时间:2019年06月27日 16:28:13

In 2010, Bill Gates visited an unremarkable building in an industrial estate on the outskirts of Shenzhen, China. With row after row of high-tech machinery humming inside, the place could easily be mistaken for an anonymous data warehouse.2010年,比尔#8226;盖茨(Bill Gates)参观了中国深圳郊区一个工业区的一栋寻常建筑。里面一排排的高科技机器在嗡嗡作响,这个地方可能很容易被误认为一个无名数据仓库。But Mr Gates and Ray Yip, head of the Gates Foundation’s China operation, saw something else that day. As they toured the BGI headquarters, the two men were stunned by the ambition of the scientists working at the biotech company. Inside, more than 150 state of the art genetic sequencing machines were analysing the equivalent of thousands of human genomes a day.但那天,盖茨和盖茨基金会(Gates Foundation)中国项目主任叶雷(Ray Yip)看到了其他的东西。当他们参观华大基因(BGI)总部时,在这家生物科技公司工作的科学家们的伟大理想让二人震惊不已。在该公司里面,150多台先进基因测序仪正每天对数千个人类基因组进行分析。The company is working towards a goal of building a huge library based on the DNA of many millions of people. BGI executives see this not as the end-game, but as the springboard for new drug discoveries, advanced genetic research and a transformation of public health policy.该公司的目标是基于数百万人的DNA建立一个大规模数据库。华大基因的高管不认为这是终极目标,而是新药开发、高级基因研究和公共健康政策改革的一个跳板。“We were taken aback,” Mr Yip recalls. “We never thought we would find such an out-of-the-box approach. They are in their own league — open and liberal.”“我们吃了一惊,”叶雷回忆道,“我们从没想过我们会发现这么具有创意的方式。他们独树一帜,开放且自由。”Since the initial visit, Gates Foundation staffers have partnered BGI on various genetic research projects, from sequencing the rice genome to collaborating on the cancer genome project. The Gates Foundation has also joined a long list of groups providing funds to BGI — a list that also included Sequoia Capital, the Silicon Valley venture capital firm. “Most people only see them as a service provider for DNA analysis,” says a BGI investor. “It is the database they are building that will make them formidable.”自从初次参观以来,盖茨基金会的工作人员一直与华大基因在各种基因组研究项目上展开合作,从大米基因组测序到癌症基因组项目合作。盖茨基金会还与很多组织一道,向华大基因提供资金,其中还包括硅谷风投企业红杉资本(Sequoia Capital)。“多数人只是将他们视为DNA分析务提供商,”华大基因的一位投资者表示,“实际上,他们正在建立的数据库将让他们变得强大可畏。”BGI’s backers say the company symbolises a new type of Chinese tech company. Chinese companies have long been regarded as copycats — if not outright thieves — when it comes to innovation and intellectual property. Westerners generally discount intellectual property creation in China.华大基因的投资者表示,该公司代表着中国新型科技公司。长期以来,在创新和知识产权方面,中国企业一直被视为抄袭者(如果不是彻头彻尾的偷窃者的话)。西方人普遍看不起中国的知识产权创造。But BGI, along with other companies in Shenzhen, may soon change that image. Many of BGI’s executives have been partly educated abroad and have little respect for the Chinese establishment or the established way of doing things in the country. Its scientists contribute to international journals and regularly file for patents. It partners with reputable institutions in Europe and the US and has a record that international competitors have come to respect.然而,华大基因与深圳其他企业一道,可能会很快改变这种形象。华大基因的很多高管在国外受过教育,不那么畏惧体制或者看重中国的既成经商模式。该公司的科学家为国际杂志撰文,并经常申请专利。该公司与欧美有名望的机构合作,其研究成果也开始得到国际竞争对手的尊重。“We represent a new model of an international Chinese organisation,” says Wang Jun, BGI’s young chief executive, a graduate of Beijing University in artificial intelligence. “China has a legitimate shot to be a lead player on the international stage. Our technology can change the world.”“我们代表着中国新型国际企业,”华大基因年轻的首席执行官王俊表示,“中国有合理机会成为世界舞台上的佼佼者。我们的技术可以改变世界。”王俊毕业于北京大学生命科学系,研究人工智能。The evolution of BGI is not a straightforward story of Chinese ascendancy, or a victory for China’s model of state capitalism. In fact, BGI has an ambivalent relationship with Beijing and represents a challenge to the Chinese model of education and research.华大基因的发展并非一个简单的中国崛起的故事,也不代表着中国国家资本主义模式的成功。实际上,华大基因与北京方面有着矛盾的关系,代表着对中国教育和研究模式的挑战。The company, originally known as the Beijing Genomics Institute, was created under the aegis of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. (It was one of the participants in the Human Genome Project.) But its success recently has come despite Beijing as much as because of it.该公司最初名为北京华大基因研究中心(Beijing Genomics Institute),在中国科学院的持下创建。(该中心是人类基因组计划(Human Genome Project)的参与者之一。)但对于其近来的成功,来自北京的影响有好有坏。“You can be brilliant here but you can be more brilliant in the US,” says one staffer who has lived and worked in the US for extensive periods of time. “It’s harder to be creative in the context of the mindset here.”“在这里,你可能很聪明,但在美国你可能会变得更聪明,”一位曾在美国生活和工作很长时间的员工表示,“在这里的思维环境下,很难有创造力。”