15% 都会得到错误的结果。The type of test I’m trying to pass howeveris sounder, and slightly more difficult to cheat. Since I’m doing this for astory, Mordi has devised a way for me to test the system that doesn’t requirecomparison questions. He asks me to write a number between one and seven on apiece of paper and will monitor my physical response as I try to lie my way througheach number, as if I didn’t write anything at all.我试图通过的测试比较可靠,想骗过测谎器会更难。由于我是为了写报道才这样做的,所以穆尔迪为我设计了一种测试系统的方法,无需使用对照问题。他让我在纸上写出1 到7 之间的一个数字,然后在我试图隐瞒每个数字,好像我什么也没有写的时候,监控我的生理反应。It’s a simplified version of the GuiltyKnowledge Test, which is used in investigations after a known crime. Anexaminer presents a potential suspect with specific information unrelated andrelated to a crime to test whether examinees have a response to the relevantitems. Take a bank robbery for instance. You could present the amount of moneythat was stolen from the bank among other figures, or a genuine ransom notethat was passed to the bank teller among other notes created by the police.这是犯罪知识测试的简单版本,这种测试用于已知犯罪后进行的调查。测谎人员会给一名潜在疑犯出示与犯罪无关紧要的特定信息和有关联的特定信息,然后测试受试者对有关信息是否有反应。以抢劫为例。你可以给疑犯出示若干数字,其中有被盗的金额;或者出示若干交给柜员的勒索信,其中有真正的勒索信,也有警方制作的假勒索信。Though Maschke says it’s still possible tocheat through it, the Guilty Knowledge Test is considered more theoreticallysound than the comparison strategy and less controversial by scientists,according to the report by the British Psychological Society. The 2011meta-analysis conducted by the American Polygraph Association found that GuiltyKnowledge type tests were incorrect closer to 10% of the time.尽管马施克表示,还是有可能骗过犯罪知识测试,但根据英国心理学会的报告,在理论上,这种测试要比对照策略更为可靠,科学家对此的争议要少一些。美国测谎协会2011 元分析报告发现,当时,犯罪知识类测试的错误率接近10%。Far from perfect –but still,it caught me out. I failed spectacularly. There is a screenshot of myphysiological reactions below. See if you can tell when I lied.虽然这种测试离完美还相差甚远,但也足以抓住我这样的人了。我没有通过测试,结果还很糟。下面是显示我的生理反应的截图。试试看,您能否发现我在撒谎。If you look at the thick black line inparticular, you can probably guess that I lied about the number six. And Mordispotted it too.如果您仔细观察黑色粗线,可能就会发现我对数字6 撒了谎。这点穆尔迪也发现了。 /201605/440864I just met this guy, he said he really likes me and wants to date me. I told him I don#39;t have any special feeling for him yet, and it is too fast.我只是和他刚认识,他就说他真的很喜欢我,想和我交往。我说我对他并没有什么特殊的感觉,而且这进展太快了。He told me it was okay, but never contacted me again. What does this mean?他告诉我这没什么,但是他再也没有联系过我。他什么意思?Stop looking at men as just some male creature and start respecting them as human beings. To be honest, this guy is really a gentleman. He didn#39;t bother you anymore after you rejected him. If you#39;re interested in him, ask him out confidently. There#39;s zero shame in that. If you believe that he should keep trying despite your arrogant refusals then I#39;m sorry to say that you#39;re not eligible for him. And I#39;m even more sorry to say that he must have found some true lady by this time who treats him like a king.不要把男人看做单纯的雄性生物,你应该要把他们作为人类来尊重,说实话,这个男人真的很绅士,在你拒绝他之后就没有来骚扰你。如果你对他有兴趣,你可以自信地邀请他去约会,这没什么好丢脸的。如果你认为他应该不顾你傲慢的拒绝,而是要继续追求你,那么很遗憾,我要说,你跟他不合适。不仅如此,我还要说,他现在一定找到了那位真心待他、尊重他的女士。And get more humiliated by you.然后再让你羞辱他。Great.那真是太棒了。A person can be either selfish or dumb. But when both those attributes are seen in one person I don#39;t know what to say.一个人可能是自私也可能是傻,但是如果一个人又自私又傻,我就不知道说什么好了。You expressed your feelings of not loving him. He respected that and never contacted you again.That#39;s it.你向他表示你不爱他,他尊重你,所以不再与你联系,就是这样。Stop expecting guys to run behind you after you have rejected them.别指望有人会在你拒绝他之后还屁颠屁颠跟在你后面。It means that he respects you. You told him that you#39;re not interested in him and he took you at your word, which he should. If you#39;ve changed your mind and want to go out with him, then invite him out on a date.