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抚顺市妇保院皮肤科怎么样辽宁抚顺妇幼保健院电话号码LONDON — Kensuke Shichida, the head of a centuries-old sake brewery in southern Japan, had spent a dizzying week in London restaurants tasting a variety of exotic and confounding dishes: pub food, gourmet burgers, French food, Angus beef, ceviche.伦敦——日本南部一家有一百多年历史的清酒厂的老板七田谦介(Kensuke Shichida),在伦敦的餐馆里度过了头晕目眩的一周。他品尝了各种充满异国风情又令人费解的菜式:酒吧餐、厨师汉堡、法式大餐、安格斯牛肉,还有柠汁腌鱼生。The experience left him slightly bewildered and slightly ill, he said, suffering from a food hangover.这场体验让他有点困惑,还有点不适,七田谦介说,就好像经历了一次由食物引发的宿醉。But Mr. Shichida, 43, is on a mission, he said, to bring his family-brewed sake to European restaurants and pair it with Western cuisine, which means charting new territory. It is an exercise of necessity. Japan is proud of its sake heritage, but sales have been falling for decades, and Mr. Shichida and a number of other brewers are trying to help reverse its decline before it is too late.现年43岁的七田谦介说,他现在有一个目标,就是要把自己家族酿制的清酒推广到欧洲的餐馆,让它与西餐搭配,开辟新的市场。七田谦介这么做实属无奈。清酒一直是日本人引以为傲的传统饮品,但它的销量几十年来却在不断下滑。趁现在还不算太晚,七田谦介和另外几位酿酒商都在设法扭转颓势。“I’d be lying if I said pairing sake with burgers didn’t hurt my pride as a Japanese,” he admitted at a recent dinner, hesitantly poking a piece of lamb kidney and sweetbs — a first for him — with his fork. “But we need to be exploring this path to survive as a brewer.”“如果我说,清酒配汉堡不会伤害我作为日本人的自豪感,那是在撒谎,”七田谦介最近在一次晚餐时承认道。他一边说着,一边用叉子迟疑地戳向一片羊腰和一堆羊杂。那是他第一次吃羊杂。“但作为酿酒商要存活下来,我们必须尝试这条路。”“Sake is surprisingly versatile,” he added. “I’ve discovered it goes well with many Western recipes, perhaps even better than wine or beer.”“清酒的搭配范围之广令人称奇,”他接着说。“我发现它与很多西方菜式都可以很好地搭配,甚至可能比葡萄酒和啤酒还好。”Fresh oysters, for example, usually go pair well with Champagne or Chablis, which have a crisp acidity. But Mr. Shichida, who runs the 140-year-old Tenzan brewery, says sake works better. The drink is mellower and less acidic, and its cleansing properties help remove the oysters’ briny taste, he said. And sake’s umami — a savory sensation considered to be the “fifth taste” — helps improve their fleshiness.例如,法国生蚝一般都以口感酸爽的香槟或夏布利酒搭配。但七田谦介却说,清酒配生蚝效果更佳。他经营的天山酒造(Tenzan brewery)已有140年历史。他说,这是因为清酒更香醇、没那么酸,由于能去除邪味,它还可以消除生蚝的腥气。此外,清酒的鲜味(umami)——经常被称为“第五种味道”——则提升了食物的质感。At a recent dinner at Hixter, a restaurant here, the head chef, Ronnie Murray, paired a plate of Launceston lamb and meaty girolle mushrooms with Mr. Shichida’s 75 Junmai, a full-bodied sake that uses unpolished rice, a rarity even in Japan. The Japanese generally prize sake that contains highly polished rice, which produces a flowery and smooth taste. By contrast, Mr. Shichida’s sake had a round, woody flavor with a tempered acidity that complemented the earthy lamb.最近在伦敦Hixter餐厅享用晚餐时,主厨朗尼·莫瑞(Ronnie Murray)以一盘朗塞斯顿羔羊肉和有肉质口感的鸡油菌,来搭配七田谦介的“纯米75”。这种清酒用糙米酿造,口味浓烈,即使在日本也很稀有。日本人一般喜欢用精米酿造的清酒,因为精米能带来一种优雅和柔滑的味道。相比之下,七田谦介的清酒则饱满直接,酸味受到了抑制,与味道浓厚的羊肉相得益彰。