That may be an exaggeration, but the structure of China’s education system is seen by many critics as a constraint on innovation. “The system is very incestuous,” says one Beijing-based academic. “It is very political. You have two choices, either to leave China and thrive or to get to the point where you don’t need Beijing’s money.”这可能有些夸大其词,但很多批评者认为中国教育体系的结构会限制创新。“中国体系非常排外,”一位驻北京学者表示,“政治性非常强。你有两个选择,要么离开中国蓬勃发展,要么达到不需要北京的钱的地步。”However, the prominence of BGI holds out the hope that China can attract back the best students who often choose to stay abroad after graduating from top US universities.然而,华大基因的卓越表现给人们带来希望:中国可能会吸引那些在美国一流大学毕业后通常选择继续待在国外的最优秀学生回国。BGI decided to decamp from Beijing in 2007, choosing to set up its headquarters in Shenzhen, just across the border from Hong Kong. “Shenzhen is as far from Beijing as you can get,” says one BGI investor about the move, which he saw as a move by the company to free itself from political constraints. “You can’t be independent in Beijing.”2007年,华大基因决定离开北京,选择在与香港毗邻的深圳设立总部。“深圳距离北京很远,”华大基因一位投资者在谈到总部搬迁时表示,他认为此举是要让该公司脱离政治控制。“在北京,你不可能独立。”Given Shenzhen’s history, this is perhaps not surprising. Shenzhen was designated a “special economic zone” where the first experiments with capitalism took place after Deng Xiaoping began to liberalise the Chinese economy.鉴于深圳的历史,这或许并不令人意外。深圳被列为“经济特区”,在邓小平开始在中国实行改革开放后,这里成为资本主义的首个实验区。Toy companies and running shoe makers built their sprawling factories there, and workers migrated to the new city. Now, many of those factories are shuttered and their operations moved to locations where labour is cheaper, costs lower and pollution is less of a consideration.玩具企业和跑步鞋制造商将大型工厂设在那里,工人也纷纷迁移到这个新城市。如今,这些工厂中很多已关闭,它们的业务则迁到劳动力更便宜、成本更低且对污染问题不那么重视的地区。Today, Shenzhen is the technology incubator for China. Its longer experience of capitalism and its proximity to Hong Kong have contributed to the speed of the city’s transition. It is home to BYD, the Chinese maker of electric vehicles, Huawei Technologies, the telecoms equipment maker, and Tencent, the internet portal. Local government policy played a big role in the transition. Shenzhen provides grants to promising companies and offers them cheap space, creating an ecosystem which extends to Hong Kong. Shenzhen was originally the home of many tech assembly businesses, so it also had a pool of people familiar with the sector who launched start-ups. Wealthy entrepreneurs then spawned a venture capital industry.如今,深圳成为了中国的科技孵化器。深圳时间较长的资本主义经验以及毗邻香港的地理位置,加快了深圳转型的速度。中国电动汽车制造商比亚迪(BYD)、电信设备制造商华为技术(Huawei Technologies)以及互联网门户腾讯(Tencent)的总部都设在这里。地方政府政策也在这种转型中扮演了重要的角色。深圳向具备潜力的企业提供拨款,并为他们提供廉价的办公场所,同时缔造了一个延伸到香港的生态系统。深圳最初是很多科技组装企业的所在地,因此这里也聚集了许多熟悉这个行业的人才,他们开办了很多初创企业。接着,这些富有的企业家又育出风投行业。The city’s stock exchange for smaller, younger businesses — offering a contrast to Shanghai, which prioritised the big state-owned enterprises — allowed venture capitalists to list the companies they invested in, creating a virtuous circle that keeps expanding. Some of the best universities also established outposts in Shenzhen.针对规模较小且较为年轻的企业的深圳交所(与侧重大型国有企业的上海交所形成对比),让风投资本家可以将他们投资的企业上市,创造一个持续发展的良性循环。一些最优秀的大学还在深圳设立了校区。Shenzhen attracts the restless and the ambitious, and the mavericks — among them the founders of BGI. Several dropped out of university, while others never had formal higher education because the cultural revolution interrupted their lives. Few are members of the ruling Communist party.深圳吸引着那些不甘于平淡且雄心勃勃的人,还吸引了那些特立独行的人,其中就包括华大基因的这些创始人。其中有几人在上大学时辍学,还有人没有接受过正规高等教育,因为“文化大革命”扰乱了他们的生活。几乎没有人是党员。“They exiled themselves to be far away from the traditional government and scientific funding establishment,” says one investor. “And they have only been forgiven [by the establishment] because they make China look good.”“他们自我放逐,远离了传统的政府和科研资金体制,”一位投资者表示,“(当局)原谅了他们,仅仅是因为他们让中国面子上有光。”The walls of BGI’s austere building are covered with photos of everything from cloned pigs to Wang Jian, the company’s co-founder, on Mount Everest. Mr Wang spent years abroad, including as a senior research fellow at the University of Washington in Seattle. Another co-founder, Yang Huanming, also studied abroad, receiving his PhD at the University of Copenhagen.在华大基因简单朴素的办公楼里,墙上悬挂着各种照片,从克隆猪到登上珠峰的该公司联合创始人汪建。汪建在国外生活多年,包括在西雅图的华盛顿大学(University of Washington)担任高级研究员。另一位创始人杨焕明也曾在国外留学,他在哥本哈根大学(University of Copenhagen)获得士学位。China has a number of advantages in the field of genomics. DNA sequencing is more about computer power and data mining than it is about breakthroughs in laboratories, investors say. Given its population of 1.35bn people, the potential database in China is larger than anywhere else. The more extensive the database a company has, the stronger the competitive advantage. It is also cheaper to gather and analyse information. Moreover, BGI has about 2,000 members of staff with PhDs, perhaps the largest concentration of any company in China, and they are employed at a fraction of what that assemblage of brains would cost in the US.