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福建妇幼保健院看弱精好不好费用多少福州附属第一医院做包皮手术好不好费用多少Free exchange自由交易The great trailblazer伟大的开拓者Economists everywhere should mourn the passing of Gary Becker世界各地的经济学家都该对加里·贝克尔的离世表示哀悼IF THERE is one person to blame for economists habit of opining on everything, it is Gary Becker, who died on May 3rd. Not content with studying the worlds economies, he was the first prominent economist to apply economic tools to all aspects of life. His revelation was the sort that seems obvious only in hindsight: that people are often purposeful and rational in their decisions, whether they are changing jobs, taking drugs or divorcing their spouses. This insight, and the work that followed from it, earned him a Nobel prize in 1992. No less an eminence than Milton Friedman declared in 2001 that Mr Becker was “the greatest social scientist who has lived and worked in the last half-century”.经济学家们习惯于对一切事情都发表意见,若要将这嗜好归功于一人,这个人便是已于2014年5月3日辞世的加里·贝克尔。不满足于仅仅研究世界经济,贝克尔是第一个将经济学方法应用到生活各个方面的著名经济学家。他揭示了那些事后似乎才一目了然的事:无论是换工作,嗑药或与配偶离婚,人们往往是有目的、理性地做出决定。正是由于此种见解以及其后一系列围绕它的研究,贝克尔赢得了1992年的诺贝尔经济学奖。声名卓著的米尔顿·弗里德曼在2001年称贝克尔是“过去的半个世纪以来最伟大的社会科学家”,他完全担得起这个评价。At the heart of Mr Beckers work was the view that “individuals maximise welfare as they conceive it.” Welfare need not mean income; it could derive from the pleasure of altruism or the thrill of deviancy. But critically, this thesis implied that people respond to incentives—a realisation that opened the door to insights across the whole range of human activity.贝克尔研究的核心是认为“个体总是最大化他们自己所认为的个人福利”。福利不一定意味着收入,它可能源自利他主义的满足感或越轨的快感。但关键的是,这个论题暗指人们会对激励做出回应—这个认知为全方位地洞悉人类活动打开了一扇门。Mr Becker first used this approach in his doctoral study of discrimination, a raw issue in 1950s America. At the time economists models assumed that employers cared only about productivity, whatever the colour of the worker. Shunting this view aside, Mr Becker instead assumed that many individuals had a “taste for discrimination”, and perceived themselves to be worse off when forced to work alongside people of other races. He then explored how this preference affected labour markets.贝克尔在其士生涯研究歧视问题时第一次使用这种方法,歧视问题在20世纪50年代的美国还未受到重视。当时经济学家的模型假定雇主只关心生产率,而不管工人的肤色如何。抛开这一观点,贝克尔代之以假设许多人有“歧视偏好”,被迫与其他种族的人一起工作人们会感觉很糟糕。然后他探讨了这种偏好如何影响劳动力市场。In America, where the black population was roughly one-tenth of the total, discrimination against blacks led to relatively small reductions in white incomes but far more substantial ones for black workers. In South Africa, with a far higher proportion of blacks, discrimination brought much larger reductions in incomes across the economy. Mr Becker pointed out that although competition from more rational firms might gradually eliminate corporate discrimination, market forces alone would rarely erode discrimination rooted in the tastes of workers or consumers. His book on the subject, “The Economics of Discrimination”, became the foundation for subsequent research.在美国,黑人数量占其总人口约十分之一,对黑人的歧视导致白人工人收入相对削减较小而黑人工人的工资却较大幅度下降。在南非,黑人占比较高,歧视使整个经济体的收入更大幅度的下挫。贝克尔指出,虽然那些来自更理性的公司的竞争可能逐步消除企业歧视,但仅仅依靠市场力量很难削弱根植于工人或消费者偏好中的歧视。他探讨这一问题的书籍《歧视经济学》为后续研究奠定了基础。