“Wine tends to be more acidic and cuts through the taste of meat,” said Gareth Groves, the head of marketing at Bibendum Wine, a retailer that recently announced that it was stocking sake from Japan. “Sake is less about cutting through the food than sitting alongside it.”“葡萄酒往往口感更酸,会盖过肉的味道,”必比登葡萄酒(Bibendum Wine)市场营销负责人加雷思·格罗夫斯(Gareth Groves)说。这家零售商最近宣布,从日本进口了大量清酒。“清酒不太会盖住食物的味道,能够互不影响。”Most Westerners generally view sake as a clear-colored liquor to be savored with sushi and sashimi, with an alcohol content of 15 to 20 percent. It is thought to have originated in the seventh century and is considered the drink of the gods in the Shinto religion.多数西方人只是知道,清酒颜色澄清,要搭配寿司或刺身,酒精度在15%到20%之间。清酒据信起源于7世纪,而在日本的神道教里,清酒则被视作神祗的饮品。There are 80 types of rice specially designed to produce sake, which is made from fermented rice, water and koji — white rice imbued with a special kind of mold. While wine is typically served only in glasses, sake can be poured into a variety of cups that alter its fragrance, including earthenware, lacquerware, glass, porcelain and box-shaped ones made from Japanese cedar.专门用来酿造清酒的大米有80种。清酒是由酒酿、水和酒曲酿成的。酒曲是加入了某种特殊霉菌的大米。葡萄酒一般只用玻璃杯盛,而清酒却可以倒入不同的杯皿,酒香也会因为容器的不同而略有差异。可以盛放清酒的容器包括陶器、漆器、玻璃、瓷器,还有用日本柳杉制做的盒型容器。Sake ranges from sparkling, somewhat similar to Champagne, to namazake, which tastes best straight from the vat, unpasteurized. Meaning “raw sake,” namazake offers a taste of the ethereal, as it can sour within hours. Some other sake uses yuzu, a Japanese citrus, making the drink a tangy cousin of the Italian limoncello, while umeshu is kind of a plummy version of the Hungarian dessert wine Tokaj.清酒种类繁多,从有些类似香槟的发泡酒,到未经杀菌处理的生酒。生酒直接从酒桶汲出时味道最佳,口感妙不可言,但几个小时就会变质。还有一些清酒是用日本柚酿制的,这种柑橘属水果又称香橙,味道就像是意大利柠檬酒(limoncello)的浓郁版。而梅酒则仿佛是梅子味的匈牙利甜酒托卡伊(Tokaj)。Some lesser-known koshu, or aged sake, sells for more than 0 a bottle for a 40-year-old vintage. Shigeri Shiraki, whose family brewery in the mountainous region of Gifu was founded in 1835, is exploring how to make her 20-year-old aged sake, Daruma Masamune, palatable to Westerners. It is brewed manually by a handful of employees, and only in the winter, a practice among koshu brewers that dates to the 17th century. Mrs. Shiraki said her brewery does not use refrigerators.还有一些不那么出名的古酒,即陈年清酒。一瓶40年的古酒售价在300美元以上。白木繁里(Shigeri Shiraki,音)是岐阜市山区一座家族清酒厂的老板。这家酒厂创立于1835年。她正在探索如何让自己酿造了20年的清酒——达正宗(Daruma Masamune)——适合西方人的口味。这种古酒是由几名工人手工酿制的,而且只在冬天酿造,延续了17世纪酿造古酒时普遍采用的方法。白木说她的清酒厂不用冷库。On its own, her sake has a salty undertone reminiscent of soy sauce or Marmite, and it shares notes with port, sherry or the smoky-flavored Islay Scotch whisky. Mrs. Shiraki suggested pairing it with a particularly rich dessert, pouring it over a slice of pecan pie and vanilla ice cream, or trying it as a digestive.白木繁里的清酒带有一种咸味,能让人联想起酱油或马麦酱,还有一丝波尔图葡萄酒、雪利酒,或者烟熏味艾拉岛威士忌(Islay Scotch)的口感。白木繁里建议搭配味道浓郁的甜品,在享用山核桃派和香草冰淇淋时倒上一杯,或者把它当成一种餐后酒。Some chefs and food lovers describe the experiment with sake as a shot in the dark, but for brewers, the challenge is more urgent.一些大厨和美食爱好者称,用清酒所做的这种尝试结果还很难说,但对于酿酒商来说,面前的挑战越来越迫在眉睫。