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云南省昆明市呈贡县人民医院做去眼袋手术多少钱昆明注射隆下巴玉溪市妇幼保健院打瘦腿针多少钱 HONG KONG After more than a decade of fighting in Iraq, the names of the American-made drones striking targets there have become familiar: Predator, Reaper, Sentinel.香港——在伊拉克作战十年之后,打击各种目标的美制无人驾驶飞机的名号变得耳熟能详:“捕食者Predator)、“死神Reaper)、“哨兵Sentinel)。But this month, a new model entered the fray: the Chinese-made Caihong-4.但在本月,一个新的型号加入竞争:中国制造的“”。According to footage released by the Iraqi armed forces, soldiers used the Chinese drone on Dec. 6 to destroy an ISIS position amid efforts to retake the city of Ramadi. A spokesperson for the Ministry of Defense confirmed the was real.根据伊拉克武装部队发布的视频,在12日,尝试夺回拉马迪市的过程中,士兵利用这种中国无人机摧毁了一个ISIS据点。国防部发言人实,视频是真实的。The lethal strike represents a major step forward in China’s drive to become a leading exporter of military equipment, experts say. Iraq is the only known user of the drone, also known as the CH-4, which closely resembles the General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper.专家说,这次致命攻击代表中国朝着军事设备主要出口国的地位迈进了一大步。目前,伊拉克是这种无人机在实战中的唯一已知使用者。它也被称作CH-4,与通用原子公司(General Atomics)的MQ-9死神非常相似。Its first use in combat may be a selling point for potential buyers.对潜在买家来说,它在战争中的首次使用可能是个卖点。“This is the first time I’ve heard of a Chinese drone, such as the CH-4 (which is basically a clone of the Reaper), reporting an actual kill, and I suppose it would be cliché to say that it won’t be the last,Richard A. Bitzinger, a senior fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, wrote in an email on Wednesday.新加坡南洋理工大Nanyang Technological University) 拉惹勒南国际研究学院(S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies)高级研究员理查德·A·毕辛Richard A. Bitzinger)周三在一封电邮里写道,“这是我头次听说CH-4(它基本上克隆了死神)等中国无人机传出击毙敌人的消息。我想,一种老套的说法是,这不会是最后一次传出类似消息。”Mr. Bitzinger estimated that Iraq’s armed forces had to buy six to 12 Chinese drones to conduct operations efficiently.毕辛格估计,伊拉克武装部队要买入六至十二架中国制无人机才能展开有效行动。“When the Iraqi MoD officially unveiled them in October, two ground control stations could be seen,Jeremy Binnie, Middle East/Africa editor at IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly, wrote in an email, referring to the Ministry of Defense. “Given a typical setup of two aircraft per control station, Iraq probably has at least four.”“伊拉克国防部十月份把它们公开亮相时,我们可以看到两个地面控制站,”《简氏防务周刊IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly)中东/非洲编辑杰里米·宾Jeremy Binnie)在一封电邮里写道。“鉴于每个控制站通常会操控两架飞机,伊拉克很可能至少有四架。”China also uses the CH-4. Its predecessor, the CH-3, has been sold to both Nigeria and Pakistan, he said.中国也在使用CH-4。他说,CH-4的前身CH-3已经销往尼日利亚和巴基斯坦。Last year, China became the world’s third-largest arms exporter, behind the ed States and Russia, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a think tank in Sweden. China’s defense companies have been working hard to export higher-end systems like drones, air defense systems and even stealth fighters but with few successes so far.据瑞典智库斯德哥尔国际和平研究所(Stockholm International Peace Research Institute)透露,去年,中国成为继美国和俄罗斯之后的世界第三大军火出口国。中国的军工企业一直努力出口高端系统——比如无人机、防空系统,甚至隐形战斗机,但迄今为止,收获甚少。The CH-4, whose name translates as “Rainbow,is manufactured by the Beijing-based China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, a state-owned enterprise group. The drone “represents China’s research and production of drones march toward the world,according to a news article from 2014 on the conglomerate’s website.虹-4无人机的生产商是位于北京的国企中国航天科技集团公司。该集团网站2014年的一篇新闻报道称,这款无人机“代表了中国研制的无人机正在走向世界。”Calls and a fax sent to C.A.S.C. went unanswered.中国航天科技集团没有回复寻求置评的电话和传真。The drone was first seen at an airshow in Beijing in 2013, according to China News Service. In March 2015, a state-run news agency said such drones had been handed to the Iraqi Air Force, citing Russian news reports. In October, Iraq’s defense minister inspected a Caihong drone at an air base in the city of Kut, according to a shared by his ministry.