这说明他尊重你。你告诉他你对他没兴趣,而他把你的话当真了。如果你改变主意想和他去约会,那就去邀请他。Oh God !天哪!If he would have contacted you again and again and again then you would have posted a question saying如果他不停地骚扰你,那你就会在网上这么说I just met a guy. I told him I am not interested still he keeps poking me and acts like a stalker.what do I do?我刚认识个男的,我都已经说了对他没兴趣可他一直缠着我,像个跟踪狂一样,我该怎么办?You asked him to leave and he left..Why are you posting stupid questions now?你让他离开,他就离开。你现在又为什么要问这么蠢的问题呢?I mean what you expect…he should beg you and ask you to stay with him…我知道你想要什么······你觉得他应该求着你和他在一起······You are a kind of a girl who is never satisfied你这种女孩永远不知道满足It means he respected your wishes not to bother you. If you want him to pay attention, tell him. Don#39;t make him guess. That#39;s very unfair.这说明他尊重你的意愿,所以不再打扰你。如果你想要引起他的注意,那就告诉他。不要让他猜你的心思,那不公平。 /201604/439704Summer means outdoor BBQs, sunsets, fireworks… and mosquitos ugh! The season is meant to be spent outside, but how annoying are those mosquitos. Suddenly realizing that you have 10 red, puffy, itchy bumps on your legs is the actual WOAT. Unfortunately, mosquitos are kind of unavoidable during the summer, so how can you make sure that your bites go away as fast as possible?夏天代表了户外烧烤、看日落、看烟火……啊,还有蚊子!这个季节注定要在室外度过,但蚊子太烦人了。突然发现腿上被叮了10个红红的、痒痒的大包真得吓一跳。不幸的是,蚊子在夏天几乎是不可避免的,所以怎么才能使被叮的包尽快消失呢?Don#39;t itch them. You#39;re kidding, right?! Nope… if you can avoid itching your mosquito bites, they will be less itchy in the long run, and go away faster! Why? Well basically, once a mosquito bites you, it leaves behind its saliva which your body recognizes as a foreign substance. So, in response, your body#39;s immune system produces antibodies to fight the invader, which results in the release of histamine (the compound that makes things itch and swell). When you start itching a mosquito bite, you give your immune system another wake-up call, and more antibodies and histamine are released, aka, more swelling, itching, and redness.不要挠。你开玩笑吧?并没有……如果你能不去挠蚊子叮咬的部位,他们之后就不会那么痒,也会消失得更快!为什么呢?其实一旦你被蚊子咬了,留在你体内的蚊子唾液就会被你的身体视为异物,所以为了对抗异物,你身体的免疫系统会产生抗体来对抗入侵者,释放组胺(这种化合物会使皮肤发痒肿胀)。挠蚊子叮咬部位会再次唤醒免疫系统,然后就会释放更多的抗体和组胺,这就意味着会更肿更痒更红。So, next time you#39;ve been bitten by the bug, try holding off as long as you can to scratch. You#39;ll be thanking us later!所以下次再被小虫子咬了的话,尽可能多地坚持一段时间不去挠,之后你会感谢我们的! /201607/452656

More Chinese are now ing digital books than physical ones, according to Xinhua News Agency.据新华社报道,如今中国人读电子书的人数要多于读实体书的人数。It said 64 percent Chinese used some form of digital device to in 2015, a 5.6 percent jump compared with those who preferred paper books, adding that 60 percent adults on mobile phones.该报道称,2015年,64%的中国国民使用了某种形式的数字化设备进行阅读,比偏爱纸质书的人群比例高出5.6个百分点。60%的成年人用手机阅读。The data was released by Wu Shangzhi, vice-minister of the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television, at the 2016 Beijing International Publishing Forum on last Tuesday.这一数据是由国家新闻出版广电总局副局长吴尚之在上周二的2016北京国际出版论坛上给出的。The forum also announced that China#39;s digital publishing industry posted a revenue of 440.39 billion yuan in 2015, a 30 percent surge over the previous year.该论坛还宣布,2015年,我国数字出版产业收入规模达到4403.9亿元,同比增长30%。Wu Shangzhi said the huge base of internet users and the increasingly strong demand for digital ing have greatly pushed forward the development of digital publishing in China.吴尚之表示,网民基数庞大以及对数字化阅读越来越强劲的需求极大地推动了我国数字出版产业的发展。In recent years, the traditional publishing units have increased their digital footprints, and are seeking innovative breakthrough in product and operating mode.近年来,传统出版单位加大了他们的数字出版的业务布局,正在寻求产品和经营模式上的创新性突破。 /201609/464324

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