Sake consumption has fallen sharply in Japan since the 1970s because of a decreasing birthrate and a switch by many drinkers to wine, much of it imported, or other domestic drinks like beer, whiskey or shochu, a Japanese spirit. Japan exported 5,000 tons of sake in 2012, but mostly to Japanese restaurants, limiting its audience. Overseas sales are still a small fraction of total sales.自1970年代以来,清酒在日本的消耗量就大幅下降,一个原因是出生率的不断下滑,此外许多饮酒者转而饮用葡萄酒——很大一部分是进口的——或者国内生产的其他酒类,如啤酒、威士忌或烈性的烧酒。2012年,日本出口了5000吨清酒,但主要都流入了日式餐厅,这就限制了清酒的受众。海外销售仍然只占总销量的很小部分。The number of brewers — mostly old-fashioned and family-owned — has shrunk to around 1,000 from around 4,600 in the earlier part of the 20th century.清酒厂的数量已经由上世纪上半叶的约4600家,减少至目前的1000家左右。大部分清酒厂都是传统的家族式酒厂。“The sake industry won’t survive on its local market,” said Barry McCaughley, a food and beverage consultant based in London. “Unless it makes changes now, it will be dead in 20 to 30 years.”“清酒行业单靠本地市场根本无法生存,”伦敦的餐饮行业咨询师巴里·麦可利(Barry McCaughley)说。“除非现在就做出改变,否则二三十年后清酒业就会消亡。”Restaurants and retailers are starting to push sake as the next drink fad, similar to craft beer, whose popularity has exploded in Britain. A Scottish brewer, Arran, plans to start producing Britain’s first sake on a commercial scale later this year, the second European brewer to do so after Nogne O of Norway. Many bars are aly using sake in their cocktails.餐厅和零售商正开始把清酒包装成新的时尚饮品,就像在英国人气爆棚的手工酿制啤酒一样。苏格兰的酒厂Arran计划今年晚些时候,商业化生产英国的第一款国产清酒。它是继挪威的纳酷欧(Nogne O)之后,第二家采取这种做法的欧洲酒厂。许多酒吧已经开始使用清酒调制鸡尾酒。For all the gambling on foreign sales, brewers say they have one ultimate aim: bringing sake back in Japan as well.除了进军海外市场的,酿酒商说,他们还有一个终极目标:让清酒在日本重新流行起来。“If we’re able to tell the Japanese, ‘Look how much foreigners are enjoying sake,’ that would give them an opportunity to rediscover sake and revive demand,” Mr. Shichida said. “We don’t want our culture to disappear. We really don’t.”“如果我们能够告诉日本人,‘看,外国人多喜爱清酒啊,’就会让他们重新发现清酒的魅力,进而提振需求,”七田谦介说。“我们不想让自己的文化消失。真的不想。” /201411/345176东洲医院不孕不育科 McDonald’s said on Wednesday that it would begin using chicken from birds that are not raised with antibiotics used to treat humans.麦当劳(McDonald#39;s)周三宣布,公司将开始使用在禽类饲养过程中没有摄入人类抗生素的鸡肉。Because the struggling fast-food chain is one of the largest buyers of chicken in the ed States – McDonald’s sells more chicken than beef – the move is likely to have a major impact on the way poultry is raised and the kind of chicken served by restaurants.由于这家陷入困境的快餐连锁店是美国最大的鸡肉采购商之一——麦当劳出售的鸡肉比牛肉多——此举很可能会对家禽的饲养方式及餐厅提供的鸡肉种类产生重大影响。The shift toward offering chicken that is largely antibiotic-free is to be phased in over two years, the company said. It also announced that later this year, McDonald’s would give customers the choice of low-fat and chocolate milk from cows that have not been treated with the artificial growth hormone, rBST.该公司表示,将在两年的时间里逐步改用基本上不含抗生素的鸡肉。声明中还宣布,麦当劳将在今年晚些时候,为顾客提供由未注射人工合成的重组牛生长激素(rBST)的奶牛所产的低脂奶和巧克力奶。