Mr Beckers restless mind then focused on crime. He became intrigued after weighing the odds and cost of getting a parking ticket, and deciding to risk it. He looked sceptically on the view, common at the time, that crime was simply deviant behaviour—a form of mental illness. At least some of it, he reckoned, sprang from a rational consideration of perceived costs and benefits. Moral norms might inhibit some individuals from breaking the law, but others would overcome their qualms when the return to criminal activity was high, or the likely punishment mild. Such calculations would apply, he argued, across a wide variety of crimes, from parking scofflaws to corporate fraudsters.思维活跃的贝克尔紧接着专注于犯罪领域。在比较了停车罚单的收益和成本并决定冒险违章停车后,这个问题引起了他的兴趣。按照当时流行的观点,犯罪只是简单的越轨行为,贝克尔对此表示怀疑。他认为,至少部分犯罪是源自权衡成本和收益后的理性考量。道德准则可能会约束某些人不要去违法乱纪,但若犯罪活动回报颇高,或潜在处罚轻微时,其他人还是会将诸般疑虑抛诸脑后的。他认为这种方式也适用于衡量各种不同的犯罪,从违章停车到企业诈骗。Mr Becker puzzled over why crime was economically costly. Part of the answer, he realised, was that it represents rent-seeking: fighting over the spoils of productive activity rather than creation of new wealth. Resources invested in commission of crimes might otherwise have gone towards growth-boosting activity. His work contributed to new crime-fighting methods. He reckoned there is an optimal amount of crime in society, since it makes little sense to pay huge sums to wipe out illegal activity carrying low social costs. Where enforcement is patchy, governments might still deter misbehaviour by increasing the severity of the punishment—by raising fines, say.贝克尔对犯罪为何在经济上代价高昂感到困惑。他意识到部分原因在于犯罪是一种“寻租”行为:争食生产活动的战利品,而非创造新的财富。否则,实施犯罪(或阻止犯罪)投入的资源本可用来促进生产活动。他的研究成果为新的打击犯罪的方式做出了贡献。贝克尔认为,由于付巨额资金以杜绝低社会成本的非法活动意义不大,社会上的犯罪有着最优量。凡执法存在漏洞的地方,政府仍可能通过加大惩罚力度以震慑不端行为—比如增加罚金。Mr Becker was again a pioneer, alongside his Columbia University colleague Jacob Mincer, in developing the concept of “human capital”, the investments individuals make in their own education. Mr Becker ventured that spending on education and training should be thought of as an economic choice, made in anticipation of perceived future gains, rather than a high-minded search for cultural enrichment. His view gave insight into labour-market oddities. By taking into account the difference between general knowledge and “firm-specific” skills, Mr Becker could explain why skilled workers are less likely to change firms, or why firms are more likely to promote from within. Human capital also shed light on gaps in pay across demographic groups—between men and women, for example. That, in turn, shaped Mr Beckers groundbreaking study on the economics of the family.贝克尔与其哥伦比亚大学的同事雅各布·明赛尔一起发展了“人力资本”的概念,即个体为自身教育做出的投资。他在这方面再次成为先驱。贝克尔大胆假设,用于教育和培训的开销应当被看作是一种在预期未来收益的情况下做出的经济选择,而非为了寻求提升高尚的文化修养。这一观点给劳动力市场怪象提供了视角。考虑到通识知识(比如数学)和“企业特有”技能(如内部软件知识)之间的差别,贝克尔可以解释为什么技术工人不太可能跳槽,或者企业为什么更青睐从内部提拔人才。人力资本也揭示出人口群体——比如男性和女性间的薪酬差异,这反过来形成贝克尔对家庭经济的开创性研究。Family values家庭价值观Mr Becker brought his characteristic analysis to the question, assuming that people are guided in family choices by a desire to improve their own welfare. That included marriage and divorce: his analysis implied, for instance, that those in wealthy families would divorce at lower rates, a prediction borne out by data. His work also helped explain falling fertility in rich countries. As wages rise, the opportunity cost of raising children increases, and large families become less attractive. What is more, as the link between education and economic success grows stronger, parents invest ever more in their children.分析这个问题,贝克尔引入了他的特性分析,假设人是出于提高自身福利的愿望来指导家庭选择的,包括结婚和离婚在内。举个例子,他的分析暗示那些富裕家庭往往离婚率较低,数据也实了这一预测。他的工作也有助于解释富裕国家出生率下降的问题。随着工资的上升,抚养子女的机会成本增加,拥有一个大家庭变得不那么有吸引力。更重要的是,教育与经济成功之间的联系变得更加强大,父母在子女身上的投资越来越多。