福州做人工授孕那家比较好医指南

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年12月08日 16:23:19
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In a world as fast-changing and full of information as our own, every one of us — from schoolchildren to college students to working adults — needs to know how to learn well. Yet evidence suggests that most of us don’t use the learning techniques that science has proved most effective. Worse, research finds that learning strategies we do commonly employ, like reing and highlighting, are among the least effective.我们生存的这个世界变化极快、信息量大,从中小学生到大学生再到职场人士,所有人都应该知道怎样更好学习。但是有据表明,我们之中的大多数人并不会使用最有效的学习技巧。更糟糕的是,研究发现我们经常使用的学习策略,如重读和划重点,都是最没有效率的学习技巧之一。The scientific literature evaluating these techniques stretches back decades and across thousands of articles. It’s far too extensive and complex for the average parent, teacher or employer to sift through. Fortunately, a team of five leading psychologists have now done the job for us.有关学习技巧评估的科学文献早在几十年前就开始出现,现在已有上千篇文章。一般家长、教师和老板要从中挑选精华,数量太过庞大,内容太过复杂。幸运的是,现在,一个由五名顶尖的心理学家组成的团队已经替我们完成了这项工作。In a comprehensive report released on Jan. 9 by the Association for Psychological Science, the authors, led by Kent State University professor John Dunlosky, closely examine 10 learning tactics and rate each from high to low utility on the basis of the evidence they’ve amassed. Here is a quick guide to the report’s conclusions:1月9日,美国心理科学协会发布了一篇全面的报告。肯特州大学的教授John Dunlosky同其他作者一起,仔细研究了十种学习技巧,并基于他们收集的据,根据实用性的高低给这些学习技巧打了分。以下是报告结论的大致内容:The Worst最差学习技巧Highlighting and underlining led the authors’ list of ineffective learning strategies. Although they are common practices, studies show they offer no benefit beyond simply ing the text. Some research even indicates that highlighting can get in the way of learning; because it draws attention to individual facts, it may hamper the process of making connections and drawing inferences.在这些作者最没有效率的学习策略列表中,突出显示和下划线的划重点方式排在第一位。虽然这些都是很常见的学习做法,但是研究表明除了帮助阅读文本之外,这些没有任何益处。一些研究中甚至显示,划重点有可能会影响学习进程;因为划重点会让人把吸引力转向了各个独立的事实,它有可能会妨碍学习者理清各个事实间的关系和做出推论。Nearly as bad is the practice of reing, a common exercise that is much less effective than some of the better techniques you can use. Lastly, summarizing, or writing down the main points contained in a text, can be helpful for those who are skilled at it, but again, there are far better ways to spend your study time. Highlighting, underlining, reing and summarizing were all rated by the authors as being of “low utility.”与划重点差不多的另外一个学习策略是重读,这也是一种常见的做法,比起其他好的策略来说效率更低一些。最后,做汇总或是列出文章中的主要观点对于擅长做这些事的人来说是有帮助的,但是同刚才的策略一样,还有一些策略要比总结好得多,更能充分利用时间。突出显示、下划线、重读和做汇总都被论文作者们评为“实用性低”的学习技巧。The Best最佳学习技巧In contrast to familiar practices like highlighting and reing, the learning strategies with the most evidence to support them aren’t well known outside the psych lab. Take distributed practice, for example. This tactic involves sping out your study sessions, rather than engaging in one marathon.与人们通常使用的划重点、重读相反,那些最好的、有最多论持的学习策略,出了心理学实验室反而就没什么人知道了。比如说,分散式学习。这种学习策略的方法是把学习的时间分散开来,而不是像跑马拉松一样地一次性完成学习。Cramming information at the last minute may allow you to get through that test or meeting, but the material will quickly disappear from memory. It’s much more effective to dip into the material at intervals over time. And the longer you want to remember the information, whether it’s two weeks or two years, the longer the intervals should be.在最后一分钟把信息塞进脑子里,有可能可以帮助你顺利通过考试或者会议,但是这些信息会很快从记忆中消失。在不同的时间段深入研究学习材料是更有效的学习方法。另外,无论是两周也好两年也好,如果希望能把这些信息记得越久,就越需要延长分散式学习的时间间隔。The second learning strategy that is highly recommended by the report’s authors is practice testing. Yes, more tests — but these are not for a grade. Research shows that the mere act of calling information to mind strengthens that knowledge and aids in future retrieval.报告作者们强烈推荐的第二种学习策略是实际测试。没错,要做更多测试,但是不是那种为了获得成绩而进行的测试。研究表明,单单是回忆脑海中的信息这一过程就能强化知识,并且在未来重拾知识时派上用场。While practice testing is not a common strategy — despite the robust evidence supporting it — there is one familiar approach that captures its benefits: using flash cards. And now flash cards can be presented in digital form. Both spaced-out learning, or distributed practice, and practice tests were rated as having “high utility” by the authors.尽管有大量据持,但是实际测试并不是常用的学习策略。不过,有一种熟悉的学习方法带来的益处和实际测试相近:使用记忆卡片。而且现在记忆卡片可以变得数字化了。分散式学习和实际测试都被作者们评为“高实用性”的学习技巧。The Rest其他学习技巧The remainder of the techniques evaluated by Dunlosky and his colleagues fell into the middle ground — not useless, but not especially effective either. These include:Dunlosky和他的同事们评估的其他技巧都处于中间地带——虽然不是完全没用,但是也没有多大的效率。这些技巧有:Mental imagery, or coming up with pictures that help you remember text (which is time-consuming and only works with text that lends itself to images);心理意象,即看图片记文字(很耗时间,而且只对能联想得到图片的文字有用);Elaborative interrogation, or asking yourself “why” as you (which is kind of annoying, like having a 4-year-old tugging at your sleeve);学习精细化整合,即边读边问自己问为什么(有点烦人,就好像四岁小孩一直拉着你的袖子问问题一样);Self-explanation, or forcing yourself to explain the text in detail instead of passively ing it over (its effectiveness depends on how complete and accurate your explanations are);自我解释,即强迫自己解释文中出现的细节内容,而不是之后再被动地重新阅读(这种方法是否有效取决于你的解释是否完整精确);Interleaved practice, or mixing up different types of problems (there is not much evidence to show that this is helpful, outside of learning motor tasks);交叉实践,即把几种不同的问题组合在一起(没有太多据能说明这种方法有效,除非是学习开车);And lastly the keyword mnemonic, or associating new vocabulary words, usually in a foreign language, with an English word that sounds similar — so, for example, learning the French word for key, la clef, by imagining a key on top of a cliff (which is a lot of work to remember a single word).最后是关键词助记,即把新的词汇(通常是一门外语)与英语读音相近的词联系在一起,举例来说,学习法语词表示“钥匙”的单词 la clef 的时候,想想一把钥匙放在悬崖(cliff)上(这样记单词要花很多功夫)。All these techniques were rated of “moderate” to “low” utility by Dunlosky et al because either there isn’t enough evidence yet to be able to recommend them or they’re just not a very good use of your time. Much better, say the authors, to sp out your learning, ditch your highlighter and get busy with your flash cards.这些学习技巧都被Dunlosky和其他作者评为“中等实用性”或者“低实用性”,因为其中有些技巧并没有得到足够据的持,还有些被评为中和低,单纯是因为它们并不能充分利用时间。作者们表示,分散学习时间、丢掉荧光笔然后去做记忆卡片,你的学习效果会好得多。 /201301/220044