The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been increasingly vocal about its concerns about the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry as more and more bacteria and pathogens are showing resistance to such drugs. It estimated in 2013 that at least two million Americans fall sick each year because of antibiotic-resistant infections and at least 23,000 die from them.随着越来越多的细菌和病原体对抗生素产生抗药性,美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)越来越明确地表示对此类药物在畜牧业的使用感到担忧。根据该中心在2013年的估算,每年至少有200万美国人因为感染耐药菌而患病,其中至少2.3万人因此死亡。The government’s concern has caught the attention of consumers, and food companies and restaurants are increasingly using “antibiotic free” labels as a marketing tool that sometimes allows them to command a higher price.政府的担忧引起了消费者的注意,食品公司和餐厅在越来越多地使用“无抗生素”标签,将其作为一种营销手段,有时候还能因此卖个更好的价钱。“The last time McDonald’s did something like this, five other fast-food companies made similar announcements within six months,” said Steven Roach, food safety program director for Food Animal Concerns, one of the advocacy groups involved in the coalition Keep Antibiotics Working. “I would expect we’re going to see a similar pattern this time around.”“麦当劳上次采取类似的举措时,其他五家快餐企业在六个月内发表了类似声明,”食用动物关怀信托组织(Food Animal Concerns)食品安全项目负责人史蒂文·罗奇(Steven Roach)说。“我期待这次也能看到类似情况发生。”该组织是参与“保持抗生素有效”联盟(Keep Antibiotics Working)的倡导团体之一。The National Chicken Council said in a statement that the “vast majority” of antibiotics used for disease prevention in the industry were never given to humans. “Chicken producers have a vested interest in protecting the effectiveness of antibiotics for the welfare of their animals,” the trade group said. “As such, we’ve proactively and voluntarily taken steps toward finding alternative ways to control disease while reducing antibiotic use.”全美养鸡理事会(National Chicken Council)发表声明称,业界用于预防疾病的“绝大部分”抗生素都从未用于人体。“为了动物福利而保护抗生素的有效性,符合鸡肉生产商的利益,”该贸易组织表示。“同样,我们一直在主动而自愿地采取措施,寻找在减少抗生素使用的同时控制疾病的替代方法。”In January, the International Production amp; Processing Expo, billed as “the world’s largest annual poultry, feed and meat technology exposition,” devoted a panel to antibiotic-free poultry production at which an industry consultant declared that antibiotic-free chicken was no longer a niche business.今年1月,号称“世界最大的禽类、饲料及肉制品加工技术年度展览”的国际生产与加工览会(International Production amp; Processing Expo)专门就不含抗生素的禽类生产问题召开了一次全会。一名业界顾问在会上宣称,不含抗生素的鸡肉不再是一种偏门生意。“I think in a few years, one-third of chicken and turkey will be antibiotic-free,” Richard Kottmeyer, managing director of Strategic, an agricultural consulting firm, said, according to a report on WATTAgNet.com. “The problem then is the other 66 percent of consumers will be resenting the fact that their chicken isn’t antibiotic-free.”“我认为在几年之内,三分之一的鸡肉和火鸡肉都将不含抗生素,”根据WATTAgNet.com上的一份报告,农业咨询机构“战略”公司(Strategic)的执行董事理查德·科特迈耶(Richard Kottmeyer)说。“那时的问题将是,剩余66%的消费者将埋怨他们的鸡肉仍然含有抗生素。”Last September, Perdue became the first major ed States poultry company to say it was no longer using antibiotics in its hatcheries, one of the last parts of its production process where the drugs were still in use. A month later, Tyson Foods made a similar announcement, although unlike Perdue, Tyson still uses antibiotics for disease prevention.