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2018年02月22日 16:52:39 | 作者:搜医指南 | 来源:新华社
She was a genius before she was a refrigerator magnet, an ace manipulator of society and media nearly a century before social media came into existence. Born in 1907, dead at 47, Frida Kahlo achieved celebrity even in her brief lifetime that extended far beyond Mexico’s borders, although nothing like the cult status that would eventually make her the mother of the selfie, her indelible image recognizable everywhere.早在社交媒体出现之前,她就已经是操纵社会与媒体的高手,有她肖像的冰箱磁贴走进千家万户,但她首先是一位艺术天才。弗里达·卡罗(Frida Kahlo)生于1907年,去世时年仅47岁,在短短一生中,她的名气越过了墨西哥边境,虽然真实的她和那个受到小众崇拜、最后令她成为自拍之母的身份并无相似之处,但她那不可磨灭的肖像却无处不在。Yet, despite the many biographies, documentaries and biopics, there remains much to learn about this often misunderstood artist, a sexual pragmatist who conducted affairs with both men and women, a proto-feminist who invested her art with an autobiography filled with struggle and pain. She was also an ardent Communist who sometimes fudged her date of birth to align with the start of the Mexican Revolution, and an irresistibly magnetic seducer, especially whenever a camera was around.尽管有许多传记、纪录片和传记体电影讲述她的故事,这位经常遭人误解的艺术家身上仍然有许多东西值得去了解,她在性上是一个实用主义者,同男人和女人都有风流韵事;她是女性主义者的先驱,她的艺术和自传中充满挣扎和痛苦。她还是坚定的共产主义者,有时会就自己的出生日期撒谎,好同墨西哥革命的起源攀上关系。此外她还是极具魅力的诱惑者,特别是有镜头对准她的时候。In a welcome though unexpected convergence, an array of new books and exhibitions about Kahlo have suddenly appeared this spring, adding insight and depth to our understanding of a woman who would seem among the most overexposed artistic figures of all time.今年春天,一大堆关于卡罗的新书和展览突然冒了出来,令人欣喜而又颇为意外,这些书籍和展览有助于我们更深入地了解这个女人,这个艺术史上遭到曝光最多的艺术人物之一。While it seems clear that artists like Tracey Emin have fallen under the influence of her audacious self-disclosures; that designers — like Riccardo Tisci of Givenchy and Jean Paul Gaultier — have drawn inspiration from her style; and that entertainers like Lady Gaga and Beyoncé shrewdly adapted the lessons pioneered by a publicity-friendly solipsist who anticipated the Instagram era by many decades, Kahlo remains in some ways an enigma.翠西·艾敏(Tracey Emin)这类艺术家都深受她的影响,尤其是大胆自我暴露的这一面;让·保罗·高缇耶(Jean Paul Gaultier)和纪梵希的里卡多·堤西(Riccardo Tisci)等设计师从她的风格中汲取灵感;Lady Gaga和碧昂斯(Beyoncé)之类的艺人聪明地沿着她在Instagram出现几十年前便已开创的道路,塑造出对公众友好的唯我主义者形象……然而,卡罗在某些方面仍然是一个谜。In “Mirror, Mirror,” a portrait-survey that opens this month at Throckmorton Fine Art in Manhattan, Kahlo is revealed to have been an image wizard as canny as her spiritual descendant, Madonna.《镜子,镜子》(Mirror Mirror)肖像展将于本月在曼哈顿的斯洛克莫顿美术馆开幕,将卡罗呈现为一个塑造形象的魔法师,同她的精神后裔麦当娜(Madonna)一样狡黠多变。“Frida did not miss an opportunity to be photographed by anyone and everyone,” said Norberto Rivera, the photography director at the gallery. “She created this image to hide the pain,” he added, referring to the lifelong aftereffects of severe injuries Kahlo suffered in a streetcar accident when she was 18. Through self-portraits that unsparingly depict her physical travails and that make frank allusion to a tumultuous emotional life, Kahlo inadvertently vaulted herself into that strange constellation of bright-burning, ill-fated stars, alongside James Dean and Marilyn Monroe.“弗里达不放过任何让人给她拍照的机会,”美术馆的摄影部主任诺波托·里维拉(Norberto Rivera)说,“她籍着塑造这样的形象来掩藏痛苦。”18岁那年,卡罗因街车事故导致重伤,此后终生受其后遗症影响。她在自画像中毫无保留地描绘身体上的痛苦,坦率地暗示充满动荡的情感生活,漫不经心地令自己上升到那个由炽烈燃烧、命运多舛的星辰组成的奇异星座,其中包括詹姆斯·迪恩(James Dean)和玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe)等人。So extensive is Frida Kahlo’s fame it’s difficult now to credit the fact that, at an auction of Latin American art held by Sotheby’s in May 1985, a painting depicting the artist as a hunted deer pierced by arrows, which was offered as the star lot, failed to sell. A decade later, another Kahlo painting was featured on a cover of a Sotheby’s catalog. This portrait, of the artist with a parrot and a monkey, was hammered down quickly for more than million, at the time a worldwide record for a Latin American artist. Five years later, a 1929 Kahlo self-portrait sold to an Argentine collector for .1 million.弗里达·卡罗的名气太广,1985年5月,在苏富比的一场拉丁美洲艺术拍卖会上,她的一幅自画像被作为明星拍品,图中她把自己描绘为全身中箭的鹿,但这幅画最终没有拍出去,现在想来实在不可思议。十年后,另一幅卡罗的自画像出现在苏富比的拍卖目录封面上。画中她身边有鹦鹉和猴子,这幅画很快以300多万美元的价格拍出,在当时创下了拉丁美洲艺术家的世界纪录。五年后,卡罗1929年的一幅自画像被一位阿根廷收藏家以510万美元买下。In under two decades, aided by a well-regarded biography and a soapy biopic, Kahlo had undergone transformation from a compelling cult figure to a universally recognized symbol of artistic triumph and feminist struggle. Somehow along the way she also became a centerpiece of a kitsch marketing bonanza. The “Fridamania” that elevated Kahlo to near-mythic dimensions also transformed her — brooding gaze, elaborate Tehuana coiffures, signature mono-brow — into an image emblazoned on sneakers, T-shirts, tote bags, coasters, cosmetics, even tequila and beer.20年来,由于一本备受好评的传记,以及一部肥皂剧式的传记电影,卡罗从一个迷人的小众形象变成了受到普遍认可的符号,象征着艺术的胜利与女性主义的斗争。在这个过程中,她也为刻奇的大众市场提供了丰盛的资源。这股“弗里达狂热”(Fridamania)将卡罗提升到一个接近神话的地步,她的形象——沉思般的目光、精心梳起的特旺纳发型、标志性的一字眉——出现在帆布鞋、T恤衫、手提包、杯垫、装饰品上,甚至是龙舌兰酒和啤酒商标上。