在基因组领域,中国具备很多优势。投资者表示,DNA测序更多在于电脑计算能力和数据挖掘,而不是实验室突破。鉴于中国拥有13.5亿人口,中国的潜在数据库超过全球任何其他国家。一家公司拥有的数据库越大,其竞争优势也就越大,信息收集和分析的成本也更低。另外,华大基因拥有大约2000名士学位员工,大概是中国企业中最多的,而将这么多人才聚集到一起,华大基因需要付出的薪资只是美国企业的几分之一。Yet there are also potential issues that make outsiders uneasy, especially the lack of strong privacy protection, intellectual property rights and strict protocols regarding clinical trials. But BGI and its backers insist that it complies with best practice in the industry, although some note that the lack of IP protection means that ideas can be implemented more quickly.然而,还有一些潜在的问题让外部人士感到不安,特别是缺乏强大的隐私保护、知识产权以及与临床实验有关的严格协议。但华大基因及其持者坚称,该公司遵循着该行业的最佳惯例,尽管一些人指出,缺乏知识产权保护意味着创意可以更快速地实施。While BGI’s roots are in China, it is seeking to become more international. In 2013, it acquired Complete Genomics, a DNA sequencing company based in Mountain View, California for almost 8m. That deal was consummated in the face of a belated counter offer from Illumina, a rival of Complete Genomics currently worth about bn. It also overcame political opposition, marking the first time a Chinese company successfully acquired a publicly traded US company.尽管华大基因的根基在中国,但该公司正努力变得更国际化。2013年,该公司以近1.18亿美元的价格收购总部位于加州山景城的DNA测序公司Complete Genomics。在Complete Genomics竞争对手Illumina(目前市值为280亿美元左右)迟迟才发出竞购要约后,这笔交易圆满落幕。华大基因还克了政治阻力,成为首家成功收购美国上市公司的中国企业。BGI was the single biggest customer for Illumina, accounting for as much as 40 per cent of its DNA sequencing machine orders, for equipment that cost up to 0,000 apiece. That may change with the purchase of Complete Genomics as BGI plans to introduce a new sequencing machine.华大基因是Illumina最大单一客户,占其DNA测序仪订单的40%,每台设备售价高达50万美元。在收购Complete Genomics后,这可能会发生变化,因为华大基因计划引入新型基因测序仪。Other challenges lie ahead for BGI. It is an unusual company, with one foot in the world of pure research and another seeking to develop commercial applications for its work. Such structures were once more common in the US technology industry, where researchers at Bell Labs and Xerox Parc were given funding and time to pursue ambitious research projects. In recent years, US investors have been less willing to subsidise large research projects that may not pay off.华大基因未来还面临着其他挑战。它是一家不同寻常的公司,一只脚踏入纯研究领域,另一只脚则希望迈入研究成果的商业应用开发。在美国科技行业,这种结构曾经更为常见,贝尔实验室(Bell Labs)和施乐帕克研究中心(Xerox Parc)的研究人员就曾获得资金和时间去展开雄心勃勃的研究项目。最近几年,美国投资者则不那么愿意为那些可能不会盈利的大型研究项目提供补贴。Mr Wang says he understands this tension. “If we are too commercial, we lose sight of the future,” he says. “But if we are only thinking of the future, that isn’t suitable either.” That dual mandate means that it is not easy to set priorities. They must be visionaries and business strategists at the same time, balancing the demands of basic research with more commercial undertakings such as developing diagnostic kits and tests.汪建表示,他理解这种紧张关系。“如果我们过于商业化,我们会看不到未来,”他表示,“但如果我们只考虑未来,也不合适。”这种双重任务意味着,确定哪个优先并不容易。他们必须既有梦想,同时又要成为商业战略家,在基础研究的要求和更多的商业行为之间实现平衡,例如开发诊断设备和测试。 /201502/361299

Uber chief executive Travis Kalanick launched the latest salvo in his company’s battle with for supremacy in China yesterday, insisting that the ride-hailing company could outlast local rival Didi Kuaidi because of its huge balance sheets and more efficient spending practices.优步(Uber)首席执行官特拉维斯愠灓尼克(Travis Kalanick)昨日为该公司在中国的霸主之争发起最新攻势,坚称优步可以比本土对手滴滴快的(Didi Kuaidi)坚持更久,因为优步拥有庞大的资产负债表,而且在出上效率更高。Mr Kalanick accused Didi of being overburdened with lossmaking subsidies to the tune of m-m per week, which would represent about bn over the course of a year. “It’s not how much you spend, it’s how efficiently you spend,” he said, arguing that Uber spent less on driver subsidies per ride than Didi because of a more efficient structure.卡兰尼克声称滴滴亏损负担过重,每周需要补贴7000万至8000万美元,这样下去一年就是大约40亿美元。他说:“关键不在于你花了多少钱,而是你花钱的效率。”他表示优步在每一单上给司机的补贴少于滴滴,因为优步的结构效率更高。Didi rejected Mr Kalanick’s figures, saying that Uber “is being wildly creative about our numbers”, insisting that it was more efficient than its US competitor because it had more riders and drivers.滴滴否认了卡兰尼克提出的数据,表示优步“对我们的补贴数字拥有疯狂的创造力”,并坚称自己比美国对手更高效,因为滴滴拥有更多乘客和司机。“Didi holds over 80 per cent of the market, which means our competitor has to bleed subsidies to make up for inadequate numbers of riders and drivers,” the Chinese group said.这家中国集团表示:“滴滴拥有80%的市场,这意味着我们的竞争对手必须在补贴上投入巨大,以弥补乘客和司机数量的不足。”Mr Kalanick’s broadside is the latest in a long-running feud between the two companies, which have been bitter competitors since Didi was created out of a merger of China’s two largest ride-hailing apps last February.