去年9月,普渡(Perdue)成为表示不会再在孵化阶段使用抗生素的首家美国大型禽肉公司。孵化是其生产过程中仍在使用这种药物的最后几个领域之一。一个月后,泰森食品(Tyson Foods)发表了一个类似声明,尽管与普渡不同,它仍然在利用抗生素预防疾病。And a year ago, Chick-fil-A, the fast-growing fast-food chicken business, said it was no longer using chicken treated with antibiotics. Panera has used meat raised without antibiotics for more than a decade.一年前,发展迅速的鸡肉快餐公司“福来鸡”(Chick-fil-A)宣称,不再使用含有抗生素的鸡肉。Panera面包坊已经使用不含抗生素的肉类产品长达十多年。McDonald’s is somewhat late to the game, in part because its size makes it difficult to establish supply chains that can fulfill the demand in its 14,000 ed States restaurants. It took the company two years, for example, to establish enough contracts to supply it with cucumbers when it added the vegetable to its several years ago.在这件事上,麦当劳的行动有些迟缓。其中的部分原因在于,它的规模十分庞大,难以迅速建立一个供应链来充分满足它在美国的1.4万家餐厅的需求。例如,虽然公司几年前就决定在菜单里加入黄瓜,但花了两年时间才签订了足够的合约来供应旗下的门店。The company first announced a policy limiting its chicken suppliers’ use of antibiotics in 2003, but it had done little to update it over the years, Mr. Roach said.2003年,麦当劳首次宣布了一项限制其鸡肉供应商使用抗生素的政策。但罗奇称,在接下来的这么多年里,公司并未采取多少措施来更新这项政策。The move coincides with McDonald’s “Your Questions, Our Food” marketing campaign, in which the company answers questions like whether the eggs it uses are freshly cracked and how it cooks its beef patties. The company’s new chief executive, Steve Easterbrook, who took the helm this week, successfully used a similar program to help turn around the McDonald’s business in Britain.新举措与麦当劳的营销活动“你的问题,我们的食物”(Your Questions, Our Food) 同时推出。麦当劳会在这项活动中回答消费者的问题,比如店里使用的鸡蛋是否为刚打破的,或是他们如何烹制牛肉饼。本周刚上任的麦当劳新任首席执行官史蒂夫·伊斯特布鲁克(Steve Easterbrook)曾经利用一个类似项目,成功盘活了麦当劳在英国的业务。Mr. Easterbrook is meeting this week with McDonald’s franchisees and suppliers to present what he has called the “Turnaround Agenda.” One of the seven “Big Actions” he plans is to “win” with the company’s food by, among other things, improving taste and giving consumers food they can “feel good about” eating, like chicken raised without antibiotics.本周,伊斯特布鲁克将会见麦当劳的加盟商和供应商,展示他口中的“翻身计划”。他筹划的“七大行动”之一,就是通过多种手段来以食物“取胜”。这些手段中,包括改善口味,以及为消费者提供吃起来“感觉良好”的食物,比如饲养过程中未使用抗生素的鸡肉。 /201503/363282抚顺县人民医院在哪个区

抚顺中山妇科医院官网抚顺市第三医院耳鼻喉怎么样 Anthropologists exploring a cave in Israel have uncovered a rare 55,000-year-old skull fossil that they say has a story to tell of a reverberating transition in human evolution, at a point when and where some early humans were moving out of Africa and apparently interbreeding with Neanderthals.古人类学家在以色列探索一座洞穴时发现了一枚5.5万年前的头骨化石,他们认为,这只头骨揭示了人类进化史上一次意义深远的转变。那是在早期人类离开非洲的时候,并且在大迁徙中可能与尼安德特人发生了混血。The story is of when the Levant was a corridor for anatomically modern humans who were expanding out of Africa and then across Eurasia, replacing all other forms of early human-related species. Given the scarcity of human fossils from that time, scholars say, these ancestors of present-day non-African populations had remained largely enigmatic.当时,黎凡特地带是一条迁徙走廊,解剖学意义上的现代人从这里走出非洲,走向亚欧大陆,取代了其他所有的早期类人物种。