“I remember buying as a gift Frida Kahlo Converse sneakers at 10 Corso Como,” said Robert Burke, a luxury consultant, referring to the high-end Milanese retailer. “Though that was fun and good, there’s only a certain amount of times an image can be used before it starts to fatigue and degrade.”“我记得在10 Corso Como买过一双弗里达·卡罗的匡威帆布鞋送人,”奢侈品顾问罗伯特·伯克(Robert Burke)说,10 Corso Como是米兰一家高端精品店。“尽管它很有趣,很漂亮,但是使用任何一种形象都是有特定时限的,之后它就会渐渐疲软、掉价。”Yet counter to Mr. Burke’s assertion, Frida Kahlo suddenly seems anything but exhausted as a subject.然而和伯克的看法正相反,弗里达·卡罗突然再度走红,根本没有出现令人产生审美疲劳的迹象。“Fridamania shows no signs of relenting,” said Graham W. J. Beal, the director of the Detroit Institute of Arts and curator of “Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in Detroit,” which shrewdly examines Rivera and Kahlo’s pivotal though largely forgotten sojourn in the Motor City, where Rivera had been commissioned to paint the labor mural “Detroit Industry.” At the NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale in Florida, “Kahlo, Rivera and Mexican Modern Art” revisits the relationship between these protean artists, locating them equally and squarely at the center of Mexican modernism.“弗里达狂热完全没有平息下去的迹象,”格雷厄姆·W·J·比尔(Graham W. J. Beal)说,他是底特律艺术学院的院长,策展了“迭戈·里维拉与弗里达·卡罗在底特律”(Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in Detroit)。当年里维拉曾接受任务,在这座汽车城创作关于劳工的壁画《底特律工业》(Detroit Industry),他与卡罗在底特律居留的这段时间非常重要,但却往往被人们忽略,此次的展览极具眼光地回顾了那个时期。此外,在佛罗里达的劳德代尔堡NSU艺术馆,“卡罗、里维拉与墨西哥现代艺术”展览回顾了这些变化多端的艺术家们之间的关系,公正平等地将他们置于墨西哥现代主义的中心。Fine catalogs accompanying each exhibition add to an ever-expanding Kahlo library, and yet in certain ways it is the newly published “Frida Kahlo: The Gisèle Freund Photographs,” that offers the most intimate insights into her life and working process. Its 100 rare images document a friendship that the Magnum photographer conducted with the couple in the last years before Kahlo’s death; both Kahlo and Rivera shine forth from these domestic images.两个展览都有精美的展品目录,为持续扩大的与卡罗相关书籍增添了新的成员。另外,新出版的《弗里达·卡罗:吉塞勒·弗洛因德摄影作品》(Frida Kahlo: The Gisèle Freund Photographs)是对她的生活与工作极为亲密的观察,内含100幅罕见的照片,记录了弗洛因德这位玛格南摄影师在卡罗去世前几年与这对夫妻结下的友情,卡罗与里维拉在这些家庭照上显得熠熠生辉。Complementing the revelations of the Freund book is “Frida Kahlo: Art, Garden, Life,” opening May 16 at the New York Botanical Garden. For this surprising exhibition, the Tony Award-winning stage designer Scott Pask traveled to Mexico City to immerse himself in the world of Kahlo and Rivera, returning to recreate in the leafy Bronx the grounds of their home, La Casa Azul.“弗里达·卡罗:艺术、花园、生活”展览为弗洛因德的书提供了极好的补充,它将于5月16日在纽约植物园开幕。 托尼奖得主,舞台设计师斯科特·帕斯克为布展特意去了墨西哥城,将自己浸淫在卡罗与里维拉的世界之中,回来便在林木茂密的纽约布朗克斯复现了他们的居所“蓝房子”(La Casa Azul),令展览更加引人入胜。A singular dwelling built by Kahlo’s father in what were then the outskirts of Mexico City, Casa Azul became the anchor of Kahlo’s and Rivera’s married lives. They filled it with their astounding collections of ex votos, folk art and important Mesoamerican sculpture, and also with fellow Communist Party members, varied lovers, artist friends and a menagerie including parrots, monkeys and a pack of hairless dogs called xoloitzcuintli.蓝房子是卡罗的父亲建造的一座独栋房屋,位于墨西哥城郊外,卡罗与里维拉婚后主要住在那里。房子里布满两人惊人的藏品,包括许愿物、民间艺术和重要的中美洲雕塑。他们的共产党同志、换来换去的情人、艺术家朋友们也常常住在那里,两人还养了一大堆动物,诸如鹦鹉、猴子以及一大群墨西哥无毛犬。“There are a lot of people that have Frida refrigerator magnets that have never seen a Frida painting,” Mr. Pask said. “When you see the house and the beautiful emotive space of the garden, you understand that the art, the love and the life are so intertwined.”“很多人都有弗里达的冰箱贴,但他们从没看过弗里达的画,”帕斯克说。“当你看到那栋房子,以及它那充满美妙情感的花园,你会理解她的艺术、生活与爱交织在一起,密不可分。”His rendition of a volcanic stone pyramid Rivera constructed in the garden to display his collection of pre-Columbian artifacts is Mr. Pask’s most theatrical gesture. But his more subtle accomplishment may be the evocation of “this atmosphere Frida surrounded herself with, incorporating the botanical influence of the markets of Mexico, her gardens, the fruits and plants and animals she lived with into the prism of her work.”里维拉在那座花园里用一块金字塔状的火山岩展示哥伦布发现美洲之前的美洲艺术品,帕斯克对之进行了复现,堪称最为戏剧化的手法。但帕斯克最为美妙的成就还要算是重新营造出了“弗里达在自己身边创造出的氛围,结合了墨西哥市场上的植物,她身边的花园、果实、植物与动物都被反映在她的作品之中”。The results are so singular it is little wonder Kahlo remains a figure of fascination.她的作品如此奇异,没有人会怀疑,她仍然是个极度迷人的人物。“Clearly, she has become this major icon,” said Bonnie Clearwater, the director of the NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale.“显然,她后来成了大众偶像,” 劳德代尔堡NSU艺术馆馆长邦尼·克莱尔沃特(Bonnie Clearwater)说。Her point is underscored by the strangely compelling 2013 book by the Japanese photographer Miyako Ishiuchi documenting Kahlo’s wardrobe and belongings, images of which later found their way into the hip Berlin glossy O32c. (A fetishistic regard for objects that touched Kahlo’s body is not unique to Ms. Ishiuchi; on loan to the Throckmorton Fine Art show will be one of the orthopedic corsets illness required Kahlo to wear, “authenticated” in the manner of saintly relics and decorated with a hammer and sickle by her.)2013年,日本摄影师石内都的影集进一步明了她的说法,这部影集拍摄的都是卡罗的衣物和其他物品,其中的照片后来还曾在柏林时尚的铜版纸杂志《O32c》上刊出。