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2019年08月26日 13:46:36来源:百科常识

Low-fat diets are not the best way to lose weight, a major study says today – casting doubt on decades of health advice.今天一项大型研究表明低脂肪饮食并不是最好的减肥方式,消除了数十年来人们对健康建议的疑虑。Scientists concluded there is no evidence to support the dogma that people should reduce the amount of fat in their diet.科学家得出结论称,并没有据持“人们应该减少饮食中脂肪量”的言论。Health officials should give simple guidance focused on portion sizes and unprocessed foods instead of focusing on fat, carbohydrates and proteins, said the researchers from Harvard.来自哈佛大学的研究人员说:“卫生部门应该给出简单的指导,专注于饮食量和未加工食物,而不是关注脂肪、糖类和蛋白质。”Dr Deirdre Tobias, who led the research based on data from more than 68,000 adults, said: #39;There is no good evidence for recommending low-fat diets.迪尔德丽·托拜厄斯士领导的这次研究基于来自68,000多个成年人的数据,他说:“没有确凿的据建议人们安排低脂肪的饮食。”In 1983, Government guidelines advised Britons to cut their fat intake to 30 per cent of total energy and increase the amount of carbohydrates they ate.1983年,政府的指导方针建议英国人脂肪摄入量减少到总能量的30%,并增加糖类摄入量。Emerging evidence suggests that not all types of fat are bad – and some can play a role in protecting the heart and reducing weight.新发现的据表明,并不是所有脂肪都不好,有些还有保护心脏和减轻体重的作用。There is growing interest in Mediterranean diets with high levels of fatty foods such as olive oil, fish and nuts as well as fruit, vegetables and whole grains.人们对地中海式饮食愈发感兴趣,它包含大量高脂肪食物,比如橄榄油、鱼、坚果,还有水果、蔬菜、全谷物。The Harvard team found that cutting back on fat was a less effective route to weight loss than low-carbohydrate or Mediterranean diets.哈佛团队发现减少脂肪摄入量的减肥效果不如低糖饮食或地中海式饮食。Those on low-carbohydrate diets lost an average 2.5lb (1.15kg) more than those on low-fat diets over 12 months, it showed.研究表明12个月内低糖饮食的人比低脂肪饮食的人平均多减掉2.5lb(1.15kg)。Dr Tobias called for a move towards healthy eating patterns, whole foods and portion sizes.托拜厄斯士提倡人们投向健康饮食习惯、天然健康食品和饮食量。Not all experts, however, are convinced. Professor Tom Sanders, of King#39;s College London, said: #39;To control weight, it remains sensible to eat less and avoid consuming excess amounts of fat and sugar, especially as fatty meat, deep fried foods, cakes and biscuits and sugar-sweetened beverages.#39;然而并不是所有专家都被说了,伦敦大学国王学院的汤姆·桑德斯教授说:“为了控制体重,明智的做法就是少吃而且避免吸收过多的脂肪和糖,尤其是肥肉、油炸食品、蛋糕、饼干和含糖饮料。”In a commentary in the journal, Keith Hall, of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases in Bethesda, US, said a key reason why people failed to lose more weight was that they had often given up before the year was over.位于美国贝塞斯达的国家糖尿病、消化和肾脏疾病研究所的凯斯·霍尔在杂志中指出,人们没能减掉更多体重的主要原因是他们总是不到一年就放弃了。 /201511/408389。

  • Literature : The Qing emperors understood themselves as patrons of artistsand writers. Especially the Emperor Kangxi promoted the compilation and publication of all knowledge and writing of China.文学:清朝统治者把自己看成是艺术家和作家们的守护神,尤其是康熙皇帝,他促成了中国的知识和作品的编辑发行。During his reign the History of Ming Dynasty came off the press, along with, the illustrated encyclopedia Gujin Tushu Jicheng , the Collection of Tang Poetry and Tang Prose Writings , the character dictionary Kangxi Dictionary , the Rhyme Dictionary , and the collection Siku Quanshu , a compendium that tried to subsummize all existent writings that had ever been published. Emperor Kangxi made great cotributions to Chinese literature.在他执政时期,出版发行了《明史》、《古 今图书集成》、《全唐诗》、《全唐文》,以及《康熙字典》、《佩文韵府》和《四库全书》。 《四库全书》尝试着对所有已发表的作品进行总结。康熙皇帝为中国文学发展作出了很大贡献。However his two successors went to far In order to ensure their rulership, they got literary inquisitions into full swing. Therefore, literary critics at that time were punished. The literary standard of the Qing rulers also enclosed demoralizing writings. Qing novels, which are colorful and rich in daily language, is therefore very different from Yuan and Ming novels.但是,他的两个继承人为了确保他们的统治地位而大搞“文字狱”。 为此,清政府时期的文学家受到了惩罚。清朝统治者的文学标准封杀了有伤风化的文学作品,清朝时期的小说与元朝和明朝时期的多姿多的和日常生活用语丰富的小说不一样。Qing novels like Cao Xueqin^ 14 Dream of Red Mansion , Wu Jingzi#39;S The Scholars , 〇nd Xi〇 Jingxu^ u Words of an Old Peasant Sunning are written in a very subtitle language with many reminiscences to the old literature that can only be understood by well educated people.清朝时期的小说主要有曹雪芹的《红楼梦》、吴敬梓的《儒林外史》、夏敬渠的《野叟曝言》,所有这些小说语言精练,并大多数都带有古文学 的味道,并且只有那些受到过良好教育的人才能读懂。