学者说,那个年代遗留下来的人类化石很少,因此,今天非洲以外人类的祖先的情况仍然是个谜。From the new fossil find, which could be closely related to the first modern humans to colonize Stone Age Europe, it appears that these people aly had physical traits a bit different from the Africans they were leaving behind and many other human inhabitants along the corridor.最近发现的这具化石可能与石器时代移民欧洲的第一批人类关系很近,从化石来看,这群人已经具备了一些特征,与当时留在非洲大陆的人类、以及黎凡特走廊沿线其他人类颇不相同。Could this support recent genetic evidence that modern Homo sapiens and their Neanderthal cousins interbred, perhaps in the Middle East and most likely between 65,000 and 47,000 years ago? The discovery team urged caution on the interbreeding issue, but noted anatomical features of the cranium suggesting that some human-Neanderthal mixture had presumably occurred before any encounters in Europe and Asia.近来有基因据表明,现代智人可能在中东地区与他们的近亲尼安德特人交配,时间大约是6.5万到4.7万年间。这具化石是否持了这种基因据?发掘小组的科学家强调在交配假说的问题上需要慎重,但指出,头盖骨的解剖学特征表明,一些智人与尼安德特人混合的迹象可能在这两种人在欧洲和亚洲相遇前,就已经出现了。The discovery in Manot Cave in western Galilee, made in 2008 and subjected to years of rigorous analysis, was reported on Wednesday in the journal Nature by an international team of researchers led by Israel Hershkovitz of Tel Aviv University. They said this was “the first fossil evidence from the critical period when genetic and archaeological models predict that African modern humans successfully migrated out of Africa and colonized Eurasia.”在加利利西部马诺特洞穴(Manot Cave)发现的化石是2008年出土的,经过了多年严谨的分析。研究结果由一个多国科学家组成的科研小组于周三发表在《自然》杂志上,他们的领队是特拉维夫大学的伊斯拉埃尔·赫什科维茨(Israel Hershkovitz)。他们说,这是“来自一个关键历史时期的第一份化石据,基因和考古模型已经预言,非洲现代人类就是在那个时期成功走出非洲,在欧亚大陆定居的”。The researchers further concluded that the Manot specimen “provides important clues about the morphology of modern humans in close chronological proximity to a probable interbreeding event with Neanderthals.” They also noted that the shape of the cranium established this as a fully modern human at a time when warmer and wetter conditions were favorable for human migration out of Africa.研究者还进一步得出结论,认为马诺特标本“为现代人类在与尼安德特人发生可能的交配活动前后的形态学特征提供了重要线索”。他们又说,这枚头盖骨经明属于一个完全意义上的现代人;当时相对更温暖湿润的气候有利于人类走出非洲。In other words, Dr. Hershkovitz said in an interview, the Manot cranium “is the missing connection between African and European populations.”换言之,马诺特头盖骨“是非洲人类和欧洲人类之间缺失的中间环节”,赫什科维茨接受采访时说。Scientists not involved with the research team praised the “fascinating new fossil” and the cautious interpretation of its broader implications in understanding the early migrations into Eurasia. “This fossil fits previous predictions,” said Eric Delson, a paleoanthropologist at Lehman College of the City University of New York, “which is a nice rarity in our field.”未参与这个研究项目的科学家赞扬了这块“奇妙的新化石”的发现,以及关于它对理解人类进入亚欧大陆过程的意义的谨慎解读。“这块化石与此前的预言吻合,这在我们这个学科领域,是少有的,”纽约市立大学李曼学院的古人类学家埃里克·戴尔森(Eric Delson)说。Dr. Delson, also a researcher at the American Museum of Natural History, added, “As always, we want more fossils to document variations in and details about this presumed fossil population.”