不是只有石内都一人对卡罗的贴身物品怀有恋物癖式的喜爱,斯洛克莫顿美术馆的展览中也有一件卡罗因病才穿在身上的整形胸衣,像圣人遗物一样“被鉴定为真品”,她还用锤子和镰刀装饰它。Unlike Che Guevara, who when he became a T-shirt and a poster was scarcely identifiable as “the leader of the Cuban revolution,” wrote Gérard de Cortanze, Kahlo’s French biographer, in an email, “Frida Kahlo remains Frida Kahlo.” If his gnomic remark is not supportable in any real biographical sense, there is little doubt Kahlo continues to exist as a potent figure of myth.卡罗的法语传记作者雷哈尔·德·科尔坦兹(Gérard de Cortanze)在接受电子邮件采访时写道,切·格瓦拉(Che Guevara)的头像刚一开始出现在T恤衫和海报上,马上就被人们等同为“古巴革命的领袖”,但是和他不同,“弗里达·卡罗就是弗里达·卡罗”。这句箴言般的或许无法在真实的传记中得到体现,但毫无疑问,卡罗仍然是一个极具说力的神秘人物。“I’m constantly fascinated by the numbers of teenagers who buy my books about Frida,” Mr. de Cortanze wrote, referring to “The Lovers of Coyoacán,” a novel fictionalizing Kahlo’s brief though torrid affair with Leon Trotsky. “It’s not the creator of the Red Army that interests young ers. It’s what Frida thinks and lives, how she drinks, makes love, cooks for friends, swears like a trooper.”“有很多十几岁的孩子会买我那些关于弗里达的书籍,这常常令我感到惊讶,”德·科尔坦兹写道,他指的是自己的小说《科约阿坎恋人》(The Lovers of Coyoacán),这本书用小说的方式叙述了卡罗与列夫·托洛茨基(Leon Trotsky)短暂而激烈的恋情。“吸引年轻读者的不是苏联红军的创始人,而是弗里达的思考与生活、她怎样喝酒、做爱、给朋友们做饭,像士兵一样咒骂。”For those ers, he said, Kahlo is “a sister, a friend, a woman ceaselessly in search of her autonomy.”他说,对于这些年轻读者们来说,卡罗就像“一个姊姊、一个朋友、以及一个不懈追求自由的女人”。In the telling of Ms. Clearwater, the artist Julian Schnabel not long ago traveled to Fort Lauderdale to dedicate a painting, a gift he made to the institution.克莱尔沃特说,艺术家朱利安·施纳贝尔(Julian Schnabel)不久前曾经来到劳德代尔堡艺术馆捐献了一幅油画,这是他特意为该馆创作的礼物。“All Julian kept saying was he couldn’t wait to see the Kahlo,” Ms. Clearwater said. “Who in the world would have thought very macho Julian Schnabel had been influenced by her?”“朱利安一直说,他简直等不及要看卡罗的展览,”克莱尔沃特说。“谁能想到那么大男子气的朱利安·施纳贝尔也受她的影响呢?”Yet, as it happens, the Brooklyn-born Mr. Schnabel also spent part of his youth in Brownsville, Tex.; from there in the ’60s he made a pilgrimage to Mexico City to visit the Museo Frida Kahlo, located inside her birthplace at La Casa Azul.是的,出生在布鲁克林的施纳贝尔年轻时曾在得克萨斯州的布朗斯维尔住过;60年代的时候,他曾经从那里出发到墨西哥朝圣,参观设立在蓝房子里的弗里达·卡罗物馆,卡罗就是在那栋房子里出生的。“He told me he was blown away by the emotional side” of Kahlo’s work, by her ability to transmit emotion through her work, Ms. Clearwater said.克莱尔沃特说,“他告诉我,(卡罗的作品中)情感的一面”,乃至她通过作品表达情感的方式都令他感到震撼。“If Julian had not said this to me, I would never have thought of him in those terms,” she added. “And yet, when you look at paintings like ‘Untitled (Goodbye Mike Kelley),’ you understand them as prayers to those you love and those who died.”“如果朱利安不说,我从来不会站在这些角度上去想他,”克莱尔沃特补充道。“不过,看到《无名lt;告别迈克·凯利gt;》(Untitled [Goodbye Mike Kelley])这样的作品,你就会明白,它们是为所爱之人乃至去世的人们献上的祈祷。”Like many of Kahlo’s spiritual descendants — who record the minutiae of their lives on social media in existential gestures that are, as much as anything, about the fact of their own occurrence — the artist was intent on leaving marks that testified to her existence.卡罗的众多精神后裔们常常在社交媒体上以存在主义的姿态记载生活中的细枝末节,写下自己生活中的种种事件,卡罗本人也热衷于为自己的存在留下种种痕迹。“This continues to hit a nerve with people,” Ms. Clearwater explained. “The paintings are Kahlo’s way of saying: ‘This is how I thought. This is what I lived. Remember me.’ ”“这些痕迹一直都能触动人们的心弦,”克莱尔沃特说。“那些油画就像是卡罗在说:‘这就是我的想法,这就是我的生活,记住我吧。’” /201505/374902Every work of Christopher Nolan will puzzled the audience too much, for instance, his previous film Inception. I don`t know my conclusion is correct or not although I`ve seen the film for 4 times. The Interstellar is no exception. The famous physicist Kip Thorne is one creator of the team, and the production of this flim has a solid scientific theory foundation which is definitely obscure and abstract.诺兰大神Christopher Nolan的作品每一次会让观众烧脑,上一部《盗梦空间》Inception看了四遍,最后也不知道自己得出的结论是否正确。这次的《星际穿越》也不例外。这部电影的主创团队中有真实的著名物理学家基普·索恩Kip Thorne,有着坚实的理论基础,而这些理论知识确实有些深奥抽象。In order to make everybody understand the meaning of Interstellar, this passage will explain some scientific terms and theoretical knowledge mentioned in the flim.那么这里为了方便大家观影,就为大家阐释一下影片中提及的一些科学术语及理论吧。1、Murphy`s law墨菲定律The leading man`s daughter in the flim called Murphy, and she is always complaining about the relationship between her name and the unlucky Murphy`s law.片中男主角的女儿名为墨菲,而她总在抱怨自己的名字与不吉利的墨菲定律的联系。Murphy`s law is usually thought to be named after Captain Edward Murphy, a development engineer with the ed States Air Force in the middle of the last century.Murphy`s law is an adage or epigram that is typically stated as: Anything that can go wrong will go wrong.墨菲定律由上世纪中叶一名美国空军工程师爱德华·墨菲提出。墨菲定律是一个格言或警句,通常表示为:有可能出错的地方定会出错。The plots of the film have embodied the correctness of murphy`s law for many times. It can lead tasks to a right direction except messing things up. The hero saved all the human beings with the action of Murphy`s law. We can see from this perspective that the Murphy`s law is a kind of interpretation of probability, and it doesn`t mean bless, good luck or disasters itself.