Likewise are the short story collections like Pu Songling 44 Strange Accounts from, the Leisure Study , Yuan Mei^ u What Confucius did not Say f,, and Ji Yun u Essays from the Short Grass Hall”? Less popular anthologies are Pu Songling’s “Xingshi Yinyuan” or a Matrimonial Causations Awakening the World.同样的作品还有蒲松龄的短篇小说集《聊斋志异》、袁枚的《子不语》、纪昀的《阅微草堂笔记》等。还有一些 就是和前者相比略显逊色的蒲松龄的《醒世因缘》等等。In the sphere of high-class theatre, we also find a subtle and romantic style in the plays of Li Yu (the erotic novel M Rouputuan or M Carnal Prayer Matyi is attributed to him), Hong Sheng (u Hall of Everlasting Life ) 〇nd Kong Shangren ( Peach Blossom Fan ).戏曲方面有创作细腻、充满浪漫色调的戏曲作品,如,李渔(性爱小说《肉蒲团》就是描写李渔的)、洪升(《长生殿》)和孔尚任(《桃花扇》)等的戏曲作品。From the end of 18th century on, the private correspondence between scholars was written in a very free and apolitical style (for example, the autobiography u Six Records of an Unsteady Life ty by Shen Fu), and even in the public sphere, we find writers that did not hesitate to show their unconventional standpoint, like the poet and essayist Yuan AAei and Li Ruzhen (writing the nover“The Causal Connection of a Flower and Its Mirror Reflection”)who both supported thoughts of equal rights for women.从18世纪末期开始,文人之间开始用自由的非官方用语的形式互通信件(如 沈复自传《浮生六记》)。不仅如此,甚至在公开场合下也使用自由体和非官方文 体,他们毫不犹豫地表达了自己的非传统观点,如诗人和散文作家袁枚和李汝珍 (著有《镜花缘》)。同时,这两位作家还赞成男女平等的女权主义思想。For the scholars that lived during the conquest of the Manchu, the downfall of the Ming regime was a prove for the abuse of authoritarian power of the central government in Beijing.对于那些见了满清的征又看到了明朝的灭亡的学者们来说,他们知道明朝时期北京政府的高度集权和滥用职权最后导致了明朝的灭亡。However, these people did not only criticize the Ming autocracy, and thereby supporting the new Qing rulers. Thinkers and philosophers of the new age (mid 17th century to 18th century) also criticized the traditional, sterile and impeding style of Confucian classics that had been interpreted by the Neo-Confucianists of the Song and Ming eras. Criticizing or overworshiping the liter-ature authoritarism of the Ming also meant doubting the legitimacy of the new rulers.但是,这些文人墨客们,一方面 批判明朝的独裁统治,一方面又持新的清朝独裁统治者。新时期(从17世纪中 期到18世纪)的思想家和哲学家们也批判宋、明时期所演绎的传统、乏味和有碍于文学发展的儒家作品。批判和过于尊崇明朝时期的文学同样都是质疑清朝早期统治者的权威性。Many scholars were put to death for opposing the Qing regime, like Jin Shengtan, but others stayed unmolested, like the important history critics Huang Zongxi, the evolution theoretician Wang Fuzhi, Fang Yizhi, and Gu Yanwu. All of these philosophers were oriented to practical sciences and interpreted philosophy only as one part of a cosmism of sciences, the study of classical Confucian writings and their interpretations were by no means the heart of education.清朝时期也有很多学者由于反对清朝的统治而被处死,如金圣叹等。但是,也有一些人却安然无恙,如,举足轻重的历史学家黄宗羲,进化论观点持有者王夫之、方以智和顾炎武,所有这些哲学家们都致力于研究实学、并声称哲学不过是科学宇宙进化论的一部分而已,对儒家作品的研究和释义无论如何都不能 成为学习和教育的重心。This viewpoint was deduced by Gu Zuyu, Mei Wending, Yan Yuan, and Li Gong. The school of thinking that leads to a deepgoing change in the life of Confucian classics was the movement of text criticism that came up during the second half of 17th century.这一观点得到了顾祖禹、梅文鼎、颜元和李埭的进一步演 绎。这一导致儒家大作深刻变化的思潮源于17世纪后期对教科书的批判。The Rites of Zhou and the Book of Documentswere identified as later compositions than they purported to be, many histories and stories about early Confucian saints and rulers were detected as being later inventions. The Book of Songs did not only contain hymns for the Zhou rulers, but also simple love songs.《周礼》和《尚书》事实上要比人们所认为的出现的晚得多,其中,很多有关早期儒家圣 人和统治者的历史和故事也不过是人的杜撰而已。《诗经》不仅有关于周朝统治者 的颂歌,也有关于朴素爱情的诗歌。Confucius and the writings attributed to him were dethroned by man like Wan Sida, Yan Ruoqu, Hu Wei, Yuan Mei, Wang Zhong, Cui Shu, and Hui Dong.那些被认为是属于统治者的儒家思想和作品 则被清朝时期的文人和作家所废弃,这些人有万斯大、阎若璩、胡渭、袁枚、汪中、崔 述和惠栋等。This movement was quite similar to the first researches of the Greek and Hebrew original texts of the bible, a book whose Latin version had been sacrosanct since the being of Christianity.这种举动和对希腊语、希伯来语版本的《圣经》的早期研究极为相似, 而拉丁语版本的《圣经》自从基督教诞生以来被认为是最为神圣的。Zhang Xuecheng was one of the first historians to lay stress on the importance of local history of the huge empire of China. Every document, he said, had to be incorporated into a historiography, and not only annals and edicts like the official histories did. Historiography should also be a personal work although there might be subjective interpretations.