Jacky: I found 50 cents on the sidewalk in front of school.Tommy: I think it#39;s mine. I dropped 50 cents there today and couldn#39;t find it.Jacky: But what I found was two quarters.Tommy: Then I#39;m sure it#39;s mine. It probably broke when it hit the sidewalk.杰克:我在学校门前的人行道上拣了50分。汤米:我想那是我的,今天我在那儿掉了50分,找不到了。杰克:但是我拣的是两个两毛五的呀。汤米:那就更是我的了。因为钱在掉到地上的时候可能摔两半了。 /201202/169884

A fourth-grade teacher was giving her pupils a lesson on logic.;Here is the situation,; she said. ;a man is standing up in a boat in the middle of a river, fishing. He loses his balance, falls in, and begins splashing and yelling for help. His wife hears the commotion, knows that he can#39;t swim, and runs down to the bank. Why do you think she ran to the bank?;A girl raised her hand and asked, ;to draw out all of his savings?;小学四年级的教师正在给学生们上一堂逻辑课。她举了这么一个例子:“有这样一种情况,一个男人在河中心的船上钓鱼,突然失去重心掉进了水里。于是他开始挣扎并喊救命。他的妻子听到了他的喊声,知道他并不会游泳,所以她就急忙跑向河岸。谁能告诉我这是为什么?”一个女生举手答道,“是不是去取他的存款?”笑点在这里:bank在英语中除了我们平时很熟悉的“”之外,还有“河岸”的意思。 /201204/179596