Mr Beckers trailblazing earned plenty of criticism. The interdisciplinary adventurism it embodied peeved other social scientists, who doubted that cool-headed analysis played much part in matters of love or larceny. But his work yielded unexpected insights and forced social scientists to rethink their assumptions and sharpen their analyses, the better to learn why people behave as they do and how policy can best help. Whole branches of microeconomics owe their existence to him. It is hard to imagine a more welfare-improving contribution.贝克尔的开创性理论遭到了很多批评。它体现出的跨学科冒险性使许多社会科学家非常气恼,他们怀疑冷静分析在爱情或盗窃问题起到的作用会更大。但贝克尔的研究成果提供了出人意料的思路,迫使社会科学家重新考虑他们的假设,完善他们的分析,以更好地了解人们的行为:人们为何那么做,政策怎样提供最好的帮助。微观经济学的整个分的存在都归功于贝克尔,没有谁在提升福利方面作出的贡献比他更大了。 201405/298764宁德做人授哪个医院最好 Forest conservation森林保护Lidartector激光雷达探测术How to tell if countries are cheating on their conservation commitments如何判断一个国家在森林保护承诺上是否有舞弊行为The wood and the trees 林地与树木In an isolated forest in the Sivalik hills of south-western Nepal, intense sun beats down through the treetops.位于尼泊尔西南部西瓦利克山脉一处偏僻的森林内,毒辣的阳光正从树冠强射而入。A sweaty trek up a steep, rocky slope leads to a spot where a team of researchers is busy measuring the trees.经过一段汗流浃背的艰难跋涉,登上一处陡峭怪石嶙峋的斜坡,到达一块区域,就可以看到一组研究人员正忙着对树木进行测量。They are working for Forest Resource Assessment Nepal, a joint venture between the Nepalese and Finnish governments.他们是尼泊尔与芬兰政府森林资源评估合资企业的工作人员。Two global-positioning-system devices guide the researchers to their target.凭借两套全球定位系统就可将研究人员带到目的地。Once there, they use tape measures, callipers and a hand-held laser to measure the heights and girths of all the trees within a 500-square-metre plot.到达目标后,在圈定好的500平方米区域内,他们用卷尺,测径规和手持激光设备对所有树木的高度和树围进行测量。These measurements, and each trees species, are recorded on a clipboard. One plot finished; 959 more to go.测量结果及每棵树的品种都会被记录下来。一块区域测量完成后,他们还要转战其余的959块区域。A classic piece of forestry, then.这是当时的一种传统林艺技术,Boots on the ground.采用人力进行实地考察,Specimens duly counted.准确测量标本。But this is a study with a twist, for its purpose is to calibrate a new approach to the subject—one that will gather information by the bucketload without the need to rely on quite so many boots.但一项新的研究将会使现状产生飞跃的转变,其目标是针对该课题开创一种新的测量方法—即无须动用众多的人力物力就可收集到大量所需信息。This new approach uses a technique called lidar.这项新方法采用的技术称之为激光雷达术。Like its cousins radar and sonar,lidar,works by broadcasting electromagnetic waves towards a target and then building up a picture from the reflection.与雷达和声纳技术相似,激光雷达的工作原理是通过向目标发射电磁波然后根据反射波构建图像。In the case of lidar, the waves are in the form of an infra-red laser beam.拿激光雷达来说,其波形采用的是红外激光束。And in the case of the forests of south-western Nepal,the target is the trees.以尼泊尔西南部的森林为例,被测目标就是树木。During a forest survey, an aircraft-borne lidar sweeps a beam that fires about 70,000 pulses a second over the canopy.在森林探测过程中,载有激光雷达的飞机将每秒产生7万个脉冲的激光束向森林树冠进行扫掠,A sensor on the aircraft records the time it takes to receive the backscattering of pulses, and that is used to compute distances to the forest canopy and to the soil beneath.同时安装在飞机上的探测设备会记录收到脉冲反向散射波的时间,然后分别用于计算到树林冠部及到土壤的距离。The result, when processed through the computers of Arbonaut, a Finnish natural-resource-management company, is a three-dimensional image of the forest that can be correlated with, and calibrated by, the efforts of the chaps with the tape measures.经过芬兰自然资源管理公司的Arbonaut计算机进行数据处理后,便可生成与采用卷尺那帮家伙的测量结果相关并可校验的树林三维图象。And that, in turn, can be used to estimate the amount of carbon stored in the plot examined, and extrapolated to calculate the carbon stored in larger areas of forest that have been scanned by lidar, but not measured with tapes.