据中国新闻社报道,这款无人机013年在北京航展首次亮相015月,一家官方新闻机构援引俄罗斯的新闻报道称,中国已经向伊拉克空军交付此型号的无人机。伊拉克国防部公布的视频显示,该国国防部长今0月在伊拉克库特空军基地时曾查看一架虹无人机。The CH-4 can strike from an altitude of about 16,000 feet and fly at up to 112 miles per hour, according to an article in China Space News, a publication run by C.A.S.C.据中国航天科技集团旗下的《中国航天报》报道,该无人机巡航高度000米至7000米,巡航时速为150公里80公里。“What is clear is that the price of one Caihong-4 drone is much lower than the price of an advanced battle tank on the international arms market,said the article, published in March.该报今年3月发表的文章称,“可以肯定的是,一架4无人机售价会远远低于国际军贸市场上一辆先进主战坦克的价格。”The loss of a drone is “affordable even when military budgets are tight or in small countries,it noted.该文章指出,“即使是军费不甚宽裕的中、小国家也完全损失得起。”Chinese-built drones and aircraft are generally built to compete on price, experts say. Technological limitations mean the finished products do not often perform at the same level as their Western counterparts, but they are cheaper and have far fewer restrictions on who can buy them.专家们表示,中国制造的无人机及飞机通常是以价格取胜。技术限制意味着,其成品的性能通常不如西方同行的产品,但它们价格比较低,而且针对购买者的限制要少得多。“China is known to have difficulties in developing aero engine technology, and this is also true for UAV engines. As a result, Chinese UAVs are generally less capable in terms of performance,Kelvin Wong, an Asia Pacific defense technology reporter with IHS, wrote in an email, referring to unmanned aerial vehicles.《简氏防务周刊》亚太国防技术记者凯尔文·Kelvin Wong)在邮件中写道,“众所周知,中国在研发航空发动机技术方面遇到了困难,无人机发动机的情况也是一样。因此,中国的无人机在性能上通常差一些。”As resources are scarce for Iraq’s armed forces, Chinese drones offer a fast alternative to allied air strikes, according to Jeffrey Lin and Peter W. Singer, who have traced reports of Chinese drone deployments in Iraq, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia.据追踪有关伊拉克、尼日利亚及沙特阿拉伯使用中国无人机情况的报道的杰弗釷林(Jeffrey Lin)和彼得·W·辛格(Peter W. Singer)透露,由于伊拉克武装部队资源匮乏,中国无人机不失为联合空袭行动的一个快速生效的替代选择。“The long loiter time and precision weaponry of armed drones give small Iraqi units flexible and rapid response fire support to exploit sudden battlefield conditions,they wrote in a blog post on on Tuesday.他们在周二发布的文中写道,“武装无人机航行时间较长,携带精确武器,这为小规模的伊拉克部队提供了灵活、快速的火力援,以对突如其来的战情加以利用。”Apart from the lower price of Chinese drones, restrictions imposed by the ed States on the export of armed unmanned systems open a potentially lucrative market for Chinese manufacturers, Timothy R. Heath, a senior international defense research analyst with the RAND Corporation, wrote in an email.兰德公司(RAND Corporation)高级国际防御研究分析师蒂莫西·R·西斯(Timothy R. Heath)在邮件中写道,除了中国无人机价格较低这个因素之外,美国对无人系统的出口限制也为中国生产商打开了一个可能带来巨大回报的市场。“Considering the number of countries that have acquired or expressed interest in Chinese drones, the recent incident in Iraq in which a government uses Chinese armed drones to strike domestic insurgents may become more commonplace around the world,he wrote.他说,“伊拉克政府最近利用中国武装无人机攻击国内叛乱分子,鉴于有很多国家已经拿到中国无人机或对此表示兴趣,这种情况可能在世界范围内变得比较普遍。”Indeed, dozens of countries now manufacture reconnaissance drones, Mr. Bitzinger noted. And their use is all but expected on the modern battlefield.毕辛格指出,实际上现在有几十个国家在生产无人驾驶侦察机。因此它们会在现代战场上亮相也在意料之中。“Now it appears that armed drones (Chinese, European, Iranian, Russian) are the next phase in this proliferation,he wrote.他写道,“在接下来的一个阶段里,似乎会出现(来自中囀?欧洲、伊朗及俄罗斯的)武装无人机的扩散。”来 /201512/417482Using a rocket consisting of 3D-printed parts, Rocket Lab intends to put small satellites weighing as much as 220 pounds into orbit above the Earth, all for a price of .9 million per launch. Depending on the type and size of a payload, most launches these days start at million.利用一枚完全由3D打印部件构成的火箭,火箭实验室公司(Rocket Lab)打算将仅重220磅的小卫星送入绕地轨道,每次发射要价仅90万美元。而现在绝大多数发射的起价就是5000万美元,具体价位取决于有效载荷的类型和大小。