章学诚是首先 强调庞大中国地方历史的历史学家之一。他认为,每卷史书都应融人编年史者的 工作,而不应该像官府史书那样仅仅是历史记载和政府法令的记录,编史工作可以 是个人行为,尽管会掺杂有个人的主观释义。Probably the most important writer and scientist of early and middle Qing peri-od was Dai Zhen, a universal scholar, mathematician, philologist, one of the ed卜 tors of the collection Siku Quanshu , and philosopher; the most objective and earnest criticist of Neo-Confucian interpretation of the classical writings and their nature philosophy.可以说,清朝早、中期的最主要的作家和科学家是戴震。戴震是一位多才多艺 的学者,他是数学家,语言学家,《四库全书》编纂者之一和哲学家,是古典文学作品 新儒思想释义和自然哲学最客观、最认真的家。His most important philosophical writing might be The Origin of Goodness ’’ or Yuanshan ? Instead of the Neo-Confucian universal order, he interpreted any being as being guided and led by breath, odem or matter that helps the abstract cosmic order to manifest all appearances.其最主要的哲学作品是《原 善》。他解释说任何人都受呼吸和气的引导,而不是新儒理论,气能助道在各方面 展现。Books about practical science and philology were not only written and published by scholars or officials, but also by rich merchants that patronized writers and artists and that engaged themselves in studies about geography, chronology, epigraphy, mathematics, philology, and the Confucian Classics.除此之外,有关实学和语言学的书籍也由学者和官方大量出版。同时,那些 赞助作家和艺术家的、甚至自己也直接参与学习研究地理、编年史、碑文学、数学、 语言学和儒家思想的富商们也积极出版发行作品。The places for scholars preparing for the state examinationswere provided by private academies. Private studies and patronage only ended with the financial and economical ruin of the rich merchant families of the lower Yangtze area at the end of 18th century. But all of these made the writing prosperous in the early and middle of the Qing Dynasty.当时,学子们备考科举的地方276由书院提供。最后,由于18世纪末期长江下游富商之家金融和经济的衰败而致使 私学和个人资助而告终。不过,所有这些,还是让清朝早中期的文学曾经一度繁荣。Science and technology : There are many fields of social activities and sciences the two cultural spheres learned from each other. During the end of Ming and beginning of Qing Dynasty, the Jesuit padres residing at the imperial court in Beijing was important media for the cultural and technical exchange from east to west and vice versa.科学技术:清朝时期,东西方在很多社会活动和科学领域中相互学习。明末清初,耶稣教传道士居住北京皇宫,这就是东西方文化和科技交流的重要媒介。While the Jesuits showed to the Chinese upper class the technical inventions made in Europe during the past century, like watches and astronomical instruments, they were impressed by the high standards of Chinese medicine, and land surveying.当这些耶稣使者向中国的上层阶级展现欧洲在上一个世纪重大科技发明的同时,包括 手表、天文仪器等,他们也被中国的高超的医疗水平和土地勘查所深深打动。Chinese painters and musicians adopted European concepts of art. Chinese painters and calligraphers had always stood in the century-old tradition of elder patterns and models. Musicians did not live as famous composers, but as nameless instruments of the ritual art of music.中国 画家和音乐家吸收采纳了欧洲艺术概念。那时,中国画家和书法家一直停留在对 有百年之久的老格局和传统模式的表达。音乐家不是作为著名的创作人而存在,而是音乐形式艺术中名不见经传的乐器而存在。The west was inspired by technically improved objects like suspension-bridges with iron chains, a push cart with a sail, rotating de-spelting machines, magnetism, and much more. The great universal genius Leibniz undertook deepgoing investigations into Chinese technique.西方被中国的高科技成就,如铁 索悬桥、有帆手推车、磁力学等所震惊。世界著名天才人物雷柏尼茨曾经对中国科 学技术进行过深人研究。Silk worms were introduced to the west some centuries before, but industrial production of silk could only be established in the 16th century. The German J. F. Bett-ger accidentally invented porcelain, but the need for Chinese porcelain was very high in the stream of a China fashion in 18th century Europe.中国蚕丝在几个世纪之前就传人欧洲,但是,丝绸工业生 产直到16世纪才出现。德国人J. F.伯特格尔一次偶然的机会发明了瓷器,但是, 18世纪的欧洲仍然大量需要中国瓷器。Philosophers interpreted the tranquil and prosperous empire of the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors as the ideal state, headed by a wise monarch. Until the end of 18th century, China was technically much more advanced than the west, and only the industrial revolution helped the western states to become prevalent powers during the 19th century, giving them a sentiment of being superior to the backward Chinese empire.哲学家们认为,清朝康熙、乾隆统治时期 的两大盛世理想的国度,是明君执政的理想国度。直到18世纪末,中国在科技方 面一直比西方世界先进,只是后来19世纪的工业革命使西方诸国变成优势国家, 让他们有了比落后的中国王朝先进的优越感。