接下来,它还能用于估算所测森林区域的二氧化碳储存量,以此类推,激光雷达所探测的更大片森林区域的二氧化碳储存量也可以计算出来,但用的可不是卷尺。The point of the project, which should be completed by 2014,该项目预计到2014年完成,is to allow Nepal to participate in international carbon-trading schemes that pay poor countries with lots of trees not to cut them down.其实际意义在于能够让尼泊尔参加国际碳交易计划。该计划向拥有大量树木的贫穷国家付资金,以确保其树木不被砍伐。The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation scheme agreed at the ed Nationsclimate-change conference in Cancún last December may eventually be worth billion a year.联合国气候变化会议去年12月在墨西哥坎昆就减少砍伐森林和森林退化产生的排放计划达成协议,确定每年最终可用于森林保护的资金达300亿美元。Nepal wants a slice of that.尼泊尔也想参与其中分得一杯羹。Lidar monitoring may provide a way of making sure it is delivering on its side of the bargain.激光雷达监测可能提供了一种方法,表明尼泊尔履行森林保护协议的决心。Until a few years ago, assessing the amount of plant matter in a forest in a cheap and accurate manner seemed an insurmountable problem, according to Eric Dinerstein,环保组织世界自然基金会也参与了尼泊尔激光雷达项目的研究。chief scientist of the World Wide Fund for Nature, a conservation group that is also involved in the Nepalese lidar project.其首席科学家埃里克说,几年前,采用经济和准确的方法对植被数量进行评估似乎还是一项无法解决的难题。Although a woodlands area can be worked out from satellite photographs, that gives only a hazy idea of the mass of the plants growing there.尽管林地的面积能从卫星图片上得到,但它只能给提供我们生长在那里的大片植物的粗略情况。If Forest Resource Assessment Nepal and projects like it are successful, that will change.如果象尼泊尔森林资源评估这样的研究项目能够取得成功,情况就会大有不同。It will then be possible, with reasonable confidence,to pay REDD money out only to those countries that deliver the goods—or, rather, the trees—in sufficient, measurable quantities.我们将有充分理由相信REDD计划拨出的资金可能只会流向那些能够提供货真价实,或更确切的说,树木充足且数量可测量的国家。 /201304/235162When we remember something, the neurons in our brains communicate with each other in a particular way.我们在记忆一些事情的时候,大脑里的神经元会以一种特殊的方式进行交流。The chemical and sometimes even structural changes that occur create a pathway called a memory trace.这种化学物质的结构时而发生变化产生一种叫“记忆痕迹”的路径。Signals traveling along these traces are what allow us to remember things.信号通过这些路径传输,这样我们就可以记住事情了。When the chemical changes first occur, they create short term memory, or things we remember for only a brief time.化学物质最初发生变化时,就制造出短期记忆或是一些我们只能记很短时间的事情。But short-term memory can become long term memory if the memory trace is activated enough so that it creates a long-term pathway in the brain.如果记忆痕迹足够活跃在大脑里制造出一条长期路径的话,短期记忆可以变成长期。This process is called consolidation.这个过程叫加强。When something interrupts the memory-storage process–like a hard knock to the head–newly formed memories arent stored for the long run and you cant remember things that just happened.当记忆储存的过程被打断—就像头被狠狠的敲击。新形成的记忆就不会持续很久,所以就不能记住刚刚发生的事情。This is called anterogradeamnesia.这叫作顺行性遗忘症。Retrograde amnesia which is when you cant recall things from your long term memory either.逆行性遗忘症是不记得以前发生的事。Luckily, in many cases of amnesia memory eventually returns, although the incident that causedamnesia is often never recalled.幸运的是,在许多健忘症的案例中,大多数最终都会恢复记忆。虽然引起失忆的原因也通常不记得。201406/305372永泰县孕检要多少钱