  Obviously, when you end things with your a-hole, jerky ex, all you wanna do is talk about what a jerky a-hole he is. But before you launch into a tirade about his emotional unavailability, check out these expert tips on the etiquette of what not to say after your relationship is dunzo-at least for your own sake。当你跟极品前任分手后,显然最想做的莫过于到处谈论他到底是怎样一个极品。但是,在你唾沫四溅地数落他情感无能前,还是先看看下面这些内行建议,注意分手后哪些事不该再提——就当是为你自己好吧。1. He was broke。他是个穷屌丝。Everyone has a different lifestyle and just because he couldn#39;t match yours, that doesn#39;t mean he#39;s a bad guy-or even cheap. Don#39;t sound high maintenance by complaining about his lack of funds。每个人都有各自生活方式,不要因为他跟你不在同一档次,就狭隘认为他很挫或很穷。不要抱怨人家是屌丝,搞得自己多么“白富美”似的。2. Everything he thought/did/said was terrible。他简直一无是处。Even though you broke up, you shouldn#39;t systematically annihilate of every good thing he did or every good time you had. If someone brings up a great memory of the two of you, take a deep breath and avoid the urge to say, ;Yeah, but what about the time he did [insert something horrible here].; And definitely don#39;t badmouth your ex to the max in front of your new man. If your current BF thinks you may still have strong-even strongly negative-feelings for your past guy, he may wonder if you#39;ve actually moved on。就算已经分手,也不要决绝地抹杀掉他的优点,或你俩在一起时的快乐时光。要是有人说起你们俩,可以试着深呼吸,不要冲口就抱怨“哼,可他做的那些挫事……”;而且,千万不要在现任男友面前肆意诋毁前任,要不然现任男友或许会想:到现在还对那家伙咬牙切齿,你是不是根本就没忘记他呢?3. He was always a jerk。他就是个混球。Well, then why did you date him for X number of months or even years? Saying this just makes you look bad, and worse, bitter. Sure, it#39;s always important to look back and see if there were any red flags you missed-so you can be well aware of what to look for next time-but you don#39;t need to broadcast all the warning signs to everyone you know。既然他是个混球,那你还跟他谈了几个月甚至几年的恋爱?说出这两个字眼只会让别人觉得你更傻更心酸。自然,分手后有必要反省自己是否忽视了某些危险信号,以免下次再犯同样错误,但你完全没必要把你俩之间的问题广而告之。4. You still love him。你还爱着他。We all go through heartache and have experienced a breakup. Telling anyone that you still love him will only prolong the healing. Fake it till you make it. Reframe this to something like, ;We had a good run, and I wish him the best.; Even if you don#39;t。谁都遇到过心碎和分手。如果逢人就说你还爱着他,这只会让伤痛更弥久漫长。假装你已经不在乎他了吧!这样慢慢就会真的忘记他。要跟自己说:“我们毕竟有过快乐时光。希望他以后一切都好吧。” 哪怕你根本不想祝他幸福。5. Anything super embarrassing about your ex。他的超级糗事。If you#39;re willing to share awful story after awful story about your ex, what does this say to your pals or your current man?如果你总是无休止地讲述前任的囧闻糗事,那你想让朋友或现任男友忍受到什么时候呢?6. Anything he told you in absolute confidence。他的绝对秘密。In that same vein, don#39;t show you#39;re untrustworthy by spilling major secrets about your ex#39;s family, childhood, what have you. However bitterly things ended, the fact is that you were in an intimate relationship with this person. Often, because he#39;s an ;ex; you may rationalize that any oaths made are off the table but keeping promises and living with integrity is just a good way to lead your life。同理,不要泄露前任家庭、童年或其他方面的秘密,搞得自己很不值得信任。不论分手多么痛苦,也不要忘了:至少曾经你和他非常亲密。有时候因为他已经是“前任”,你会理所当然认为你和他之间的所有承诺都已作废——但是,遵守承诺、正直诚恳才是美好生活的王道。7. Qualities that you loved about your ex。他身上那些你喜欢的优点。Some people have the opposite problem when it comes to exes and find themselves gushing about the awesome things he did, gifts he gave you, how he made you feel special, blah blah blah. For the sake of any new relationship you might be forming, and your own sanity, get your mind-and mouth-out of the past。相反,有些人一想起前任就会呱啦呱啦说起他做了哪些有趣的事情、送过什么样的礼物,或他如何让自己觉得独一无二等等。顾及到目前的新恋情以及你的理智,还是控制好自己的思绪和嘴巴吧。8. How much your parents loved him。你父母如何喜欢他。When you take a new guy to meet your folks, don#39;t prime him by comparing how your exes fared with your family-especially if your mom and dad loved someone you previously dated. The guy is probably nervous enough trying to live up to your (and their) expectations-he doesn#39;t need the ghost of your ex-bf taunting him, too。当你带新任男友见你父母时,最好不要预先告诉他你的前任来见家长[微]时如何如何——尤其是不要告诉他你的父母多么喜欢你的前任。为了达到你或你父母的期望,新任男友相比已经够紧张了,又何苦还要遭受你前任阴影的折磨呢?9. Negative qualities your ex had that your current guy has。和现任男友相同的缺点。If you really want to piss your current boyfriend off, mention that something he does that you totally hate reminds you of your ex. This kind of comment never leads to anything positive, trust us。如果你就是想把现任男友气走,那就跟他说:你让我想起了前任,你俩都有同样的毛病!相信我,这么说的话,你绝对不会看到好脸色的。 /201507/388638