Art:Qing Dynasty art can be called a culmination of all art styles that have been developed during the past 2500 years. Unlike Ming artists , artisans, painters, calligraphers and craftsmen during the Qing period used very old forms and shapes for their works of art.艺术:清朝时期的艺术是过去2500年间中国各种艺术形式发展的顶峰时期。 不同于明朝,清朝时期的艺术家、手工艺人、画家、书法家以及工匠们在创作艺术作 品时都使用极为传统的形式和格式。Chinaware and lacquerware objects were given not only the bulgy shapes that had developed since the Song Dynasty, but we find also vases or cups with the shape of Shang or Zhou bronze ware like the zun type. Gourd shapes vessels,vases with three openings or more,the typical “rice” bowls and the small tea cups and tea pots we know today all developed during the QingDynasty.瓷器和漆器制作时,不仅使用了源于宋朝的 突出形状,花瓶和杯子也采用了商、周的铜器形状,如樽等。葫芦状容器、三开嘴或 多开嘴的花瓶、独有特色的“饭”碗,以及小茶杯、茶壶等,即便是现代的人们也是耳 熟能详,都是源于清朝时期。The typical bluegreen of the Ming chinaware changed to a broader palett of colors, ranging from orange to green and gold ; Qing chinaware is much more colorful than the former types.明朝时期的蓝绿色为特色的瓷器,在清朝时期发生了 极大变化,色趋向多样化,从橘黄色到绿色、金色等。所以清朝时期的瓷器比以 往任何朝代的瓷器都更加丰富多。New materials extensively used now are enamel, cloisonne and glass ware. Materials like jade, gold and cloisonne are first combined in a single art object.现在,人们广泛使用的新材料是珐琅、景泰蓝 和玻璃制品。玉、黄金和景泰蓝第一次同时使用在一件制品中。Additionally, a dark wooden base for vases or other i-tems came up. We also possess a lot of objects made from easy decayable materials like wood or bamboo, for example furniture, and of course cloth material that served as daily worn dress, or as simple object of admiration.除此之外,黑木花 瓶和其他艺术品也开始出现。到现在我们仍然拥有大量的使用易于腐烂的材料如 木头和竹子制成的物件,如家具等。当然,还有我们日常穿戴的布料或者简易的小 饰品等。In the field of calligraphy, Qing artists went on to use the traditional styles of writing, but unlike Ming calligraphers, people now studied the oldest examples of Chinese script like the oracle bones and bronze vessel inscriptions. With the advent of Christian missionaries in China, Chinese painters learned from the Jesuits Western painting techniques like perspective and the use of oil-paint instead of monochrome ink.在书法领域,清朝书法家继续沿用传统的书法形式。但是,与明朝书法家 不同的是,清朝书法家研究的是中国手迹的最古老的范本,如卜骨和铜器上的刻文 等。清朝时期随着大批基督教传道士的到来,中国画家也吸收了基督教中的绘画 技巧,如透视法和油画技术取代了单色墨画。Even buildings and palaces were constructed according to the Western style, like the Yuanmingyuan Palace that was destroyed in the 19th century the Eight-Power Allied Forces. Typical for the Qing Dynasty private houses are the many gardens laid out by rich families in Suzhou and Hangzhou.甚至楼房和宫殿的建造也是仿照西 方风格,如在19世纪被八国联军毁掉的圆明园。清朝时期民间建筑的典型形式是 苏州、杭州的富有之家建造的众多园林建筑。 /201603/428572。
  • Pigeons and pollution are both common blights in cities around the world, but a group of engineers in London are hoping the birds can help them tackle problems with air quality.对世界上许多城市来说,鸽子和污染问题都是常见的危害,但伦敦的一群工程师却希望能利用鸽子来帮助解决空气污染问题。A technology company has revealed it is strapping pollution-monitoring backpacks onto ten pigeons in London to monitor air pollution over the next three days.一家科技公司透露称,他们在十只鸽子背上绑上了污染监测器,在未来三天监测伦敦空气污染情况。On Monday, the flock, nicknamed the Pigeon Air Patrol, were set loose from a rooftop in Brick Lane by pigeon fancier, Brian Woodhouse.当地时间周一,鸽友布莱恩·伍德豪斯从布里克巷的屋顶放飞了这群被称为“空中巡逻鸽”的鸽子。For three days, Londoners will be able to get live updates of the pollution where they are by tweeting their location to @PigeonAir.此后三天,伦敦市民可以通过在推特上发布自己的位置并@PigeonAir来了解该地实时更新的污染情况。Data from three of the pigeons, called Coco, Julius and Norbert, will then be used to instantly reply, telling them about the level of pollution in their area.名为可可、朱利叶斯和诺伯特的三只鸽子收集的数据被用来即时回复市民消息,告知市民所在地的污染水平。A live map is also being updated as the pigeons fly around, detailing the levels of pollution in different areas of the capital.随着鸽子飞行轨迹改变,生成的实时地图亦不断更新,详细显示了伦敦各地区的污染水平。#39;Air pollution isn#39;t sexy and people don#39;t engage with it,#39; said Pierre Duquesnoy, creative director at DigitasLBi, who had the original idea.“空气污染并没什么吸引力,人们也不去关注它,”乐必扬创意总监皮埃尔·迪凯努瓦说道。这个想法最初是他提出的。#39;So the heart of our idea was to make air pollution more accessible and relevant to people.“因此我们的核心想法是让人们更容易得悉空气污染情况,让空气污染与人们更加切身相关。”#39;The Pigeon Air Patrol is a perfect example of how data combined with creative storytelling can raise awareness of a serious health and environmental issue.#39;“把数据同新奇的宣传结合在一起能够增加人们对严重环境卫生问题的关注度。空中巡逻鸽就是一个很好的例子。”