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楼主:华龙典范 时间:2019年10月20日 14:00:38 点击:0 回复:0
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Can Lab Grown #39;Super#39; Coral Rescue Our Rapidly Dwindling Reefs?人造“超级珊瑚”能否挽救濒危珊瑚礁?Rising water temperatures and the increasing levels of carbon dioxide in our oceans are killing our beautiful coral reefs at an unprecedented rate. Add the current El Ni#241;o weather pattern that is expected to prevail through winter and spring 2016 to the mix, and things look even worse. Scientists estimate that the 1988 El Ni#241;o destroyed almost 16% of the world#39;s coral reefs and believe things could get even worse this time around.不断上升的海水温度和二氧化碳浓度使美丽的珊瑚正以前所未有的速度消失。从去年冬天一直持续到2016年春天的厄尔尼诺天气也使情况变得更糟。据科学家估算,1988年的厄尔尼诺现象几乎毁坏了全球16%的珊瑚,这次甚至会毁坏更多。The disappearance of the reefs does more than rob humans the chance to admire the beautiful structures. It removes a natural barrier that protects shorelines from storms and also leaves fewer habitat options for fish and other marine life.珊瑚的消失远不止无法供人类赏玩这么简单。这不仅使海岸线少了一道天然保护屏障,也让鱼类和其他海洋生物失去了一样栖息场所。To prevent these important animals from disappearing altogether, a team of researchers from the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology are attempting to breed #39;super#39; corals.为了避免如此重要的物种灭绝,夏威夷海洋生物研究所的科学家们正努力尝试人工繁殖“超级珊瑚”。The group led by Dr. Ruth Gates began by selecting certain coral species that seem to have adapted to the changing ocean conditions better than others. They then made them even more resilient by subjecting them to warmer, more acidic water at their research center on the 28-acre Coconut Island, in Kāne#39;ohe Bay off the Island of Oahu.这个由Ruth Gates士带领的团队先是从更耐受海洋环境变化的珊瑚中筛选出一些特殊种类。随后,他们在可可纳特岛上的实验室里,将这些珊瑚耐热耐酸性能培养得更强。该岛仅有28英亩大小,坐落于Oahu岛附近的Kāne#39;ohe海湾上。The resulting strains are being bred with each other to create #39;super#39; corals that will hopefully not just withstand, but thrive in the warmer, increasingly acidic oceans. Once y, the researchers plan to transplant the coral into Hawaii#39;s Kaneohe Bay, which has lost an estimated 60 percent to 80 percent of its coral to bleaching this year.他们希望培养出的新品种通过杂交来产生既能在更暖且酸度更大的海洋里生存,又能不断蓬勃繁殖生长的“超级珊瑚”。“超级珊瑚”生成之后,科学家打算把它们移植到有60%-80%珊瑚发生白化的夏威夷Kaneohe湾中。Although the researchers realize the dangers, Gates believes there is no choice but to intervene if we want to prevent the reefs from disappearing altogether. Tom Oliver, a marine biologist and team leader at NOAA#39;s Coral Reef Ecosystem Division agrees. The expert who believes the project is both scalable and promising says, ;The question is not can they do it, it#39;s can they do it fast enough?; - We sure hope so!虽然科学家意识到这样做有风险,Gates士认为防止珊瑚完全灭绝,除了人工干预之外别无他选。同为海洋生物学家和美国国家海洋及大气珊瑚生态系统分部领导的Tom Oliver也同意这一观点。 他认为该项目既可行也颇具前景,他表示:“问题并不在他们这么做是否正确,而是是否还来得及?”而我们当然希望为时不晚咯。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可, /201601/421971

Low-fat diets are not the best way to lose weight, a major study says today – casting doubt on decades of health advice.今天一项大型研究表明低脂肪饮食并不是最好的减肥方式,消除了数十年来人们对健康建议的疑虑。Scientists concluded there is no evidence to support the dogma that people should reduce the amount of fat in their diet.科学家得出结论称,并没有据持“人们应该减少饮食中脂肪量”的言论。Health officials should give simple guidance focused on portion sizes and unprocessed foods instead of focusing on fat, carbohydrates and proteins, said the researchers from Harvard.来自哈佛大学的研究人员说:“卫生部门应该给出简单的指导,专注于饮食量和未加工食物,而不是关注脂肪、糖类和蛋白质。”Dr Deirdre Tobias, who led the research based on data from more than 68,000 adults, said: #39;There is no good evidence for recommending low-fat diets.迪尔德丽·托拜厄斯士领导的这次研究基于来自68,000多个成年人的数据,他说:“没有确凿的据建议人们安排低脂肪的饮食。”In 1983, Government guidelines advised Britons to cut their fat intake to 30 per cent of total energy and increase the amount of carbohydrates they ate.1983年,政府的指导方针建议英国人脂肪摄入量减少到总能量的30%,并增加糖类摄入量。Emerging evidence suggests that not all types of fat are bad – and some can play a role in protecting the heart and reducing weight.新发现的据表明,并不是所有脂肪都不好,有些还有保护心脏和减轻体重的作用。There is growing interest in Mediterranean diets with high levels of fatty foods such as olive oil, fish and nuts as well as fruit, vegetables and whole grains.人们对地中海式饮食愈发感兴趣,它包含大量高脂肪食物,比如橄榄油、鱼、坚果,还有水果、蔬菜、全谷物。The Harvard team found that cutting back on fat was a less effective route to weight loss than low-carbohydrate or Mediterranean diets.哈佛团队发现减少脂肪摄入量的减肥效果不如低糖饮食或地中海式饮食。Those on low-carbohydrate diets lost an average 2.5lb (1.15kg) more than those on low-fat diets over 12 months, it showed.研究表明12个月内低糖饮食的人比低脂肪饮食的人平均多减掉2.5lb(1.15kg)。Dr Tobias called for a move towards healthy eating patterns, whole foods and portion sizes.托拜厄斯士提倡人们投向健康饮食习惯、天然健康食品和饮食量。Not all experts, however, are convinced. Professor Tom Sanders, of King#39;s College London, said: #39;To control weight, it remains sensible to eat less and avoid consuming excess amounts of fat and sugar, especially as fatty meat, deep fried foods, cakes and biscuits and sugar-sweetened beverages.#39;然而并不是所有专家都被说了,伦敦大学国王学院的汤姆·桑德斯教授说:“为了控制体重,明智的做法就是少吃而且避免吸收过多的脂肪和糖,尤其是肥肉、油炸食品、蛋糕、饼干和含糖饮料。”In a commentary in the journal, Keith Hall, of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases in Bethesda, US, said a key reason why people failed to lose more weight was that they had often given up before the year was over.位于美国贝塞斯达的国家糖尿病、消化和肾脏疾病研究所的凯斯·霍尔在杂志中指出,人们没能减掉更多体重的主要原因是他们总是不到一年就放弃了。 /201511/408389

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