福州割包皮医院排名Finance and Economics;Short-selling litigation;An enlightening mistake;财经;卖空交易诉讼;一个给人启发的失误;Defence lawyers reveal more than they meant to in a closely watched legal case;在一个备受关注的法律官司中,辩方律师所公开的消息比原本打算的更多;A rare slip-up by lawyers has helped shed some light on a high-profile legal battle, the details of which some of the largest Wall Street firms have been fighting to keep under wraps. The case concerns allegations of illegal “naked” short selling, where the rules have been tightened several times over the past seven years.由律师造成的一个罕见疏漏帮助(人们)对一起备受瞩目的法律官司有所了解,华尔街的企业巨头们想方设法让当中一些细节得以保密。该案针对的指控是非法的裸卖空,涉及的法规在过去7年已被一次次收紧。In 2007 Overstock sued 11 brokers, alleging that they had caused its share price to fall by helping their clients to naked-short the Utah-based retailer. In a normal short sale, shares are borrowed (or at least “located”) with a broker’s help before being sold. In the naked version, there is no attempt to borrow or locate the stock. This can create “fails to deliver”, where the trade is not settled when it should be, and messes with the laws of supply and demand, allowing shorting to take place beyond the natural limits set by the number of borrowable shares.2007年,Overstock公司起诉过11位经纪人,声称他们此前通过帮助客户裸卖空这家位于犹他州的零售商(的股票)而导致该公司股价下跌。在一项普通做空当中,股票先是在经纪人的帮助下被借入(或至少是“标的”)然后再卖掉。在裸卖空中,无须尝试借股或者标的股票。这就能够形成“无法交割”——交易本该完成却不能完成,也扰乱了供给需求规律,突破可借股票数量这一自然限制而允许发生做空。As the pre-trial discovery period proceeded, Overstock narrowed its focus to two firms, Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch, now part of Bank of America. Before the case was set to go to trial in California, however, the judge dismissed it on jurisdictional grounds, ruling that not enough of the alleged wrongdoing had taken place in the state. Overstock appealed and pushed for all of the evidence to be unsealed. The defendants objected. Four media groups, including The Economist, opposed a motion to seal on public-interest grounds. The judge decided that some of the documents should be released but stayed his ruling, pending appeal.随着审前据公开阶段的展开,Overstock把焦点锁定在两家公司上:高盛和美林,后者现在已经成为美洲一部分。然而,在案件即将在加州进入审判阶段前,法官基于司法权的理由不予受理,裁定在该州发生的所谓违法行为(据)不足。Overstock提起上诉并力争公开所有据。被告方反对。包括经济学人在内的四家传媒集团反对以公共利益为由而封存据的动议。法官判定部分档案应当被公布,但维持原判,中止诉讼程序。That was how things stood until May 11th, when the defendants’ lawyers served the other parties in the case with their opposition to a plaintiff’s motion. Inadvertently included in this was an unredacted version of an earlier filing by Overstock containing excerpts of e-mails from Goldman and Merrill employees.(之前的)事情就是那样,直到5月11日被告方律师对原告的一项动议表示反对时却在该案上成全了对方。无意间把Overstock公司前期未修改的版本包含在当中,其中包括高盛和美林员工的电子邮件节选。In these they discuss deliberately failing to settle client trades. One Merrill executive suggests the firm “might want to consider allowing…customers to fail,” to which a colleague replies: “We are going to look into that.” Another asks: “How and when can we prevent the delivery [of shares]?” To a question from a large client about efforts at “cleaning up” fails, a Goldman man says that “we will let you fail.” Compliance officers questioned this behaviour, according to the filing. One at Merrill is ed calling it “totally unacceptable—we are failing when we have over a million shares of stock available.”在这些(邮件)当中他们慎重讨论了客户交易无法完成一事。一位美林高层建议公司“也许想要考虑让客户(交易)失败,”一位同事则回复到:“我们将对此进行研究。”另一位问道:“我们能够何时、用怎样的方式防止股票交割?”针对一个由大客户提出的关于努力澄清(交易)失败的问题,一位高盛员工说道“我们将会让你(的股票交割)失败。”文件显示,合规性监察官员质疑这一行为。一位美林(监察员)被引述曾称此事 “绝对无法接受——我们手上有超过一百万股股票,但却不予交割。”The e-mails also suggest close commercial links between the two firms and at least one trading outfit that was a target of regulatory probes into shorting violations, SBA Trading. A Merrill employee forwards a sanctions order against SBA’s Scott Arenstein to a counterpart at Goldman, referring to Mr Arenstein as “our boy” and asking: “You think there will be any fallout on clearing firms?” In another e-mail, the deputy head of Goldman’s securities-lending group describes Mr Arenstein as being “the other side of a lot of our activity.”