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  So Hospitable the boy is!The hostess apologized to her unexpected guest for serving an apple-pie without any cheese. The little boy of the family left the room quietly for a moment and returned with a piece of cheese which he laid on the guest#39;s plate.The visitor smiled, put the cheese into his mouth and then said: ;You must have better eyes than your mother, sonny. Where did you find the cheese?;;In the rat-trap, sir,; replied the boy.好客由于客人在吃苹果馅饼时,家里没有奶酪了,于是女主人向大家表示歉意。这家的小男孩悄悄地离开了屋子。过了一会儿,他拿着一片奶酪回到房间,把奶酪放在客人的盘子里。客人微笑着把奶酪放进嘴里说:;孩子,你的眼睛就是比你妈妈的好。你在哪里找到的奶酪?;;在捕鼠夹上,先生。;那小男孩说。 /201203/173406

  We have all experienced it — a holiday that whizzes by at the time, the Daily Mail reported.据《每日邮报》报道,欢乐时光总过得特别快,相信人们都有同感。When we are on holiday, or doing something else new and exciting, the hours pass really quickly there and then. But all the new experiences lead to lots of new memories — and when we look back at them, there are so many to go through, that it feels as if we were gone for ages.人们在休假期间会做一些新鲜的、刺激的事情,当时就会觉得时间过得特别快。但其实,在这期间所有的新鲜的经历,都会变成新的记忆,因此,当我们回忆时,会觉经历了很多,而产生错觉以为时间过得特别快。In contrast, when we are at home or work and going about our normal routine, there are less interesting things and so fewer memories are laid down.相反,在家、上班或者做日常必须做的事情时,便会丧失兴趣,能记住的事情便会越来越少。This phenomenon has been called ;the holiday paradox; by psychology lecturer Claudia Hammond.心理学老师克劳迪娅#8226;哈蒙德将此现象称为“假期迷思”。She said that our lives are normally so humdrum, that only six to nine experiences a fortnight are worth committing to memory. When on holiday, we remember six to nine things from each day.她指出,平时我们的生活十分平淡,以至于2周才有6-9件经历值得记忆,而人们放假时,一天内起码有6-9件经历能够记住。 /201205/180216

  

  A New Zealand kayaker made the semi-finals of the men#39;s slalom at the Olympics despite being given a two-second penalty by his mother who is a judge at the games.新西兰一位奥运男子皮划艇激流回旋比赛选手昨天闯进了半决赛,但在比赛中,他因犯规被身为裁判的母亲罚时两秒钟。Mike Dawson touched gate five when going down the 18-gate Olympic course on Sunday, and his mother, Kay Dawson, did not hesitate to penalise her son. It was one of two two-second penalties Dawson received, but he still advanced to Wednesday#39;s semi-finals.上周日参赛时,迈克#8226;道森碰到了第五个障碍门,本届奥运比赛赛场共设有18个障碍门。他的母亲凯伊#8226;道森毫不犹豫地处罚了儿子。迈克#8226;道森被罚时2秒,但他仍然晋级了本周三举行的半决赛。Dawson joked that he was tempted to get his coach to put in a protest ;about that particular judge;.赛后道森开玩笑说,打算让教练去找那位“特殊”裁判抗议。It would have made dinner time at the Dawsons#39; even more awkward. His coach is father Les.这会让道森一家的晚餐更加“尴尬”,因为道森的教练正是他的父亲兰斯。;That would#39;ve had all sorts of ramifications after the Olympics and besides, I like mum#39;s cooking too much!; Dawson said.道森说:“这本来会在奥运会比赛之后把我们家的关系搞复杂。另外,我非常爱吃妈妈做的饭!”Dawson added that Kay#39;s penalty ;definitely dispels any hint of bias and I wouldn#39;t have it any other way;.道森补充说,母亲的判罚“当然消除了人们的任何偏见。我当然要接受处罚。”;Fortunately it was definitely a genuine touch and, of course, she called it right, as I#39;d expect her to,; he said, ;though I#39;ll be trying my hardest to keep mum unoccupied in my semi-final run.;他说:“幸运的是,很显然我碰到了障碍门,当然,我母亲的判罚也很正确,我也希望她这样判罚。我会尽全力在半决赛中不出现失误。”Dawson qualified eighth of the 15 kayakers who made the semi-finals. The 25-year-old Dawson is at his first Olympics, while his mother is at her second after officiating at the 2008 Beijing Games.道森在进入半决赛的15名选手中排名第八。25岁的道森是首次参加奥运会,而他的母亲是继08年北京奥运会后第二次出任奥运会裁判。 /201208/193079。