卡兰尼克此番猛烈抨击再一次显示了两家公司的长期争斗,自从去年2月中国两大打车应用合并成滴滴快的后,与优步的竞争变得更为激烈。Investors continue to plough money into taxi-app companies. Uber China, which operates as a separate entity, was valued at bn last September before it raised a further .2bn.投资者继续对打车应用公司投入资金。优步中国(Uber China)作为一个独立运营实体,去年9月估值达70亿美元,随后又融资12亿美元。Didi said that it was worth more than bn after its most recent funding round.滴滴表示最近一轮融资结束后,滴滴估值已超过160亿美元。Neither Uber nor Didi disclosed how much they spent subsidising drivers and riders. But both companies have invested about bn in the past year in China, much of which has been for that purpose.无论优步还是滴滴都没有透露它们对司机和乘客的具体补贴数字。但两家公司过去一年在中国投入了大约10亿美元,其中很大一部分作此用途。Mr Kalanick, who was in Beijing to sign a partnership with travel and logistics provider HNA Group, which owns Hainan Airlines, said that Uber would invest more in China.卡兰尼克昨日在北京与旅游和物流供应商海航集团(HNA Group)签订了合作协议,他表示优步将对中国加大投资。海航集团旗下拥有海南航空(Hainan Airlines)。“We have lots of cities around the world that are profitable and look forward to investing those profits in China,” he said.他说:“我们在全球许多城市都是盈利的,现在我们正期待将这些利润投入到中国。” /201601/422702

SINGAPORE — Savir Singh’s taxi rolled into downtown Singapore, taking an overpass that provides a stunning view of the popular hotels and tourist attractions around Marina Bay.新加坡——萨维尔·辛格(Savir Singh)的出租车驶进新加坡市中心,开上了一座立交桥。那里景色壮丽,人们可以将滨海湾周边的热门酒店和旅游景点一览眼底。The only problem was that he could barely see them. Thick haze from forest fires set in neighboring Indonesia to clear land for agriculture has blanketed this island state for weeks, and has sp to Malaysia and southern Thailand.唯一的问题是,他几乎看不到那些美景。数周来,邻国印度尼西亚烧林垦荒造成的浓重烟雾笼罩着这个岛国,并已向马来西亚和泰国南部扩散。While many Singaporeans have sought refuge from the pollution in their homes, offices or shopping malls, Mr. Singh’s only haven is his mobile workplace, and a small bottle of eyedrops lying near his armrest.为了躲避污染,很多新加坡人待在家、办公室或商场里,但对辛格来说,出租车这个移动工作场所,和车座扶手旁边放着的一瓶滴眼液,是他仅有的庇护。“Look at this,” he said, pointing to the partly obscured Singapore Flyer, a 540-foot-tall Ferris wheel. “I wish they had haze in Jakarta. Then the government there would do something about it.”“你看看,”他指着有些模糊的新加坡天观景轮(Singapore Flyer)说。“我希望雅加达也有雾霾。这样那里的政府就会采取点行动了。”新加坡天观景轮是一座高540英尺(约合165米)的天轮。Mr. Singh’s anger is part and parcel of a near-annual ritual: Fires set in Sumatra and the Indonesian side of Borneo blanket parts of Southeast Asia with smoke for weeks. While this has been going on for decades, an especially long dry season this year coupled with the effects of El Ni漀, threaten to make it the worst on record, scientists say.辛格的愤怒是一项几近年度仪式中必不可少的一部分:苏门答腊岛和婆罗洲印尼一侧点燃的大火,让东南亚部分地区数周都处在浓烟的笼罩下。这种情况已经持续了数十年,但科学家称,今年的干季特别漫长,再加上厄尔尼诺现象的影响,可能会造成有记载以来最恶劣的后果。Around the region, flights have been grounded, schools have been closed, and tens of thousands of people have sought medical treatment for respiratory problems, allergies, eczema and other ailments. The first night of an international sports competition, the FINA Swimming World Cup, set for last Saturday and hosted by Singapore, was canceled because of health concerns — as was a marathon in Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysia capital, set to be run the next morning.在该地区各地,航班停飞,学校停课,数万人因呼吸疾病、过敏、湿疹和其他病症而求医。出于健康方面的考虑,由新加坡主办、定于上周六举行的国际性体育赛事国际泳联世界杯短池游泳赛(FINA Swimming World Cup)第一天晚上的活动被取消。此外,定于第二天早上在马来西亚首都吉隆坡举行的一场马拉松比赛也被取消。This year, there have been more vocal complaints from people affected in Singapore, Malaysia and even in Indonesia. There has also been high-profile sniping among government leaders, along with lawsuits, investigations and arrests of accused fire-starters — a familiar replay from 2013, when the region suffered its last major bout of haze.今年,在新加坡、马来西亚乃至印度尼西亚,受到影响的人们表示了更强烈的不满。政府领导人也进行了高调的抨击,此外还出现了诉讼、调查和被控点火的人遭到逮捕的情况。这一幕很眼熟,实际上是2013年,也就是该地区上一次深受浓烟之苦时的情景再现。After the skies cleared in 2013, the issue was once again forgotten — until last month, when the crisis erupted anew.在2013年,碧空重现后,这个问题就被抛之脑后,直到上个月危机再次爆发。The consensus this year is the same as it was then: The slash-and-burn techniques used in Indonesia’s palm oil industry are continuing unabated, and there is no magic bullet for ending the practice — or the haze it causes — in the short term.人们今年所持的一致看法和那时一样:印尼棕榈油行业使用的刀耕火种做法保持不减,且短期没有灵丹妙药能结束这种做法,及其带来的浓烟。Finding the long-term solution requires reducing agriculture in Indonesia’s carbon-rich peatland, curtailing slash-and-burn methods for clearing land and halting the conversions of forests to agricultural uses including palm oil, said Peter Holmgren, director general of the Center for International Forestry Research, a global scientific organization with its headquarters in Bogor, Indonesia.