电子邮件中同样暗示了存在于两家公司之间紧密的商业联系,以及至少一家受法规限制的交易机构——SBA交易正在探索违规卖空。一位美林员工向高盛的同行发出了对SBA的Scott Arenstein的批准命令,提及Arenstein先生是“我们的人”并质问“你以为清算公司还会有任何附带后果吗?”在另一封电子邮件中,高盛的券借贷部副总把Arenstein先生描述为是“我们许多业务的对应方。”Other missives suggest a cavalier attitude to the rules. The president of one of Merrill’s stock-clearing businesses responds to internal concerns about failed trades thus: “Fuck the compliance area—procedures, schmecedures.” He later assured the court that this statement was a joke, according to the filing.其他信件则暗示了对法规的轻慢态度。美林公司一项股票清算业务的主席这样回应了关于交易失败的内部关注:“去他妈的合规性部分——方案、程序。”文件显示,他后来向法院保说这句话是在开玩笑。Goldman and Merrill deny that they participated in unlawful naked shorting. Their supporters argue that the legal action brought by Overstock is a crude tactic by its mercurial boss, Patrick Byrne, to divert attention from its long history of underperformance. Some question the link between failed trades and naked shorting.高盛和美林否认他们参与了非法的裸卖空。他们的持者辩护说这起由Overstock挑起的官司是该公司狡猾多端的老板Patrick Byrne的一个粗糙战术,旨在将注意力从该公司长期的欠佳表现转移开来。一些人质疑在交易失败与裸卖空之间的联系。Nevertheless, the release of the e-mail excerpts will have done the brokers no favours. They suggest that trades were being intentionally failed; that some of the firms’ internal policemen were unhappy with the explanations they received for the proliferation of fails; and that at least one executive had an unusual attitude towards compliance. The e-mails are just a small part of the material unearthed during the four-year discovery process. If the court of appeal unstays the partial unsealing order, there will be much more to pore over.虽然如此,电子邮件节选内容的曝光对经纪人来说可不是好事。它们表明了交易是被故意搅黄的;一些公司内部监管人员对收到的交易失败扩大化的解释并不满意,而且至少有一位高管对合规性持不同寻常的态度。这些电子邮件只是这四年的据公示阶段中众多被发掘出的材料中的冰山一角。如果上诉法院对有限的开启令不予持,那么将会有更多材料等着细读。 /201304/233901福州市二医院输卵管接通多少钱 German business德国企业DAX maxDAX指数新高A stockmarket milestone reflects optimism for German companies股市里程碑折射出德国企业的乐观心态ECONOMIC growth of 2% this year, as is expected in Germany, is hot stuff only in the context of Europes cool climes. But the DAX index of the countrys biggest listed companies is truly sizzling, closing above 10,000 points for the first time on Monday June 9th, up by 22% on a year ago and nearly treble the low it hit in March . The MDAX, an index of somewhat smaller companies, has performed even better. Share-traders enthusiasm is shared by bosses: the Ifo business-climate index, a widely watched survey of companies, shows an optimism not seen since 2011.德国今年的经济增长达到了预期的2%,这成绩只能在经济低迷的欧洲称得上醒目。不过该国最大的上市公司的DAX指数真可谓炙手可热,在6月9日收盘首次突破10,000点,比去年同比增长22%,几乎是年3月触底点数的三倍。小型公司的指数MDAX表现更为突出。公司经理们也被股东们的热情感染:本月,广受关注的企业调查IFO商业景气指数,显示了2011年以来难得的乐观情绪。What justifies the cheer? Dirk Müller, a trader and commentator, although cautious about the heights share prices are reaching, thinks the prospects for Germanys carmakers are bright. Two of them, BMW and Volkswagen, have been among the top-five performers over the past five years, and the DAXs best performer has been Continental, a car-parts maker.为什么如此乐观?交易员兼员德克?穆勒虽然对目前的高股价持谨慎态度,还是认为汽车制造商的前景一片光明。其中的宝马和大众汽车两家在过去的五年都一直是前五名,而在DAX指数中表现最好的是一家名为“大陆”的汽车零部件生产商。