To develop the idea Mr Duquesnoy worked with Plume Labs, a technology company that helps consumers track and reduce their exposure to air pollution.为了发展这个构想,迪凯努瓦选择与科技公司Plume Labs合作。Plume Labs帮助其客户追踪并减少暴露在空气污染中的机会。#39;Air pollution is a huge environmental health issue, killing 10,000 people every year in London alone,#39; said Romain Lacombe, chief executive office of Plume Labs.“空气污染是一项重大的环境卫生问题。仅在伦敦,每年因空气污染而死亡的人数就超过1万,”Plume Labs首席执行官罗曼·拉科比说。#39;Putting air sensors on the back of pigeons goes beyond raising awareness of this problem and helps Londoners understand the impact of pollution in an accessible, tangible and immediate way.#39;“在鸽子背上安设空气监测器不仅会使人们更加关注这个问题,也能让伦敦市民用可行的方式更真切、更直观地意识到污染的影响。”The pigeons used in the study are racing pigeons, who usually live four times longer than street pigeons because they#39;re so well cared for.研究所用鸽子均为赛鸽。由于受到良好养护,它们的寿命通常是街头普通鸽子的四倍长。The flock even has their own vet to double check they#39;re always in peak health.这批鸽子甚至有自己的兽医以确保它们总是处于最佳健康状况。The high-tech backpacks they wear to monitor pollution are tiny and light as a feather.鸽子背的高科技污染检测器像羽毛一样又小又轻。The campaign only runs for three days, after which the birds will be able to return to their normal life.这项活动仅持续三天,在那之后鸽子们将回归正常生活。The company hope the campaign will encourage Londoners to join the Air Patrol, by becoming beta testers for a wearable version of Plume Labs#39; air pollution measuring device.Plume Labs公司希望此举能鼓励伦敦市民参加“空中巡逻”活动,成为该公司设计的可穿戴式空气污染检测器的测试员。‘We’re looking for 100 people to beta test our new pollution sensor, in partnership with Imperial College London,’ the website says.“我们与帝国理工学院合作,寻找100人来测试我们的新污染监测器,”该网站表示。‘If you’re a cyclist, runner, or pram pusher, who’d like to know what you’re breathing and how to beat pollution, join our programme testing a wearable version of our air pollution device.’“无论你是骑自行车、跑步还是推婴儿车,只要愿意了解你所呼吸的空气的质量以及如何战胜污染,那就加入我们的项目,测试一下我们研发的可穿戴式空气污染检测器。” /201603/431757。
  • Zhang Heng(78~139), whose courtesy name was Pingzi, was a famous astronomer in the Eastern Han Dynasty.张衡(78~139 ), 字平子。东汉天文学家。历官郎中、太史令等。His publication Ling Xian (Mystical Laws) summarized his achievements in astronomy. 《灵宪》一文,全面地体现了他在天文学上的成就。He held that the universe was infinite in both space and time and invented the world#39;s first eauatorial armillary sphere.他提出“浑天说”,认为宇宙在空间上没有边界,在时间上没有起点。他创造的天文仪器浑天仪,是一种演示天体星象运动的表演仪器。He also believed that the heaven was round and the earth flat.关于地球的结构,他持“天圆地平”说。Furthermore, he recorded 2 500 stars, drew the first comprehensive star chart and accurately interpreted the formation of lunar eclipses.他还记录了2500颗恒星,画出了中国第一张完备的星图,正确解释了月食的成因。He was renowned as the inventor of the world#39;s first seismograph, which was invented 1 800 years earlier than other similar devices.在地震学上,他发明了候风地动仪,是世界上的地震仪之祖,比其它类似设备早了1800年。Legend said that he invented two magical devices:a three-wheeled device that could rotate automatically and a wood carving that could fly in the sky.传说他当时还制作过两件神奇的器物,一件是有三个轮子的机械,可以自转;一件是一只木雕,能在天上飞翔。In a mathematical treatise, he approximated pi by working out two numbers.在数学上,他写过《算罔论》一书,推知圆周率大约在3. 14和3. 16之间。He held fast the principle of seeking truth from facts and strongly objected to the non-scientific viewpoints in the society.他坚持实事求是的原则,坚决与鄙弃知识的社会愚昧思想作斗争。Zhang Heng was also an outstanding writer, whose Er Jing Fu (Two Capital Cities) and Gui Tian Fu (To Live in Seclusion) are considered as literary masterpieces in ancient China.张衡还是一位大文学家,有《二京赋》、《归田赋》等传世之作。 /201603/430931。
  • We have all heard of Sherlock Holmes, and in the eyes of most of the world he is the greatest fictional detective of all time. His popularity is so great that there is an entire society devoted to Sherlock Holmes fan fiction and sometimes to pretending he is real, called the Baker Street Irregulars. It is inevitable that with such popularity there will be many mistaken notions about the character. Its mythology becomes distorted and things that are not at all true become commonly repeated as fact. Below are ten things most people think about Sherlock Holmes, that are completely wrong.我们都听说过夏洛克·福尔斯,在世界上大多数人眼中他是有史以来最厉害的小说版侦探。他深受欢迎,甚至有一整个协会都致力于夏洛克福尔斯粉丝小说的创作,有时候还假装他真实存在,称之为贝克街小分队。如此流行的人物,人们有所误解也在所难免。他的传奇被扭曲,许多不尽不实的事情却成为了人们口口相传的事实。以下是大多数人对于福尔斯的十大误解。10.Innocent People10.