总部位于印尼茂物的全球性科学组织国际林业研究中心(Center for International Forestry Research)总干事彼得·霍姆格伦(Peter Holmgren)表示,找到长期解决办法需要减少印尼在碳含量丰富的泥炭地的农业种植、限制砍烧这种开荒方式,并停止把林地变成农业用地和生产棕榈油的土地。“Fire is the most cost-effective way of clearing, which is why it is done,” he said.“放火烧是最省钱的开荒方式,这就是个中缘由,”他说。Finding a permanent solution is daunting enough, but more than a month into the crisis, it seems that the region cannot curb the haze in the short term. Indonesia says that its military personnel are battling more than 1,000 forest-fire clusters, while Greenpeace says that figure does not include fires that started aboveground on peatland and are now burning out of control.找到永久性的解决办法是很难,但危机已出现一月有余,而该地区似乎无法在短期内控制烟雾。印尼称,该国军事人员正在1000多个林火现场奋战,但绿色和平(Greenpeace)表示,这个数字未包括泥炭地上燃烧起来的,以及眼下火势失控的大火。Up until Wednesday, Indonesia had rebuffed offers by neighbors to help it battle the blazes and had even admonished Singaporean and Malaysian leaders for daring to complain about the haze.在周三之前,印度尼西亚都还在断然回绝邻国协助灭火的提议,甚至还斥责新加坡和马来西亚领导人竟敢抱怨浓烟。On Thursday, President Joko Widodo of Indonesia said his government had requested “help and assistance” the day before from Singapore and Malaysia, as well as Russia and Japan, in getting the peatland fires under control, according to a statement released by his cabinet secretariat.不过,印尼总统佐科·威多多(Joko Widodo)的内阁秘书处已经发表声明,说总统周四表示,他领导的政府已于前一天请求新加坡和马来西亚,以及俄罗斯和日本,在控制泥炭地上的火势上提供“帮助和援”。Mr. Joko said his government had specifically requested firefighting aircraft with a water-carrying capacity of 12 to 15 tons, saying that Indonesian planes currently fighting the blazes have carrying capacities of between two and three tons.佐科表示,以他为首的政府明确请求获得载水量在12到15吨之间的消防飞机的援,称眼下参与灭火的印尼飞机的承载能力只有两到三吨。The aid request seemed to reflect a new seriousness from the Indonesian government.求援似乎反映出印尼政府对此事的重新重视。Late last month, the country’s outspoken vice president, Jusuf Kalla, repeated a statement he made earlier in the year in which he said that neighboring countries “should be grateful” to Indonesia for the clean air they have the other 11 months of the year.上月末,该国说话并不婉转的副总统优素福·卡拉(Jusuf Kalla)重复了他今年早些时候的言论,声称对一年中其他11个月的好天气,邻国“应该感谢”印度尼西亚。During the 2013 haze crisis, Agung Laksono, a senior Indonesian cabinet minister at the time, compared Singaporean leaders to a child having a temper tantrum after they complained about the impact that thick haze was having on tourism, which is a major contributor to Singapore’s economy.2013年烟雾危机期间,在新加坡领导人抱怨浓烟影响了新加坡重要的经济柱旅游业后,当时担任印尼内阁高级部长的阿贡·拉克索诺(Agung Laksono)把他们比作乱发脾气的小孩。“It’s like a blame game,” said Bustar Maitar, global leader of the Indonesia Forest Campaign at Greenpeace.“像是在互相推卸责任,”绿色和平印度尼西亚森林项目(Indonesia Forest Campaign)全球负责人布斯塔尔·迈塔尔(Bustar Maitar)说。“Of course all the fires are coming from Indonesia, but Singapore is enjoying the ‘deforestation economy’ of Indonesia as a financial center,” he said, “and there are many Malaysian palm oil companies operating in Indonesia, and Singaporean companies are there as well.”“当然,所有的大火都来自印尼,但作为金融中心的新加坡也享受着印尼的‘毁林经济’带来的好处,”他说。“而且马来西亚的很多棕榈油公司在印尼有业务,新加坡的公司也是。”Ultimately, Mr. Maitar said, the cycle will continue until rain forest deforestation is severely curtailed in Indonesia, where it remains rampant, and the Indonesian government bans the draining and clearing of peatland for agricultural use. Currently, Indonesian government policy allows peatland of less than about nine feet deep to be cleared.迈塔尔表示,最终这个循环会继续下去,直到印尼依然很普遍的雨林砍伐现象受到严厉限制,并且印尼政府禁止把泥炭地的水排干开荒以用于农业。目前,印尼政府的政策允许开垦不足九英尺深的泥炭地。“That’s the only long-term way to stop haze,” he said.“这是唯一一个阻止烟雾的长久之计,”他说。Then there is the issue of who is responsible for the fires. As in 2013, this time around, there has been ample finger-pointing: Multinational palm oil companies, pulp and paper companies, the smaller plantations that sell to them, traditional farmers and even day laborers have all been blamed for starting the fires — and they in turn have blamed one another.然后就是谁该为大火负责的问题。和2013年一样,这一次也出现了大量的相互指责:跨国棕榈油公司、纸浆和纸业公司、为它们供货的小种植园、传统务农者乃至零工都被指是大火的始作俑者,而它们之间又相互指责。On Wednesday, NTUC FairPrice, Singapore’s largest supermarket chain, released a statement saying it had pulled from its shelves toilet paper and other products sourced from Indonesia’s Asia Pulp amp; Paper, one of the world’s largest pulp and paper companies.周三,新加坡最大的连锁超市职总平价超市(NTUC FairPrice)发布了一则声明,声称已将从印尼的亚洲浆纸业有限公司(Asia Pulp amp; Paper,又称金光纸业,简称APP)采购的厕纸等产品下架。后者是全世界最大的浆纸业公司之一。