In recent years the run-up in German automotive and engineering firms shares has been driven by booming emerging-market sales. Now, Chinas market is cooling, and the prospects for sales in Russia have been dampened by its confrontation with the West over Ukraine. However, markets closer to home are coming to the rescue: car sales in Europe have increased for eight months in a row. Volkswagen, which sold 4.4% more cars in the first five months of 2014 than in the same period last year, says western Europe is now only second to the Asia-Pacific region in sales growth, a big change from recent years.最近几年,拜新兴市场蓬勃发展的销售所赐,德国汽车和工程公司的股票大幅增长。现在,中国市场正在降温,而俄罗斯和西方在乌克兰问题上的对抗使得该国的销售前景黯淡无光。不过,窝边草成了救命草:连续八个月,欧洲汽车销售量节节攀升。大众汽车在头五个月的销售量比去年同期增长了4.4%。它表示,西欧市场的销售增长目前仅次于亚太地区,这同前几年相比可是大大不同了。Other German businesses may likewise see renewed vigour in domestic, European and rich-world markets, compensating for the weakening outlook elsewhere. Barclays, a bank, thinks that a long-overdue recovery in capital spending by companies in developed economies should help the countrys many makers of industrial equipment and services. As examples, Barclays mentions Siemens, an engineering conglomerate, Infineon, a microchip-maker, and SAP, which makes business software.其他的德国企业可能也同样发觉了重新焕发活力的德国、欧洲和富裕国家市场,从而对于弱化的其他市场有所补偿。巴克莱认为,正如人们期待已久的,发达国家的资本出开始回升给德国的工业设备制造商和务提供商的发展提供了助力。巴克莱提到的例子包括工程集团西门子,微芯片制造商英飞凌,还有商业软件制造商SAP。All three have struck cheerier notes in recent results announcements. Growth in company profits tends to lag GDP growth by a couple of quarters, so Siemens expects the strong first-quarter economic figure to translate into higher sales later this year. SAP sees the packaged-software market in its Europe, Middle East and Africa region growing by more than 5% this year. Infineon expects revenue growth of between 4% and 8% in the current quarter, and thinks rising demand from carmakers and other industrial customers will drive its growth this year.以上三家公司都在最近的业绩公告中有好消息。公司的利润增长通常会落后于GDP增长几个季度,因此西门子预计,第一季度的经济数据势头强劲,将会在今年晚些时候转化为销售额的增长。SAP预计今年其套装软件在欧洲、中东及非洲地区的销量增幅将超过5%。英飞凌预计本季度的收入增长将介于4%和8%之间,并且随着汽车制造商和其他工业客户的需求增长,它的增长也会被相应推动。Although bosses are sounding increasingly happy about the prospects for their businesses, economists are wary. They think the hype on the stockmarket may be excessive. In particular, they worry that the decision on June 5th by the European Central Bank to push interest rates down into uncharted territory risks inflating a bubble—it was surely no coincidence that the DAXs record high came so soon after the ECBs decision.尽管企业经营者们对于商业前景愈来愈欢欣鼓舞,经济学家们却忧心忡忡。他们认为目前股市的炒作可能过度了。他们特别担心欧洲央行在6月5日决定将利率压低到前所未有的程度,这将催生泡沫—之后,DAX指数很快创下历史新高,这绝非巧合。But the industrial bosses see a positive side to the ECBs move: cutting interest rates should tend to weaken the euro, making their exports outside the currency zone more competitive and boosting their value when translated back into euros. Adidas, a sportswear-maker, says that the strengthening euro knocked a 235m dent in its sales last year.不过产业经营者们却看到了欧洲央行举动的积极一面:降息将削弱欧元,增加他们在欧元区外的出口竞争力,并在折算回欧元的时候提高他们的价值。阿迪达斯运动的制造商表示,去年欧元升值导致销售量下降了2.35亿欧元。Furthermore, with interest rates so low, German banks are falling over themselves to tempt customers with loans to buy new kitchens and take dream holidays, while loosening their loan criteria. Although retailers are not yet as cheerful as manufacturers, their spirits will be raised if the German Chambers of Commerce and Industry is correct in foreseeing a strong revival in domestic consumption. Dirk Schlotb?ller, an economist at the chambers of commerce, says geopolitical tensions and overgenerous government spending commitments should still give German businesses reasons for caution; but for now the chambers member firms are telling him that things are looking up.此外,德国借低利率之机,千方百计的吸引客户贷款购买新厨房、或者实现自己的梦想假期,同时还降低了贷款标准。虽然零售商没有像制造商那么欢天喜地,但如果德国工商会对于国内消费将强劲复苏的预言成真,那么这些零售商们也可以大舒一口气了。一位商会的经济学家德克·史洛乐表示,地缘政治紧张以及过分慷慨的政府出承诺,都是德国企业应当谨慎的原因。不过当前商会的成员公司都纷纷告诉他一切都在好转。 /201406/307818南平去哪治疗封闭抗体