清白的人Misconception: He wouldn#39;t treat an innocent person badly just to solve a case.误解: 他不会为了破案而伤害无辜的人们。Many people see Sherlock Holmes as a white knight of the detective world: he solves cases using only the power of his mind and innocent people never get hurt in the process. He is universally beloved as the greatest fictional detective in the world, but he had more of a dark side than just his drug use and other eccentric habits. Sherlock Holmes was not at all averse to doing whatever it took to win a case, and he often played the game for the games own sake. In one story The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton, he becomes engaged to a housemaid to get closer to a villain he is trying to expose. After he solves the case, he simply leaves the woman, presumably upsetting her greatly. He never makes any effort to explain the situation to her and we never hear about it again. He also employed a small group of street urchins to do his dirty work, which he affectionately called ;The Baker Street Irregulars.; We see them in The Sign of the Four, A Study in Scarlet, and The Adventure of the Crooked Man.许多人认为福尔斯是侦探世界里的白马骑士:在破案时他只需要运用他的智慧,无辜的人也不会受伤。他深受人们喜爱,是世界上最伟大的小说侦探,但是除了吸毒和其他怪癖之外,他还有一些阴暗面。他为了破案不折手段,常常玩花样。在《查尔斯·奥古斯塔斯·米尔沃顿》这个故事中,为了揭发一个恶棍,他接近他的女仆并与之订婚。破案之后,他就离开了那个女人,让她伤透了心。他也不曾向她做出任何解释,而此事很多人都蒙在鼓里。而且,他还雇佣一些街童做非法勾当,美其名曰;贝克街小分队;。我们可以在《四签名》、《血字的研究》和《驼背人》中看见他们的身影。9.Socially Advanced9.思想开明Misconception: Sherlock Holmes was a socially-forward thinker误解: 福尔斯是一个思想开明的人。In The Adventure of the Three Gables Sherlock Holmes engages in some very cruel and racist conversations with black people. He basically calls a black boxer stupid based on his skin color and then goes so far as to make fun of the size of his lips. An excerpt from Holmes encounter with Steve Dixie, a black boxer: ;‘That#39;s my name, Masser Holmes, and you#39;ll get put through it for sure if you give me any lip.#39; ‘It is certainly the last thing you need,#39; said Holmes, staring at our visitor#39;s hideous mouth.; After The boxer left Sherlock Holmes comments: ;I am glad you were not forced to break his woolly head, Watson. I observed your maneuvers with the poker. But he is really rather a harmless fellow, a great muscular, foolish, blustering baby, and easily cowed, as you have seen.; There are other times where more commonplace comments are made about people from Africa in general, that are somewhat disparaging. There are a couple of important things to note, however. When the stories were written, these attitudes were fairly commonplace, it doesn#39;t excuse them, but it doesn#39;t make the character much different from anyone else in England at the time. It is also interesting to note that many scholars believe The Adventure of the Three Gables, which had the most obvious racism, was actually a forgery and not written by Arthur Conan Doyle at all. This would not be particularly surprising as Sherlock Holmes fan fiction has been popular for a long time.在《三角墙山庄》中,福尔斯和一名黑人的谈话非常残忍并带有种族歧视。他只是基于他的肤色就把黑人拳击手叫做笨蛋,而且还取笑了他的嘴唇大小。摘录中,福尔斯遇见了一名名叫史蒂夫·迪克西(Steve Dixie)的黑人拳击手。;我就是福尔斯,如果你说些好话我或许会放过你;;那你倒用不着;,福尔斯使劲盯着他奇丑无比的嘴巴说。拳击手离开后,福尔斯评价道:;华生,幸亏你没有敲破他那结实的脑袋。我看见你拿拨火棒的动作了。其实他倒是一个不妨事的,别看浑身是肌肉,倒是个愚蠢的、放空炮的小孩子,很容易把他镇住,就象刚才那样。;在其他时候他对非洲人的评价普遍如此,还带有一些侮辱性的言辞。但是,我们也要注意到一些重要的事情。写故事的时候,这种态度非常普遍,我不是在找借口,但人物的态度和当时其他英格兰的人们一样,没有什么不同。很有意思的是,许多学者认为《三角墙山庄》中种族歧视最为明显,事实上是赝品,根本不是出自柯南·道尔之手。福尔斯同人小说一直都很流行,出现这种事情也不足为奇。8.Withholding Information8.隐瞒信息Misconception: Sherlock Holmes withholds information from the police.误解:福尔斯对警察隐瞒了信息。In the recent Sherlock Holmes movies, he is pictured taking evidence from crime scenes and hiding it from the police on multiple occasions. This allows him to stay several steps ahead at all times and ensures he solves the case before they do. The only problem here is that this is totally the opposite of how he behaved in the books. Sherlock Holmes would always leave enough evidence for the police to figure out the same things he did if they were so inclined as we see in The Adventure of the Devils Foot. And he would often share information with them if he thought they were pursuing a useless line of inquiry, which we can see in The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge. Sherlock Holmes stayed ahead of the police because he was simply better at deduction than they were; it does a disservice to his character to suggest that he would ever misappropriate evidence.