The supermarket said it had made the move “following notification from the Singapore Environment Council that it has instituted a temporary restriction on the use of the ‘Singapore Green Label’ certification for A.P.P. products,” the statement said.超市在声明中称,做出此举是“遵循新加坡环境理事会(Singapore Environment Council)的通知行事。其中表示,该机构开始实行一项临时规定,禁止对APP的产品进行‘新加坡绿色标志’认”。On Monday, the council had released a statement saying that it took action after an Asia Pulp amp; Paper subsidiary was “one of five companies named by the National Environment Agency (NEA) suspected to be contributing to the haze pollution.”周一,理事会曾发表声明称,APP的一家子公司“被新加坡国家环境局(National Environment Agency,简称NEA)列为涉嫌制造烟雾污染的五家公司之一”后,促使它采取了行动。Aida Greenbury, managing director of sustainability for Asia Pulp amp; Paper, said in a statement on Thursday that the company was “firmly against” the intentional setting of forest fires and would disengage from any supplier proven guilty of illegally starting one.APP负责可持续发展的执行董事艾达·格林伯里(Aida Greenbury)在周四发表的声明中称,公司“坚决反对”故意放火烧林,并将与一切明犯有非法纵火罪行的供应商解除关系。“We understand why FairPrice feels the need to take urgent action and we feel the same urgency also in addressing this haze issue, but accuracy is just as important,” she said. “The fire situation is complex, and both the Singapore and Indonesia governments, and authorities are still investigating the situation.”“我们理解职总平价超市为什么觉得有必要采取紧急行动,我们也感觉到了应对这一烟雾问题的紧迫性,但准确也同样重要,”她说。“火情复杂,新加坡和印尼政府及权威机构仍在调查情况。”Ang Peng Hwa, a university professor and founder of an antihaze activist group in Singapore, is promoting an American model for dealing with environmental negligence: suing those responsible, using a law passed by the Singaporean Parliament in 2014.在新加坡创立了一个反烟雾活动团体的大学教授汪炳华(Ang Peng Hwa)正在倡导美国处理环境疏忽的模式:用新加坡议会2014年通过的一项法律起诉责任人。Mr. Ang noted that under the Transboundary Haze Pollution Act, Singapore-listed companies involved in illegal land clearance in Indonesia can be sued in civil court for causing financial losses to businesses and individuals.汪炳华指出,按照《跨境阴霾污染法令》(Transboundary Haze Pollution Act)的规定,与印尼非法垦荒活动有牵连的新加坡上市公司,可以因为给企业和个人造成经济损失而被告上民事法庭。People have been coming forward to say that they have lost business because of the haze, Mr. Ang said. The prospective plaintiffs include a sporting events company and a sports training academy, though no lawsuits have yet been filed under the new law.汪炳华称,人们纷纷站出来说,因为烟雾,生意受到了影响。可能的原告包括一家体育赛事公司和一家体育训练学校,不过尚未有人依据这部新通过的法律提起诉讼。Possible injured parties include upscale hotels that suffer canceled bookings during haze periods and the organizers of the annual F1 Singapore Grand Prix. The F1 race was held on Sept. 20 despite concerns about air quality.可能的受害方包括高档酒店和每年一届的F1新加坡大奖赛的组织方。烟雾出现期间,酒店遭遇了预定取消的现象。9月20日,尽管有人担心空气质量,但F1大奖赛仍照旧举行。The problem, Mr. Ang said, is that it is very difficult to determine liability because “there are layers that protect ultimate owners of companies.”汪炳华称,问题是很难界定责任,因为“有一层又一层的外壳保护公司的最终所有人”。Yet, he said, the fact that some people have aly come forward asking about financial compensation for haze through Singapore’s courts leads to an inescapable conclusion that should concern governments around the region. “People are getting more angry, more worked up.”但他表示,一些人已经站出来,询问通过新加坡的法院获得经济赔偿的可能,而这一现象会引出一个必然的结论,当令该地区的各国政府警醒。“民众正变得愈发愤怒和激动。”Whether that anger will lead to more lasting change is yet to be seen. Mr. Ang is not optimistic. “They burn for a period, everyone gets upset, and then people forget,” he said of the fires.这种愤怒是否会带来更持久的变化还有待观察。不过汪炳华对结果并不乐观。“大火烧一段时间,于是群情激奋,过后又都忘了,”他说。 /201510/402722

Amazon’s proposed delivery service hit some significant turbulence Sunday with proposed new rules for drone operation from the Federal Aviation Administration and Department of Transportation.近日,亚马逊的快递务计划遇到了重大障碍,原因是美国联邦航空(FAA)和美国交通部就无人机运营提出了新的规定。If passed as initially outlined, the guidelines could prevent the company from launching the service in the U.S.如果两部门的草案被完整通过,亚马逊在美国推出无人机快递业务的计划可能受阻。Under the draft of the regulations, drone operators must remain within a visual line of site from their drones and are not allowed to fly drones over people who aren’t in control of the aircraft. The rules are bad news for Prime Air, which Amazon had previously showcased using autonomous drones that were not manually operated by staffers.这项草案规定,无人机操作者必须让无人机一直保持在自己的视线之内,而且不能让机器飞越对其没有控制力的人。对亚马逊的Prime Air快递系统来说,这些规定是个坏消息。在之前的演示中,Prime Air无人机为全自动飞行,无需人工操作。Amazon, though, said it is still committed to delivering packages to customers via drones, and called on the government agency to rethink its proposal and how it might impact corporations.不过,亚马逊表示仍打算用无人机给客户送货,并要求政府部门重新考虑上述草案,以及它可能对企业产生什么样的影响。