《星际穿越》的情节中多次体现了墨菲定律的正确性,但除了把事情搞砸,它也把任务引向好的方面,最后主角也在墨菲定律的作用下挽救了全人类。从这个角度来理解,墨菲定律是一种对概率的诠释,本身并不指代吉凶祸福。2、Relativity、Relative Theory相对论The theory of relativity, or simply relativity in physics, usually encompasses two theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.相对论是关于时空和引力的理论,主要由爱因斯坦创立,依其研究对象的不同可分为狭义相对论和广义相对论。3.Lazarus拉撒路Lazarus is the subject of a prominent miracle attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John, in which Jesus restores him to life four days after his death. The name Lazarus is often used toconnote apparent restoration to life.在《圣经·约翰福音》记载的故事中,拉撒路是一个奇迹的主角,耶稣在他死后第四天把他唤醒。拉撒路这个名字通常用于意指恢复生命。4、Wormhole虫洞A wormhole, officially known as an Einstein–Rosen bridge, is a hypothetical topological feature of spacetime that would fundamentally be a shortcut through spacetime.虫洞这一名词诞生于上世纪50年代,是对“爱因斯坦-罗森桥”的一种通俗称呼,它指的是物理学中假想的一种天体,能从更高的维度连接两个遥远的空间点,因此可以使人类突破光速的临界,进行超远距离的宇宙航行。5、Black Hole黑洞A black hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping. In many ways a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole.宇宙空间内存在的一种超高密度天体,由于类似热力学上它是完全不反射光线的黑体,故名为黑洞。黑洞最主要的影响就是其巨大的引力作用使包括光线在内的一切物质被吸引到起中心,而这巨大的引力也在这中心附近造成了时空的扭曲,也就是所谓的相对论。6、Hyperspace超空间Hyperspace refers to reaching the other end of the universe fast through the multi-dimensional space(we live in 4-dimensional space). Hyperspace refers to the dimensional space which is more than four dimensions. String theory (M theory ) predicts that there should be 11 hyperspatial dimensions.超空间指的是通过多维度空间(我们生活在4维空间),快速的到达宇宙的另一端。超空间是指超过四个维度的空间。弦理论(M理论)预言,应该有11个超空间维度。7、The Slingshot Effect引力弹弓The slingshot effect is used to accelerate a spacecraft in a planetary flyby。NASA calls this a gravity assist, and exploits it to save fuel in missions to outer planets such as Jupiter and Saturn.弹弓效应用于加速飞船在星际间飞行。美国航空航天局称这是一个重力辅助,并利用它来节省执行去木星和土星等外行星的任务时消耗的燃料。 /201411/343547Preserved Pig Carcass猪膘肉At the bank of Lugu Lake lived two brothers. After the division of the family estate, the older brother got a pig and a dog while the younger one got a sum of money. Similar to the younger brother in the story “The Prodigal Son” from Bible, the younger one squandered his wealth in wild living. The older one, on the contrary, was so assiduous that he could make a living under whatever circumstances.After finding a new residence, the older brother plunged into work. He fed the pig and the dog every day, providing the best care he could offer. Because of his circumspection, the pig soon became lardy and fleshy, waiting to be slaughtered. Normally, the older brother would worship the Bodhisattva when winter approached and then started to slaughter the pig. Unzipping the pork belly, he took out the intestines and viscera, plus removed the lean meat and bones, and then seasoned the carcass with salt, pepper, garlic and ginger. Next he sewed the belly, putting it on the cabinet after airing. Finally he stuffed the large intestine with oats and the small one with buckwheat, hanging them along with viscera. Owning the preserved pig carcass, fairly speaking, he barely needed anything else. He could take the lard and the meat from it and easily made a simple but luscious dish, which was special in the eye of Mosuo People.During the Spring Festival, according to the tradition of Mosuo People, the head of the pig was served to the Bodhisattva as deference the meat around the pig’s neck was provided to parents as filial love.猪膘肉是泸沽湖畔梭人家非常有特色的一种佳肴。相传有一家梭人有两兄弟,父母把老大分了出去,老大分到一头猪和一条,分家后老大很勤劳,家里搞得像模像样,猪也喂得又大又肥,冬大的时候他先把菩萨敬了,就开始杀猪。他先把猪肚割开,把肠和内脏拉出,把里面的瘦肉和骨也剔除。然后缝上猪肚晾干后搁在神柜上。猪的大肠装上燕麦,小肠装荞麦,肚肠心肝肺都挂在家里,没油的时候,他就从膘猪的肚里取了猪油来用;没肉的时候就从猪膘身上割一块来吃。到了年三十的时候就开猪膘肉,初二猪头项圈敬菩萨,取项身肉一圈孝敬父母,过年的时候就要吃几天的猪膘肉。 /201505/377234A computer programme usually used to draw up e-fits of wanted criminals has been used to create the UK’s idea of what constitutes the most beautiful face in the world, for men and women.常被用来模拟绘制通缉犯的面部特征的计算机程序都已经被用于一个英国新创意:对男人和女人来说,什么样的脸才是最美的。The pictures are the result of a two month-long study led by Dr Chris Solomon, an expert in facial mapping, which asked people to put together a composite of the perfect face using the software used by the police. It takes into account factors including the thickness of the lips, nose length and width, and hairline.照片是由克里斯·所罗门士主导研究了两个月之久的结果,作为面部测绘专家,他让人们用警察使用的软件把所有完美的面部结构做一个复合。其需要的因素包括嘴唇的厚度,鼻子的长度和宽度,以及发际线。 左边的女人脸,总之就是娜塔莉·波特曼/艾米莉亚·克拉克的各种合集,而右边,大卫·贝克汉姆则是英国人心中的完美脸。The results were then judged by another 100 people, who rated them for attractiveness, allowing researchers to create composite pictures showing the archetypal faces of male and female beauty.之后的结果由另外的100个人来判定,这些人把面部结果认为是有魅力的,使研究者们得出一些展现男性和女性魅力原型的复合图片。Dr Solomon said the study, commissioned by Samsung, revealed “some interesting results about what Brits consider to be the epitome of beauty”.所罗门士对于委托给三星电子公司的这项研究,透露道:“布里茨所认为的美丽的特征得出了一些有意思的结果。”