戴尔森还是美国自然历史物馆的研究员,他补充说:“我们总是希望获得更多化石样本,以便记录这个可能存在的群体的变异和有关他们的详细情况。”In an email, Dr. Delson praised the journal authors “for hitting the mark with their analyses and interpretations, reaching all the possible conclusions one could think of: The partial skull combines a basically modern human form with a few features also found in Neanderthals.” In addition, he pointed out, the analysis “supports the similarity of its shapes” to those of modern Africans and early modern humans from Europe, such as the Cro-Magnons.戴尔森在电子邮件中赞扬论文作者的“分析和解读十分恰当,得出了我们能想像得到的所有结论:这块头骨既有现代人类的基本特征,也有一些尼安德特人的特征”。此外,他也指出,他们的分析“可以持头骨形状近似”现代非洲人和早期欧洲人——比如克罗马侬人——的事实。The partial skull, designated Manot 1, is of a fairly small adult individual, its sex undetermined. The distinctive bunlike shape at the base of the skull resembles modern African and European skulls but differs from other anatomically modern humans from the Levant, and is thus a strong clue that these were among the first humans to settle Europe, scientists said.这块头盖骨被命名为马诺特1号,属于一个身材较小的成年人,性别待定。颅骨基部明显的髻状突起接近现代非洲人和欧洲人,但有别于其他在黎凡特地带发现的现代人种,因此强有力地暗示着,这可能是早期进入欧洲的人类。Dr. Delson agreed that the evidence “makes it possible that this individual is (or is descended from) a ‘hybrid’ between modern humans and Neanderthals, but as the authors note, such a conclusion cannot be reached from a single fossil, especially as hybrids between species of modern primates usually have some genetically related anatomical oddities.”戴尔森同意,这些据“可能说明这个人是现代人与尼安德特人的混血(或其后代)。但正如论文作者所说的,不能从一块化石就得出这样的结论,特别是考虑到现代灵长类动物的跨物种混血后代往往都存在某些遗传上的解剖学异常”。One concern is that the fossil skull is fairly small, with a somewhat lower braincase capacity than in modern humans. With only one specimen, it is hard to know whether this is normal for the general population, scientists said. And Dr. Delson said it would be interesting to test for DNA in the skull to support its possible hybrid status in a time of overlapping modern human-Neanderthal populations when early humans were making their way, as he phrased it, to “that small zoological backwater of Eurasia known as Europe.”顾虑之一,是这件颅骨化石相对较小,脑容量比现代人小。因为只有一件化石标本,科学家很难判断,这是不是这个群体的普遍特征。戴尔森说,如果能检测头骨的DNA,从而实这的确是现代人与尼安德特人共存时代的一个混血人种,那将是很诱人的。他说,“今天所谓的欧洲,是亚欧大陆物种进化的一个小流”。Excavations at Manot Cave are expected to continue through at least 2020, searching deeper for more fossils and artifacts from the migrating people. Israel, Dr. Hershkovitz said, “is like a Swiss cheese, lots of caves everywhere.”在马诺特洞穴的挖掘预计将至少持续到2020年,更加深入地寻找更多迁徙人类留下来的化石和器物。赫什科维茨说,以色列就像“一块瑞士奶酪,到处都是窟窿”。Several caves in the vicinity of Manot were occupied for long times by Neanderthals between 65,000 and 50,000 years ago. In this respect, Dr. Hershkovitz said, Manot is an excellent place to search for possible hybrids, but they may be difficult to recognize from surface features. “Only DNA study will solve the problem,” he said.马诺特洞穴附近的一些洞穴,在6.5到5万年前,长期被尼安德特人栖居。考虑到这一点,赫什科维茨说,马诺特是寻找混血人种的理想场所,但从表面特征上,可能很难识别。“只有DNA研究能给我们,”他说。 /201502/360790东洲区妇幼保健院龟头炎症

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