“The FAA needs to begin and expeditiously complete the formal process to address the needs of our business, and ultimately our customers,” said Paul Misener, Amazon’s vice president for global policy, in a statement. “We are committed to realizing our vision for Prime Air and are prepared to deploy where we have the regulatory support we need.”亚马逊全球公共政策副总裁保罗o米塞纳在一份声明中表示:“FAA需要启动并迅速完成相应的官方程序,以解决我们的业务需求,进而满足我们客户的需要。我们仍致力于实现Prime Air这一愿景,并准备在获得监管持的地区部署该系统。”The rules also limit the weight of an unmanned aircraft to under 55 lbs. Amazon had previously said the initial weight capacity of its drones would belimited to 5 lbs.上述规定还将无人机的重量限制在55磅(24.97公斤)以下。亚马逊此前曾表示,该公司无人机的最大运载能力初步将定为5磅(2.27公斤)。The FAA released the proposal for rules regarding drones on Sunday. The agency stressed that the proposals are not final, and that it is seeking input from all interested parties.FAA于近期公布了上述无人机监管草案。该部门强调,这并非最终规定,而且它正在向相关各方征询意见。“We have tried to be flexible in writing these rules,”said FAA Administrator Michael Huerta in a statement. “We want to maintain today’s outstanding level of aviation safety without placing an undue regulatory burden on an emerging industry.”FAA局长迈克尔o许尔塔发表声明称:“我们一直在设法制定灵活的规定。我们希望像现在一样保持出色的航空安全水平,同时避免给一个新兴行业带来不必要的监管负担。”The FAA is accepting public comments on the proposed regulation for the next 60 days. Among the areas it specifically mentioned as being up for discussion: whether the rules should permit operations beyond line of sight, and if so, how far operators would be able to fly drones.FAA将在60天内听取公众对上述规定的意见。它特别提到了一些可供探讨的内容,其中包括是否应该允许无人机脱离操作者的视线,以及如果允许的话,操作者可操作无人机飞多远。Amazon had previously hoped to launch Prime Air in 2015, although that date was always dependent on regulatory approval, and even Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos called it “optimistic.” Now the language on the service’s page is much more ambiguous, saying “Putting Prime Air into service will take some time, but we will deploy when we have the regulatory support needed to realize our vision.”亚马逊此前希望在2015年推出Prime Air系统,只是具体时间必然要取决于监管审批;该公司首席执行官杰夫o贝佐斯甚至说这是“乐观”预期。现在,亚马逊网站对这项业务的介绍要比以前有魄力得多,它说“让Prime Air系统投入运作需要一些时间,但只要获得所需的监管持,我们就会将其付诸实施,从而让我们的愿景成为现实。”Amazon initially unveiled Prime Air and its drone delivery ambitions in 2013 as part of a broader effort to further speed up deliveries. In announcing the program, Bezos said the drones could deliver packages within a 10 mile radius of the company’s fulfillment centers within 30 minutes.亚马逊最初于2013年披露了Prime Air系统以及用无人机送快递的远大目标,这是该公司采取广泛措施来进一步提高快递速度的举措之一。贝佐斯在介绍这个项目时说,无人机可以在30分钟内将包裹从亚马逊的运营中心送到10英里(约16公里)远的地方。Amazon is not the only company looking to drones as possible delivery systems. Google GOOG 1.12% , Domino’s Pizza and Alibaba BABA 2.24% have also been conducting trials.把无人机视为潜在快递工具的公司并非亚马逊一家。谷歌、达美乐比萨和阿里巴巴也都一直在就此进行测试。 /201502/361273

India launches its biggest ever rocket:Capsule onboard the mighty GSLV Mk-III could one day carry astronauts into space.印度升空其最大型的火箭:GSLVMk-III火箭上的太空舱有朝一日或许会携带宇航员进入太空。India successfully launched its biggest ever rocket today in an effort to ramp up its ambitious space programme.印度发射了其最大型的火箭以进行其雄心勃勃的太空计划。The rocket, designed to carry heavier communication and other satellites into higher orbit, blasted off from Sriharikota in the southeast state of Andhra Pradesh.这种火箭在设计上是用来携带重型通信和其他卫星进入更高轨道的,在东南部安德拉邦的斯里赫里戈达岛发射升空。The launch was the next crucial step inIndia#39;s space programme history, after the nation successfully put a satelliteinto orbit around Mars in September.这次发射在印度空间项目历史上是关键的另一步,而在九月份印度成功将一颗卫星送到火星周围的轨道上。#39;This was a very significant day in the history of (the) Indian space programme,#39; Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chairman K.SRadhakrishnan said from mission control.“这在印度空间项目历史上,这是具有重要意义的一天,”印度空间研究组织主席如是说。ISRO scientists have been riding high since an Indian spacecraft successfully reached Mars on a shoe-string budget, winning Asia#39;s race to the red planet.在预算不多的情况下,印度成功的将一颗卫星送到火星,是亚洲首个抵达火星的国家,这让印度空间研究组织的科学家们情绪高涨。Although India has successfully launched lighter satellites in recent years, it has struggled to match the heavier loads sent up by other countries.虽然印度最近几年也成功发射了一些轻型卫星,但是在火箭运载量上却无法和其他国家抗衡。The new rocket, weighing 630 tonnes and capable of carrying 4 tonnes, is a boost for India#39;s attempts to grab a greaterslice of the #163;190 billion (0 billion) global space market.而这种新型的火箭重达630吨,能携带4吨重的物体,这将让印度在价值达3000亿美元的全球太空市场中获得更大的一杯羹。 /201412/350297