The academic said the study also threw up some differences between men’s and women’s perceptions of ideal beauty.学术研究会说这项研究还是突出了一些男性和女性审美观的区别。For the male face of beauty, women drew a more feminine face than men – women rate a softer jaw-line, slimmer face, fuller lips and clean-shaven look as the most attractive, compared to the more masculine appearance that is considered the most attractive by men.比起男性美,女性的脸更富有女性气质---女性的下巴曲线更柔和,脸型更瘦,嘴唇更丰满,也没有胡须,这样便是极好的,而相比之下的男性的阳刚的外表,却是最有吸引力的。Interestingly, for the female face of beauty women rated a sexier appearance as the more beautiful than their male counterparts – women perceived fuller lips, a slimmer face, larger eyes and higher cheekbones as the most beautiful, more so than the male population。有趣的是,和男性审美不同,美貌的女性认为,拥有性感外表的女性——丰满的嘴唇,纤瘦的脸型,大眼睛,高颧骨就是最漂亮的,比拥有同样五官特征的男性有魅力得多。 /201504/369045

Queen Victoria#39;s book维多利亚女王著书出版A fairy book ;The Adventures of Alice Laselles; penned by Britain#39;s Queen Victoria when she was just 10 years old has finally been published.英国维多利亚女王10岁时写作的童话书《爱丽丝·拉舍莱斯历险记》日前正式出版发行。The book tells the story of a 12-year-old girl sent away to boarding school.该书讲述了一位12岁小女孩被送到寄宿学校后的经历。It is believed that this fairy tale was written around 1829 or 1830 when she was still a young princess.据悉,该本童话书是还处于小公主阶段的维多利亚女王在1829年或1830年写成的。The story was written in a notebook and kept at Windsor Castle, near London.这本书是写在笔记本上的,保存在伦敦附近的温莎城堡里。;It reflects a lot of Victoria#39;s feelings as a little girl,; said children#39;s author Jacqueline Wilson.儿童文学作家杰奎琳·威尔逊表示,该书反映了维多利亚女王孩童阶段的不少想法与感受。Victoria#39;s reign lasted 63 years and seven months.维多利亚女王在位时间长达63年零7个月。 /201506/380214

Bacterial growth mixed with perspiration is the most common source of body odor. However, if you bathe regularly, several other smelly factors–including what you most recently ate (or didn#39;t eat), the medications you pop, and what products you use to mask the noxious smells emanating from under your arm pits can actually answer the question, ;What#39;s that smell?; when you get a whiff of something most foul.在汗液之中的细菌的繁殖往往是体味最常见的来源。但是,还有其他几个体臭的因素,如果你经常洗澡,那么你最近是否还在用一些药物来遮掩让人纠结的胳肢窝的味道,以下这些因素就可以完全回答“那究竟是什么味道?那气味的来源是什么?”。如果你习惯了以下任何一个坏习惯,那么是几乎可以肯定,“是的,这就是你的气味的来源!”......If you#39;re in the habit of any of the following nine sneaky body odor sources—then the answer is almost certainly, ;Yes, it#39;s you who smells!;…1. You Use the Wrong Deodorant1.您使用了错误的除臭剂You might consider it counterproductive that the products you spend money on to mask the reek of stinky body odor can actually exacerbate the smell. However, many store-bought body sprays, antiperspirants, and deodorants foster the development of foul-smelling bacteria.A study conducted by microbial ecologists at the University of Ghent, in Belgium monitored the armpit bacteria of a group of male and female participants—half of the group swore off deodorant and antiperspirant for an entire month while the other non-deodorant-using half agreed to apply it for a month. Researchers found that the aluminum compounds present in deodorants and antiperspirants killed off killing off good (or non-smelly) bacteria and encouraged the growth of bad (or foul-smelling) armpit bacteria.你可能会认为这是适得其反的-----当你花钱买的除臭剂以掩盖狐臭的臭气但是实际上加剧了气味。实际上许多商店买来的香体喷雾剂,止汗剂,除臭剂他们促进了细菌的生长。微生物生态学家,在比利时根特大学进行的一项研究表明,在监控一组男性和女性的腋下细菌的生长实验,有一半人放弃除臭剂整整一个月,而其他未使用除臭剂的人同意使用除臭剂一个月。研究人员最终发现,除臭剂和止汗剂的铝化合物杀死了好(或无异味)的细菌,并鼓励不好(或恶臭)的细菌的生长。2. You Take Prescription Medications2.你正在用处方药According to the Mayo Clinic, a few over-the-counter and prescription medications—including Tylenol (or acetaminophen and certain antidepressants (i.e., Bupropion Hydrochloride or Wellbutrin)—can encourage excess perspiration and foul smelling bacterial growth as drugs are metabolized by the body.However, if a new prescription happens to correspond with an accelerated rate of perspiration/ and or intensifies foul body odor, it#39;s always safest to talk to your doctor before ceasing the medication.根据梅奥诊所分析,少数过度的非处方药和处方药,包括泰诺(对乙酰氨基酚或和某些抗抑郁药(如盐酸安非他酮或安非他酮) - 这些药物在人体代谢过程中可鼓励过多的汗水分泌和恶臭细菌生长。然而如果一个新的处方出现了过多的汗水分泌或加剧了体臭的时候,在停止药前你必须得和医生讲清楚才安全。3. You Eat Too Much Refined Sugar3.你吃了太多的糖Dr. Debra Jaliman, a dermatologist with the American Academy of Dermatology, claims that what we can affect how we smell. For instance, too much refined sugar can emit funky armpit odor as well as expand the waistline. This is due to an overgrowth of yeast, which converts sugars into a rancid alcohol byproduct.In fact, when the refined sugars in junk food alter the balance of your sweat and combine with armpit bacteria, bad body odor can result. Fortunately, Dr. Jaliman points out that banishing refined sugar from your diet will also banish bad BO.黛布拉士(美国皮肤病学会皮肤科医生),声称我们可以影响我们自己的体味。例如,吃过多的糖可以发散腋臭,甚至扩大到腰部。这是由于酵母的过度生长,将糖转化为腐臭醇的副产物。事实上,当垃圾食品中的糖改变了你的汗液和细菌的平衡,导致了体臭。幸运的是,黛布拉士指出,从你的饮食取消糖也将损坏汗液和细菌的平衡。4. You#39;re Vitamin Deficient4.