福州再通输卵管专业医院Business商业报道Semiconductors半导体Chipping in芯片技术集资A deal to keep Moores law alive一场交易使得尔定律劫后余生THE arrival of a new generation of semiconductors has come a little closer.新一代半导体诞生的日子离我们又近了一些。On July 9th ASML, a Dutch company that dominates the market for the lithographic equipment that etches circuits onto silicon, struck a deal with Intel, the worlds largest chipmaker.7月9号,荷兰公司阿斯麦与全球最大的芯片制造商英特尔签订了一份协议。阿斯麦因拥有光刻设备将电路刻蚀在硅片上的技术而控制着大多数市场。Intel has agreed to pay about 2.5 billion for 15% of ASML.因特尔同意以25亿欧元收购阿斯麦15%的股份。It will provide 829m for ASMLs research-and-development efforts and will buy the resulting tools, due in a few years.Intel将为阿斯麦的研发活动投资8.29亿欧元,并在未来几年购买其研发产品。ASML has also been talking to its two other biggest customers, Samsung and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation. It is willing to sell 25% of itself in all.阿斯麦也正在和其他两个最大的客户三星、台湾积体电路制造股份有限公司进行洽谈商议。阿斯麦愿意出售自身所有股份的25%。Of Intels Ramp;D money, 553m will go on technology to make chips on silicon wafers 450mm in diameter.英特尔公司的研发经费中有5.53亿欧元将用于研发用直径450毫米的硅晶圆制作芯片的技术。Twice as many chips could be cut from these as from todays biggest, which are 300mm across.与目前利用直径最大的300毫米硅晶圆相比,这种技术切割出来的芯片数大一倍。The rest of the cash is for extreme ultraviolet technology, which the industry hopes will push the width of circuits below todays frontier of 20 nanometres.其余的资金将用于远紫外线光刻技术的研发,业内希望这项技术能令电路打破目前20纳米宽的下限。This will enable more circuitry to be packed onto smaller chips—and allow the life of Moores law, which says that the number of transistors on a chip doubles every 18 months or so, to be extended yet again.这将使更小的芯片上能封装更多线路—并使得尔定律的寿命再次得到延长,尔定律即集成电路芯片上所集成的电路的数目,大约每隔18个月就翻一番。With customers taking equity, putting up research money and making advance orders, ASML will be surer of having a market for products that take a lot of time and money to create.因为客户购买其股票、投入更多研发经费以及提前下订,ASML那些需要大量时间和金钱才能制造的产品肯定会有市场。It reckons that EUV will cost it and its suppliers 3.4 billion.阿斯麦估计远紫外线光刻技术的研发将花费公司和公司供应方 34亿欧元。Moving to 450mm will require new machines and the reconfiguration of factories.推动其研发到直径450毫米晶圆需要新机器和工厂的重新配置。A report in 2005 by VLSI, a research firm, estimated that the shift from 200mm to 300mm wafers a decade ago cost the industry .6 billion.2005年,研究公司VLSI发布了一份报告,称十年前,从200mm至300 mm晶圆的转变估计令该行业花掉了116亿美元。Until Intel promised to pay, ASML had been reluctant to press on with 450mm technology.直到英特尔承诺付其经费,阿斯麦才愿意推进450毫米晶圆技术的研发。The development of EUV, in contrast, was likely anyway.相比之下,远紫外线光刻技术的研发势在必行。EUV has been very important, says Richard Windsor of Nomura, an investment bank. Most semiconductor companies consider it critical to taking them beyond 20 nanometres.投资野村券的理查德·温莎称:远紫外线光刻技术一直都非常重要,大多数半导体公司认为,要制造小于20纳米的电路,这项技术是关键。Deals like this weeks should help to get the market going—and cement ASMLs lead in the lithographic race.像这周这样的交易应该会帮助市场得以运转,同时巩固了阿斯麦在半导体光刻工艺技术领域的领先地位。 /201307/248975 福州市博爱医院看不孕收费会不会很贵福州附一医院地址

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