But, CEO Peter Beck wants to make one thing clear about its Electron rocket: This isn’t about owning the space launch market or undercutting SpaceX or ULA for their lucrative NASA or military launch contracts. “We’re not looking to build a family of vehicles, we’re not looking to fly people,Beck tells Fortune. “This is about increasing launch frequency and reducing the cost of building space infrastructure.”不过,对于该公司的Electron火箭,首席执行官彼得o贝克想澄清一点:这款产品并不想主宰航空发射市场,也不是要通过低价和Space X或联合发射联盟争抢利润丰厚的美国宇航局或军方的发射合同。贝克对《财富》杂志表示:“我们并不是要打造一个火箭家族,并不打算载人发射。我们只是希望提高发射频率,同时降低空间基础设施的建造成本。”Space infrastructure is key to both future operations in space and to creating a better future on the ground, he adds. Both technology and the market are gravitating towards small satellites (think OneWeb’s proposed small satellite Internet constellation, or a similar initiative recently proposed by Google and SpaceX). The startup’s low price and fast turnaround—it can manufacture critical parts within days—for launches could make it an attractive option for customers that don’t want to wait months for a shared ride on a larger rocket.他补充称,空间基础设施既是未来空间活动的关键,也是为地面生活探索更好未来的关键。目前,技术和市场都更倾向于选择小型卫星。比如,卫星互联网公司OneWeb计划推出小型卫星互联网群,谷歌公司及Space X公司近期也提出类似计划。对那些不想等上数月,只为了在一枚更大火箭上分享舱位的客户来说,这家初创企业的低价格和快速周转——它可以在数天内生产出关键零部件——是个颇有吸引力的选择。The rocket’s Rutherford engine achieves its cost efficiencies by replacing pricey turbopump machinery with much simpler electric motors powered by lithium polymer batteries, which coupled with its 3D printed components, reduces costs, complexity and weight.这种火箭的Rutherford引擎之所以节省成本,奥妙在于它将昂贵的涡轮泵发动机换成了结构简单得多、由锂聚合物驱动的电动机,与3D打印的零部件相结合后,它就能将火箭的成本、复杂程度和重量显著降低。In a conventional liquid-fueled rocket engine, turbomachinery pumps the precise mix of liquid fuel and liquid oxygen into the engine’s combustion chamber, where it is burned to provide thrust. Those turbopumps are complex pieces of hardware that require their own engine to operate at the high performance necessary to make the rest of the engine function properly. They’re also to blame for a fair amount of rocket engine failures.在传统的液体燃料火箭引擎中,涡轮机械将精确配比的液体燃料和液氧泵入引擎的燃烧室后,两者混合燃烧来产生推力。这些涡轮泵由极其复杂的部件构成,这些部件又需要自己的引擎高效运行才能让引擎的其他部分有效运转。这类引擎还因故障频发而饱受诟病。Breakthroughs in both battery efficiency and additive manufacturing have made the rocket and its engine possible, but the driving force behind Rocket Lab isn’t building the smartest, most technologically sophisticated rocket, says Beck. “The electric turbopump and 3D printing are cool, but we’re not doing them because they’re cool,he says. “We’re doing them because it’s the only way to get the launch frequency that we want at the cost that we want.”电池能效和添加物制造技术的突破,使这种火箭及其引擎应运而生,但贝克表示,火箭实验室的动机并不是打造最聪明、技术上最精密的火箭。他说:“电动涡轮泵D打印确实很酷,但我们并不是因为它们很酷才采用的。之所以采用它们,是因为只有这样,我们才能以想要的成本实现我们想要的发射频率。”Frequency is a big part of Rocket Lab’s business plan. Where small satellite customers often have to wait months to piggyback their payloads on the backs of larger commercial satellite launches, Rocket Lab could integrate a payload into a rocket and launch within weeks, which raises the prospect that it could launch as frequently as the market demands. Satellites could go to orbit and begin producing value as soon as they’re y at a launch cost comparable to a ride-share on a larger rocket.发射频率是火箭实验室商业计划中很重要的一块。小客户通常不得不等上数月,才能把自己的有效载荷装上较大的商业卫星,而火箭实验室就能把这种载荷完全放在一枚火箭上,几周内即可发射,将来它或许就能按照市场所需频繁发射。一旦这类卫星的发射成本和搭载在较大火箭上发射的成本相当,它们就能升入轨道并开始产生价值。Given that the small satellite industry is growing by double-digit percentages year-over-year (there were roughly 150 small satellite launches in 2014 with more predicted in 2015 and beyond), a million rocket could find a healthy market segment to serve. Rocket Lab will test Electron throughout the rest of this year, with its first commercial launch slated for 2016.鉴于小型卫星产业正以两位数的年增长率快速发展(2014年约50颗小型卫星升空,2015年及以后预计会有更多),一枚价00万美元的火箭可以获得一个更健康的细分市场。今年火箭实验室将继续测试其电动火箭,首次商业发射预计将016年进行 /201505/375634昆明市云大医院附乳胸部乳房乳晕价格

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