当你缺乏了维生素In 1928, Dr. Pierre Delbet, the famed Superintendent of the Cancer Institute, in Paris, discovered that the mineral magnesium had the power to banish bad body door. However, those deficient in magnesium often suffered from bad body odor.Dr. Delbet reported that ;If (patient) diets contained nothing particularly toxic, (a magnesium supplement) deodorizes…disagreeable odor.; Dr. Delbet found that eating foods rich in magnesium (i.e., raw almonds and cashews, flax and sesame seeks, dark chocolate, and bran) altered human intestinal flora and resulted in a decreased body smell.在1928年,士皮埃尔,巴黎癌症研究所的著名主管,发现了矿物质镁可以阻止体臭。所以,缺乏镁就经常遭受体臭的威胁。士报告说,“如果患者的饮食没有包含特别有害的东西,补充镁可以除臭......厌恶的气味。”士发现,吃富含镁元素的东西(即原料杏仁和腰果,亚麻籽和芝麻,黑巧克力,和麸皮)可以改变人类肠道菌群,并降低身体的气味。5. You Dig Cruciferous Veggies5.十字花科类蔬菜Many of us are aware of the digestive upset and foul-smelling gas that results from a hearty serving of cabbage, cauliflower, or broccoli when this line-up of cruciferous veggies, or rather the sulfur compounds within, are absorbed by the body.According to researchers at the American Academy of Dermatology, a mere hour after eating cruciferous veggies, the body will absorb the sulfur compounds and give off a pungent odor as the body secrets them via the sweat glands. Fortunately, you can still get a serving of healthy veggies if you parboil them, a process that eliminates the majority of odor-producing sulfur.很多人都知道,消化不良和恶臭气体来自卷心菜,菜花,西兰花等等十字花科的蔬菜,或者确切的说是蔬菜内部的硫化合物被人体吸收之后。据美国皮肤协会研究人员报道,吃了蔬菜只不过一个钟头,身体就会因为吸收了硫化合物而通过身体私密处的汗腺散发出刺鼻的气味。幸运的是,如果将他们煮到五分熟,你仍然可以得到健康,因为这样可以消除大部分产生异味的硫。6. You Slurp Too Much Caffeine and Alcohol6.摄入过量的咖啡因和酒精Researchers at Columbia University#39;s Health Services point to excess caffeine and alcohol consumption as the reason for foul-smelling body odor (not to mention bad breath). Why?Coffee not only accelerates your rate of perspiration it#39;s also extremely acidic. While we don#39;t need to remind you how you smell after a night of binge drinking. In an attempt to improve your body odor, try eliminating or cutting down on alcohol and caffeinated beverages in favor of herbal tea.在哥伦比亚大学的健康务部门研究人员指出,过多的咖啡因和酒精的消费是恶臭狐臭的主要原因(更不用提口臭了)。为什么呢?咖啡不仅加快你排汗的速度,它也是极酸的酸性物质。虽然我们并不需要提醒你在狂饮了一晚上以后你的气味如何。如果试图改善你身体的气味,尽量消除或削减对酒精和含咖啡因的摄入。换成喝茶吧。7. You#39;re a Carnivore Through and Through7.你是一个彻头彻尾的食肉者I#39;m an admitted carnivore. However, I eat red meat in moderation for one very good reason—it makes me stink! According to E. Adam Kallel, a medicinal chemist at Victrix Computational and Medicinal Chemistry Consultancy, in Carlsbad, California, red meat is more difficult to digest.This means the body uses more effort to metabolize red meat. As a result you sweat more, digest at a much slower rate, and emit foul-smelling gases via flatulence and sweat. Red meat is also high in amino acids that leave a residue in your intestines during digestion. When emitted, the residue mingles with skin bacteria and intensifies bad odor.我承认我是食肉者。不过,我会适量的吃红肉,因为吃多了会让我很臭!根据药物化学咨询公司亚当说,红肉是难以消化的。这意味着身体将更加努力的新陈代谢。因此你出汗就会多,消化就会很慢,并通过排气和汗水散发恶臭气体。红肉蛋白质含量高所以在肠道消化过程中残留在肠道内。这种肠道氨基酸残留物随着汗液排出并且混合了皮肤上的细菌将加剧难闻的气味。8. Ouch—You#39;re Constipated!8. 便秘!We all know the importance of a diet rich in fiber. Too little can leave you with blocked digestion, uncomfortable constipation, and according to the National Institutes of Health, with surprisingly stinky body odor.In cases of severe constipation, toxins released by the digestive system may seep through the pores, exposing ;fecal body odor,; which is made up of toxic by-products that the body needs to release by any means to prevent illness and disease.我们都知道富含纤维饮食的重要性。过少的摄入可以阻止消化导致便秘,并根据美国国立卫生研究院报道过少的摄入还会拥有令人惊讶的体臭。在严重便秘的情况下,消化系统可以通过毛孔分泌毒素,这就是有毒的代谢副产物这就是所谓的“粪便体味”,人体需要以任何方式释放它来预防疾病。9. That Low Carb Diet9.低碳水化合物饮食Oh sure, you cut carbohydrates in an honest attempt to drop unwanted pounds. However, you didn#39;t expect lack of essential carbohydrates would cause such stanky body odor.A 2014 study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine journal, linked law carb diets (or those who glean less than 50-percent of their calories from carbohydrates) with some foul-smelling side effects. Not only does a lack of carbohydrates and an increase in protein intake cause the body to release ketones into your bloodstream, causing rank breath—lack of carbs causes strong-smelling urine and terrible body odor.哦,当然,你削减碳水化合物的摄入以尝试减掉不必要的体重。但是,让你没想到当缺乏必要的碳水化合物的时候会引起如此恶臭的体臭。2014年发表在内科医学期刊的研究,有关于低碳水化合物饮食(碳水化合物热量摄入不足50%)与一些恶臭副作用的规律。其中讲到缺乏碳水化合物和增加蛋白质的饮食,不仅会使人体释放酮并且进入你的血液,从而导致臭味的口气,强烈尿液的气味和可怕的体味。 /201502/357651