在最近的一些福尔斯电影中,他被塑造为从犯罪现场带走物多次对警察隐瞒信息的人物形象。这样的话,他可以一直比警察快一步,在警察之前破案。唯一的问题是他的这些行为与书中所写完全相反。在《魔鬼之足》中,我们可以看到警方如果配合他的话,福尔斯总是会给警方留下线索,让他们推理出自己知道的一切。在《藤荘》中,福尔斯如果认为警方追踪的是一条无用的线索,也会与警方分享信息。他总是比警方快一步仅仅是因为他比他们更加擅长推理;他盗用据只会贬低他的人物形象。7.Best Friend7.最好的朋友Misconception: Holmes trusts his best friend Dr. Watson.误解:福尔斯信任他最好的朋友华生。Sherlock Holmes#39;s best friend is Dr. John Watson, and he relies on him as his biographer and companion, especially on very dangerous missions. The pair are incredibly close and remain good friends throughout most of their lives. Holmes even comments that he would be ;lost without his Boswell,; in reference to the famous 18th century biographer of Samuel Johnson. However, while Holmes may have trusted his best friend to defend him in a scrape, and trusted his medical knowledge, he does not truly trust Dr. Watson. In The Hound of the Baskervilles, Holmes sends Dr. Watson to keep an eye on the situation at Baskerville hall, and then sneaks out to the moor to keep an eye on the situation himself rather than trusting his friends account. And to make matters worse he does not even tell Dr. Watson of his arrival. Also, in The Adventure of the Dying Detective, he tricks his best friend into thinking he is dying of a deadly disease because he does not believe that Dr. Watson would be able to keep the secret that he was faking it if he told him. While he claims respect for Dr. Watson#39;s medical skills, it#39;s a poor show that he doesn#39;t think his friend could go along with his game.福尔斯最好的朋友就是约翰·华生医生。尤其是在执行极其危险的任务时,华生作为他的伙伴和传记作家,是他最依赖的人。两人亲密无间,一生都维持着挚友的关系。福尔斯甚至评价说:;没有他的斯韦尔,他的人生就迷失了。;(参考18世纪著名传记作家塞缪尔·约翰逊的话,斯韦尔是为密友撰写传记的人)。然而,或许福尔斯相信华生会在他处于困境时维护他,信任他的医药知识,但他不是真的信任华生医生。在《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》中,他派华生去监视巴斯克维尔庄园里的一举一动,然后自己偷偷溜去沼泽暗中观察情形,这无疑是不信任华生。更糟糕的是,他甚至没有告诉华生他的行踪。而且在《临终的侦探》中,他欺骗华生,让他认为他病入膏肓而死去。因为他不相信如果他告诉华生真相,华生会隐瞒住他假死的秘密。虽然他敬佩华生的医术,但这也是掩饰自己不认为华生可以和他一起玩侦探游戏的无聊作秀罢了。6.Eccentric Manners6.古怪的穿着Misconception: Holmes dresses in an eccentric manner and is often dirty or unkempt.误解:福尔斯穿着古怪,蓬乱,肮脏不堪。Not all movies are guilty of this particular offense, but the horrible monstrosity that was the recent two part movie series with Robert Downey Jr is a huge offender. Robert Downey Jr portrays Holmes as dressing in an extremely eccentric manner, including ill fitting clothes, strange ensembles that don#39;t make sense and as having a general air of bad hygiene. However, Sherlock Holmes is actually described in The Hound of the Baskervilles as having a cat like approach to cleanliness. He dressed in very traditional, conservative clothes for his time and was always impeccably neat. In fact, in The Hound of the Baskervilles, Sherlock Holmes is out on the moor investigating a case in secret, living in an old shack, and still arranges to have fresh linen and other luxuries brought to him so that he can remain neat and clean.不是所有的电影都要承担这样的罪名,但是可怕的是,由美国演员小罗伯特·道尼主演的两部福尔斯的电影却是重犯。小罗伯特·道尼将福尔斯刻画为穿着古怪(穿着不合身、古怪的让人费解的衣着搭配)和卫生习惯差的人。然而,事实上福尔斯在《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》中被描绘得像猫一样有洁癖。他穿着传统保守的衣而且总是一尘不染。在《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》中,福尔斯前往沼泽调查一宗神秘案件,他还是带了一些干净的亚麻布和其他一些奢侈品,让自己保持整洁和干净。翻译:高陈影 编辑:陈艳冲 来源:前十网 /201509/399238。
  • You might not make it to heaven in the afterlife, but you sure can go as far as the moon. Celestial funerals are now a possibility, thanks to San Francisco startup Elysium Space. For a ginormous fee of about ,000, the company will privately transport your cremated remains to the moon!在来生里,你不一定去得了天堂,但你现在却能到月球那么远的地方。有了旧金山的;极乐世界;公司,;天葬;务现在已成为可能。花费12000美元,该公司便会单独将您火化后的遗物运送至月球。Founded by former NASA engineer Thomas Civeit, Elysium boasts of bringing space and funeral experts together to provide the unique service. ;Families now have the historic opportunity to commemorate their departed loved ones every night through the everlasting splendour and soft illumination of the Earth#39;s closest companion: the moon,; they stated in a press release.;极乐世界;公司最初由美国航空航天局(NASA)前任工程师托马斯·西威特创立,该公司将宇宙专家和丧葬专家集合起来,定制提供这种特殊务。;很多家庭现在就有这种历史性的珍贵机会,来纪念他们逝去的亲人,每晚向外看看月亮,这个离地球最近的伴侣,看看它永恒且柔和的光辉。