  在老乔离开苹果后,这家曾经具有强大革新力和创造力的公司,已经毫无创新可言并陷入了停滞不前的状态。乔布斯曾希望苹果成为一家出色的消费品公司,(;to become a wonderful consumer products company;)将乔布斯赶出苹果的约翰。斯卡利却发表言论称:;苹果永远不会是一家消费品公司。; 更甚的是,面对微软,苹果节节败退。这一切都让乔布斯对个人电脑产业沮丧失望不已,(he despaired about the personal computer industry)甚至说出了;台式电脑进入黑暗时代;的话。(;The desktop market has entered the dark ages;)且让我们看他是如何评价苹果的现状的吧!Jobs was appalled, and he became angry and contemptuous as Sculley presided over a steady decline in market share for Apple in the early 1990s. ;Sculley destroyed Apple by bringing in corrupt people and corrupt values,; Jobs later lamented. ;They cared about making money-for themselves mainly, and also for Apple-rather than making great products。; He felt that Sculley#39;s drive for profits came at the expense of gaining market share. ;Macintosh lost to Microsoft because Sculley insisted on milking all the profits he could get rather than improving the product and making it affordable。;As a result, the profits eventually disappeared. It had taken Microsoft a few years to replicate Macintosh#39;s graphical.user interface, but by 1990 it had come out with Windows 3.0, which began the company#39;s march to dominance in the desktop market. Windows 95, which was released in 1995, became the most successful operating system ever, and Macintosh sales began to collapse。;Microsoft simply ripped off what other people did,; Jobs later said. ;Apple deserved it. After I left, it didn#39;t invent anything new. The Mac hardly improved. It was a sitting duck for Microsoft.;乔布斯十分震惊。同时他对于20世纪90年代初,苹果在斯卡利的管理下市场份额持续下降变得愈加气愤和蔑视。乔布斯惋叹道:;斯卡利给苹果引进了恶劣的人 和低下的价值观,这毁了苹果。他们只顾着让公司赚钱,更多的是让自己赚钱,而非造出上乘的产品。; 乔布斯感到斯卡利对利益的追逐是以市场份额的减少作为代价的。;麦金塔在与微软对决中败下阵来正是因为斯卡利坚持榨取能够得到的每一分利润,却没有想过 改进产品和降低价格。; 结果自然是利润全无。 微软用了好些年来模仿麦金塔的图形用户界面,直到1990年它推出了Windows 3.0系统,从此走上了统领台式电脑市场的征程。1995年发行的Windows95系统成为了有史以来最成功的操作系统,然而麦金塔此时的销量已几近崩 盘。;微软只会抄袭别人的东西。; 乔布斯后来说:;但是苹果活该被打败。我离开之后,它再也没发明什么新的东西,Mac操作系统几乎没有任何改进,面对微软,它只能坐以待毙。; /201207/192746

  

  听到有人说I have a sweet tooth,你会怎么理解?其实,这个表达在英语里使用已经有几百年的历史了,意思是“我喜欢吃甜食”。那么,如果有人说I have a meat tooth的时候,你就不会不明白了吧?Meat tooth refers to someone’s craving or fondness for meat. This term is a rhyming play on the well-known phrase sweet tooth, a craving or fondness for sweet food, which has been in the language for over 600 years.Meat tooth指某人爱吃肉。这个说法沿袭了sweet tooth押韵规律,并进一步演绎。Sweet tooth在英语中流传使用已超过600年,是人尽皆知的一个短语,用以形容对甜食的喜爱。For example:Others craved chocolate or cheesecake; I had a ;meat tooth.;别人都钟情于巧克力或奶酪蛋糕,我就爱吃肉。 /201211/208811

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