A strong earthquake shook Nepal on Tuesday, sending people in the capital Kathmandu rushing out on to the streets weeks after a devastating quake killed more than 8,000 people and destroyed hundreds of thousands of homes, eyewitnesses said.周二,尼泊尔发生再次发生强烈地震。目击者表示,首都加德满都的人们迅速跑到了街道上。就在这次地震几周前,尼泊尔刚刚发生一场毁灭性地震,逾8000人在地震中丧生,数十万房屋被毁。The US. Geological Survey said the quake had a magnitude of 7.4 and struck 68 km west of the town of Namche Bazar, close to Mount Everest.美国地质调查局(US Geological Survey)表示,这次地震震级为里氏7.4级,震中位于南崎巴札(Namche Bazar)镇以西68公里处,靠近珠穆朗玛峰(Mount Everest)。“This is a really big one,” said Prakash Shilpakar, the owner of a handicrafts shop in Kathmandu who was trying to call his parents in the town of Bhaktapur, devastated in the April 25 quake.加德满都一家手工艺品商店的店主Prakash Shilpakar表示:“这次地震真的很强烈。”目前,Shilpakar正试图给位于巴克塔普尔(Bhaktapur)镇的父母打电话,该镇在4月25日的地震中曾遭遇毁灭性打击。Shockwaves were felt across northern India and as far away as the capital New Delhi, where buildings swayed for more than a minute and people scurried into the streets.整个印度北部和远在印度首都新德里的人们也能感受到这次地震的冲击波。新德里的建筑晃动了超过一分钟,人们纷纷跑到街头避险。People in Kathmandu rushed outdoors, Reuters reporters said. There were no immediate reports of damage to buildings. Shopkeepers closed their shops.路透社(Reuters)记者表示,加德满都的人们迅速跑到了室外。目前还没有有关建筑损坏的即时报道。当地商家也已关闭了店铺。A 7.4 magnitude earthquake has the potential to cause significant damage and landslides.高达里氏7.4的震级,意味着这次地震很可能导致重大破坏及滑坡现象。The quake’s epicentre was close to Everest Base Camp, which was evacuated after an avalanche triggered by the April 25 quake killed 18 climbers. Mountaineers seeking to scale the world’s tallest peak have called off this year’s Everest season.此次地震的震中接近珠峰大本营(Everest Base Camp)。在4月25日发生的地震引发的雪崩导致18名登山人员丧生后,珠峰大本营的人员已经撤离。试图攀登这座世界最高峰的登山队员已取消了今年的珠峰登山季活动。 /201505/374900

A:Show me judge who has the power of his convictions...A:你能给我展示一下法官的权利吗?B:And I’ll show you judge who owns an electric chair.B:我可以让你感受一下电刑椅。 /201505/375855

I have a very 2014 question for you: How would you respond if you found out that a man living down the street regularly has sexual intercourse with a horse?我有一个非常适合在2014年提出的问题:如果你发现住在同一条街上的邻居定期和一匹马性交,你会作何反应?Would you be morally disgusted? Consider him and his behavior an abomination? Turn him in to the police? (This would be an option in the roughly three-quarters of states that — for now — treat bestiality as a felony or misdemeanor.)你会不会产生道德层面的厌恶感?将他和他的行为视为变态?会不会让警察逮捕他?(这个选项可以在大概三分之一的州得以实现-目前这些州将人兽性交视作一项重罪或者品行不端罪。Or would you perhaps suppress your gag reflex and try hard to be tolerant, liberal, affirming, supportive? Maybe you#39;d even utter the slogan that deserves to be emblazoned over our age as its all-purpose motto and mantra: Who am I to judge?或者你也许会压制住你的呕吐反射症状并努力想要对这种行为表达容忍,自由主义,肯定,甚至持态度?也许你甚至会吼出一句在我们这个时代备受推崇,多用途的口号和咒语:我又有什么资格来评判别人呢?Thanks to New York magazine, which recently ran a completely nonjudgmental 6,200-word interview with a ;zoophile; who regularly enjoys sex with a mare — unironic headline: ;What it#39;s like to date a horse; — these questions have been much on my mind.真要感谢《纽约杂志》。它于近期刊登了一篇6200字的非主观报道。它采访了一位名为“zoophile”的人,他定期同一匹母驴进行性交-采访报道的题目颇具讽刺意义:同一匹马约会是什么感受。我近期一直在想着这些问题。They should be on yours, too.你们也真应该思考一下。Because this is a very big deal, in cultural and moral terms.这是一件大事,不论是文化层面还是道德层面。No, not the fact of bestiality, which (like incest) has always been with us, but the fact of an acclaimed, mainstream publication treating it as a matter of complete moral indifference. (Aside, of course, from the requisite concern about animal abuse — a nonhuman analog to the pervasive emphasis on consent as the only relevant moral criterion for judging sexual behavior. The interview dispenses with this worry by informing us that the zoophile regularly brings his equine lover to orgasm orally — and that she often initiates acts of intimacy, showing that she appears to enjoy their sexual interactions.)不,困扰我们的并不是人兽性交这件事(类似乱伦),而是一股收到赞扬的,主流出版物将这种事情视作对于道德的完全无视。(当然,除此之外。关于这件事情的争议还有: 对于这个非人类代替物会产生动物虐待行为的普遍担心,到普遍将同意与否视为唯一一个评判性行为的相关道德标准。受访者让我们排除了这种担心,他表示,他通过口交定期给他的马爱人性高潮。并且他的马儿会经常模仿亲密的行为,已示自己对于这种性交的喜爱。Am I worried that large numbers of people will soon choose to shack up with their pets or farm animals? Not at all. I can#39;t imagine that very many people will ever be drawn to bestiality, no matter how casually it is treated in the media.我会担心有很多人会选择“搞上”他们的宠物或家畜吗?完全不。无论媒体对兽交的态度如何随便,我都不认为会有多少人被吸引。Why, then, is the New York interview a big deal? Because it#39;s perhaps the most vivid sign yet that, in effect, the ed States (and indeed the entire Western world) is running an experiment — one with very few, if any, antecedents in human history. The experiment will test what happens when a culture systematically purges all publicly affirmed notions of human flourishing, virtue and vice, elevation and degradation.然而,为什么这种现象被纽约媒体采访成一个大新闻?因为它也许是最生动的迹象表明,美国(实质是整个西方世界)实际上正在运行一个实验,一个很少甚至未曾出现过人类历史先例的实验。这个实验将测试当一个文化去系统地,全面地否认所有人们公认的价值观,善恶观,荣辱观时,会发生什么。Moral and religious traditionalists have seen this coming and warned about its consequences for years. And indeed, they are the ones raising the loudest ruckus about the New York interview.道德和宗教上的保守人士已经预见到这种情形并在多年来一直警告其后果。事实上,他们也是对纽约的采访反响最大的。I share some of their concerns. But there are at least two problems with their analysis of the experiment.我对他们的担心有一些赞同,但他们的实验分析至少存在两个问题。