;他们在新闻发布会上强调道。Although the company was founded in 2013, the service only offered in August of this year, after Elysium managed to seal a deal with space logistics company Astrobotic Technology. They#39;re currently taking orders, and the first batch of ashes will travel to the moon on Griffin Lander spacecraft – Astrobotic#39;s inaugural lunar mission – in 2017.虽然此公司2013年才成立,在他们与国际空间物流公司Astrobotic Technology达成秘密协议后,今年八月推出此项务。他们现在已经开始接受订单,第一批骨灰会于2017年通过Astrobotic的首次登月任务,到达月球上的格里芬着陆航天器。According to Civeit, the families who are opting for the service usually have a special connection with space or the night sky. In fact, that#39;s how the idea for the service came about. Elysium#39;s initial plan was to run a service called Shooting Star Memorial, in which ashes are briefly sent into orbit and return to Earth as a bright streak across the atmosphere. But then they were approached with an unusual request by US Army infantry soldier Steven Jenks.西威特表示,选择这项务的家庭通常都对太空和夜空有着特殊的感情。事实上,这也是这个点子最初萌发的背景。;极乐世界;最初的计划其实是开始一项名为;流星纪念;的务,将骨灰运送到轨道然后划过大气层降落到地球上。但后来美国步兵史蒂芬·詹克思找到他们,并提出了新想法。Jenks, who lost his mother to lung cancer, wanted to send her remains to the moon because it was a special symbol of their relationship. She would always write to him: ;No matter how lonely you feel and how far you are, always look to the Moon and know I am with you. I love you to the Moon and back, Love, Mom.; So when he learned that Astrobotic was set up to send various payloads to the Moon, he asked if they could take his mother#39;s ashes too.詹克思的母亲因为肺癌而离世,之后,他想将他母亲的遗体送到月球上,因为月亮是他们母子情的特殊象征。她经常给他在信里写道:;不管你感觉多寂寞,离我多么远,别忘了时常抬头看看月亮,就知道我一直在你身边。我对你的爱,好比从地球到月亮再回来那么绵长。爱你的,妈妈。;所以后来当他知道Astrobotic公司准备开始大批运送物质到月球时,他询问了能否将她妈妈的骨灰一起带上月球。;It was perfect timing,; Civeit said. ;Steven Jenks told his touching story to Astrobotic as he wanted to have the ashes of his mother delivered to the moon. Astrobotic does not provide such services to individuals but we were signing our contract with Astrobotic at the time and we were honored to make Steven#39;s wish come true.; Jenks, of course, is happy to know that his mother#39;s final resting place will be on the moon. ;I will know she is looking down on my family and maybe they won#39;t feel so alone,; he said.;这时间特别合适,;西威特解释道。;史蒂芬向Astrobotic讲述了他动人的故事,希望他们能将她的骨灰带上月球。虽然Astrobotic那时并不向私人提供此项务,但我们已经与其签订过合同,所以我们很荣幸能让史蒂芬的愿望成真。;后来,史蒂芬知道他母亲最后的安息地在月球也非常开心。;我知道她一直在默默注视着我们家,可能这样他们也就感觉没那么寂寞,;他向我们说道。For the first 50 signups, the ‘Lunar Memorials#39; will cost ,950. After that, the price will be hiked to ,950. Families that book a spot on the mission for a Lunar Memorial will be sent a kit including an engravable metal box, into which they can place approximately one gram of cremated remains. Approximately 100 remains will be sent to the moon in the second half of 2017. Reservations for the Shooting Star option are a lot cheaper, at ,990. The company plans to launch its first 100 ash capsules into space later this Fall – they will orbit the earth for several months before falling back and burning up through the atmosphere – like shooting stars.第一批报名的有约50人,;月球纪念;大概会花费9950美元。不过在那之后,价格一路飙升到11950美元。已经报名预定的家庭会收到一套工具,里面包括可刻字的金属盒,可以在里面放置大约一克的火化遗体。在2017年下半年,大约100位人的骨灰将被送到月球。不过流星项目就要便宜很多,花费大约1990美元。该公司准备在这个秋天向太空发射100枚骨灰胶囊,他们会绕着地球轨道航行数月,然后下降,在大气层中燃烧,就像流星一样。;People often think about technology when they think about space,; Civeit said. ;However, space has other inherent values, like the beauty of the night sky, which can be used to create poetic memorial services. The idea that humankind can look up at the Moon and poetically commune with its ancestors is probably as old as the human culture itself.;;人们在想到太空时总是想到这种科技,;西威特补充道。;不过,太空有它别的内在价值,比如夜空的美丽,它启发我们,让我们提供这种富有诗意的纪念务。人们抬抬头,看看月亮,与他们的祖先交流的想法可能已经和人类文化一样古老了。;Once this service ;takes off;, the company has plans to extend beyond the solar system. They want to launch a Milky Way Memorial that will send human remains into deep space. The launch date and price are yet to be announced, but it won#39;t be long considering that the Shooting Star service is aly turning a profit.一旦这项务;起飞;,此公司计划将务范围扩展到整个太阳系。他们想开展一个纪念务,将人类遗体送到更远的外太空。虽然发射的日期和价格目前还未定,不过考虑到目前流星务项目已经开始盈利,估计此类计划也离我们不远了。 /201510/404048。
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