First, the trads are wrong to blame the purging of publicly affirmed notions of human flourishing on the sp of relativism. Viewed from inside traditionalist notions of virtue and vice, a culture that seeks to redefine ;normal; to include zoophilia might seem like a culture defined by relativism. But it isn#39;t. Rather, it#39;s a culture fervently devoted to the moral principle of equal recognition and affirmation — in a word, to an absolute ethic of niceness. Moral condemnation can be mean, and therefore it#39;s morally wrong — that#39;s the way growing numbers of Americans think about these issues.首先,传统人士不应该把大众价值观的丢失归咎于相对主义的传播。从传统观念上美德和恶习的角度来看,一个试图将人兽交重新定义为“正常”的文明似乎是由相对主义定义的。但它并不是,相反,这个文明热烈地忠于某些道德准则,而这些道德准则基于公众的普遍认知与许可——总而言之,这个文明忠于绝对意义上的美德。道德上的谴责可以很残忍,因此它在道德上是错误的——这正是越来越多的美国人在思考这些问题时用的方式。Of course, these nonjudgmental Americans would think differently — they would continue to publicly affirm notions of human flourishing and condemn acts that diverge from the norm — if they confidently believed in the foundation of these judgments. But increasingly, they do not. Judeo-Christian piety used to supply it for many, but no longer.当然,这些不偏不倚的人们有着不同的见解,他们将继续肯定人类公认的价值观并谴责与之相违背的行为——只要他们能肯定地相信着这些判断的基准。然而这样的人却越来越少。犹太教和基督教带来的虔诚信仰提供了许多道德基准,但已不再有过去的影响力。Then there#39;s the option of basing our judgments on what conservative bioethicist Leon Kass once called ;the wisdom of repugnance; — that is, on our commonsense moral intuitions. But as the liberal philosopher Martha Nussbaum has argued, the ;ick factor; just isn#39;t a reliable basis on which to make moral evaluations. And we know that from lived experience. Interracial romances once seemed icky, but then they didn#39;t. Next it was homosexual acts that passed through the looking glass from repellant to respectable. Faced with this slippage and uncertainty — with a long string of reversals in moral judgment — it#39;s no wonder that the ethic of unconditional niceness increasingly trumps all other considerations.然后,出现了一种选择,让我们的判断基于保守派生物伦理学家Leon Kass一度所说的“厌恶的智慧”——就是说,基于我们的常识中的道德直觉。但如自由主义哲学家Martha Nussbaum所辩驳的那样,是否感觉“令人作呕”并非一个可靠的道德评估依据。我们从各种生活经验中已知道这一点。不同人种间的爱情曾经受到厌恶,后来则不会。然后同性恋行为也在经历从被排斥到被尊重的过程。面对这样的易变与不确定性——带有一大堆观点相抵的道德观——难怪有关无条件美德的伦理正日益压倒所有其他的观念。And that brings us to the second way in which the trads go wrong — in speaking confidently about how we#39;re ;galloping toward Gomorrah.; This implies that they know exactly where the experiment is going to end up. The truth is that they — and we — have no idea at all. Because there has never been a human society built exclusively on a morality of rights (individual consent) and an ethic of niceness, with no overarching vision of a higher human good to override or compete with it.而这让我们见识到了传统出现问题的第二个面向—— 自信的谈论我们如何”快速的接近罪恶之城”。这意味着他们知道这个实验的最终结局是怎样的。真相是他们——还有我们——根本就不知道结局是怎样的。因为人类历史中从来没有出现过单单以权利道德(个体的同意)和友善伦理为基础的人类社会,没有一个更高人类善行的总体设想来推翻它或者与它进行竞争。As I noted above, I find it hard to imagine that more than a tiny fraction of human beings will ever choose to engage in sex acts with animals, even if and when the taboo has been thoroughly deconstructed and the behavior mainstreamed by dozens of sympathetic stories in the media. I suspect the same is true about incest and polyamory. Most people will continue to live boring, mundane sex lives, monogamously committed to one human being of the opposite sex at a time.正如我在上面所提到的,我根本无法想像会有很多人愿意与动物性交,即使这样的禁忌被重新结构以及主流媒体对这样的行为表示同情。我觉得这样的道理同样可以应用在乱伦和一夫多妻制上。大多数人将继续过无聊的世俗的性生活,并且坚持异性的一夫一妻制。So what, then, is there to worry about? Why is this cultural experiment a big deal?所以还有什么好担忧的?这样的文化实验又有什么了不起的呢?Because it stands as a stunning testament to our ignorance about ourselves. Roughly 2,500 years since Socrates first raised the question of how we should live, several centuries since the Enlightenment encouraged us to seek and promulgate scientific knowledge about the universe and human nature, Western humanity seems to have come to the conclusion that we haven#39;t got a clue about an answer. There is no consensus whatsoever about what ways of life are intrinsically good or bad for human beings.因为它对于我们自身的无知给予一个惊人的明。大约2500年前苏格拉底首次提出我们应该如何生活的问题,几个世纪以来的启蒙文化促进我们去寻找和传播关于宇宙和人类的本性,西方人文科学好像得出了结论那就是我们还没有得到最终的。关于人类如何去生活在本质上没有评判的标准。为什么要结婚和有孩子呢?如果这是你想要的,当然听起来很不错。你准备好恋爱多元化了吗?只要每个人都同意,又有乐趣。那么和马谈恋爱做爱能怎么样呢?关键要确保没有人会伤害,伤害是狭隘的定义(包括物理伤害和侵犯个人喜好)。That#39;s all we#39;ve got. Or at least all we#39;re left with, now that we#39;ve shed the (ostensibly) discredited notions of human virtue that most people once affirmed.这是我们所拥有的一切文化。或者至少这些都被我们继承了,既然我们已经摆脱了虚伪的人类表面观念和美德。Is that good enough? Can we do without a publicly affirmed vision of human flourishing? Fulfilling personal preferences (whatever they happen to be), seeking consent in all interactions, and abiding by the imperative of universal niceness — is that sufficient to bring happiness? Or will a world that tells us in a million ways that we are radically undetermined in our ends leave us feeling empty, lost, alone, unmoored, at sea, spiritually adrift?那样足够好吗?我们可以脱离大众观念去那样做吗?满足个人偏好(无论他们发生什么),寻求交流的一致,尊重普世法则——这足以带来幸福吗?或者我们根本无法确定我们来自哪里去向何方(结局的无法预料),那种空虚,失落,孤独,无依无靠就像在大海中漂流然而这个世界用一百万种方式告诉我们那根本就无法解决。I have no idea.搞不懂哎。But I suspect we#39;re going to find out soon enough.但是我们会尽快搞清楚的。 /201501/353760

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