There are a lot of next big things in the television industry. In 2010, it was 3D, which promptly flopped.电视行业曾经推广过许多所谓的“下一代重磅产品”。2010年,3D电视被吹得天花乱坠,然而很快就失败了。Two years later, the talk began to focus on 4K/ Ultra High Definition (UHD) sets – and it quickly began to look like history was about to repeat itself.两年后,各大电视厂商又开始集中推广4K电视,也就是超高清电视,但种种情势似乎昭示着历史将很快重演。But a funny thing happened in 2014. 4K/UHD began to carve a foothold. And now experts say the technology may, in fact, live up to the hype.但2014年出现了一个有趣的转折。4K电视开始站稳脚跟。专家们现在表示,这项技术也许将不负众望。“4K is the emerging standard for TVs,” says Paul O’Donovan, principal analyst of consumer electronics at Gartner. “I think it will take some years for the annual number of 4K TVs manufactured to outnumber the total of full HD models, but I would expect that to happen within the next 7 to 10 years.”高德纳研究公司消费电子产品首席分析师保罗o奥多诺万表示:“4K是电视的新兴标准。我认为4K电视的年产量还需要过几年才能超过全高清电视,但我预计这个期限不会超过7到10年。”SandlerResearch agrees, estimating 4K sets will have an annual growth rate of 106.84 percent through 2018.研究公司SandlerResearch赞同这一观点,该公司预计,到2018年底,4K电视市场的年均增长率将达到106.84%。Bill Lee, vice president of television product marketing at Samsung, says the television industry shipped 800,000 4K/UHD sets last year – and Samsung expects to see a four-fold increase to that number in 2015.三星公司电视产品营销事务副总裁比尔o李表示,4K电视去年的出货量为80万台,三星预计这一数值将在2015年翻两番。The sets, which boast four times the visual resolution of today’s high definition sets, certainly boast an incredible image. The problem up until now, though, was the high cost (with a whopping ,851 price point in 2012) and the lack of 4K content for people willing to spend that amount.4K电视的视觉分辨率是高清电视的4倍,可以营造不可思议的画面效果。然而,迄今为止的问题在于高昂的价格(2012年,4K电视的均价高达7,851美元),而对于那些愿意花钱购买的消费者来说,4K节目的缺乏也是一个严重问题。Both of those problems began to resolve themselves last year. And the trend looks to continue in 2015.但这些问题从去年开始逐渐得到解决。而且在2015年,这种趋势似乎仍会继续。Viziolaunched its P-series of 4K sets in September for under ,000, bringing the sets much closer to the flat-panel average of 0. Competitors quickly cut the prices of their own sets– and at this year’s CES, many manufacturers are expected to introduce lower-cost versions of their own 4K sets alongside their new premium models.去年9月,Vizio公司推出了售价不到1000美元的P系列4K电视,大大拉近了这种产品与平板电视的价格差异,后者的平均售价为450美元。竞争对手也迅速降低了各自产品的价格。在今年的CES消费电子展上,许多电视机厂商在推出新型高档4K电视的同时,预计也将推出低价版本的4K电视。Meanwhile, Netflix NFLX -1.71% and Amazon AMZN -2.28% began streaming 4K content to customers, with Netflix offering ultra high definition versions of hits like “House of Cards” and “Breaking Bad” and Amazon adding 4K streaming to its Amazon Instant Video service, including films like “Godzilla” and “American Hustle.”与此同时,Netflix和亚马逊开始为顾客提供4K节目,Netflix正在推出《纸牌屋》和《绝命毒师》等热门电视剧的超高清版本,而亚马逊则在即时视频务中加入了《哥斯拉》和《美国骗局》等电影的4K版本。Comcast, meanwhile, has partnered with SamsungSSNLF 13.64% to delivery 4K content to its sets – and plans to expand the offering to all 4K sets in the coming months.与此同时,康卡斯特公司已经与三星达成合作协议,开始为三星电视提供4K节目。在接下来几个月中,该公司还计划向所有4K电视提供内容务。The increasing success of 4K/UHD sets may be tied, ironically, to a device that’s better known for drawing people’s attentions away from their TVs – the smartphone.颇具讽刺意味的是,4K电视的持续成功也许取决于智能手机的发展。要知道,智能手机就是那个让人们的注意力不断离开电视的小设备。“Mobile phone cameras have higher resolution capability than … full HD TVs,” says O’Donovan. “Nobody would go out today and by a 2 megapixel camera, yet that is the highest resolution available in current full HD TVs. It’s like when we moved from standard definition TVs to HD TVs, lots of folks said ‘who needs HD?’ Well we wouldn’t go back to SD now, and so we will move on from HD to UHD, because it is a natural progression if only to keep up with the resolution of cameras in our phones.”奥多诺万表示:“手机摄像头拥有比全高清电视更高的分辨率。现在没有人愿意出去购买一部200万像素的照相机,但这恰恰是全高清电视目前具备的最高分辨率。当我们从标清电视升级到高清电视时,许多人说‘谁需要高清电视?’但现在没人愿意再去看标清电视了。所以,我们将从高清电视升级到超高清电视,这是自然而然的进步,即便这种升级只是为了跟上手机摄像头分辨率的发展速度。”Meanwhile, 4K/UHD TV manufacturers and content creators, including Disney DIS -0.53% and Netflix, have established a new coalition called the UHD Alliance that plans to set standards for 4K content and delivery.与此同时,4K电视厂商已经同包括迪斯尼和Netflix在内的内容创造商成立了一个名为超高清联盟的新组织,计划为4K内容及其传输建立标准。“This is a game changer – most importantly, for consumers,” said H.S. Kim, executive vice president of Samsung’s displays business, in announcing the alliance.三星公司显示屏业务执行副总裁H. S. 金在宣布联盟结成时表示:“这将会改变行业规则,对消费者而言尤其重要。”In real world terms, that could mean better looking 4K/UHD content – which could, in turn, lure more consumers to the technology. It could also be an opportunity for satellite companies to increase subscribers, notes O’Donovan, since they’re less constricted by bandwidth availability. (Dish Network seems y to capitalize on this, announcing at CES a 4K set-top box that will become available later this year.)从现实世界的角度来看,这将意味着更好看的4K节目,反过来会吸引更多消费者接受这项技术。奥多诺万指出,卫视公司也能借机吸引订户,因为他们不太为带宽所限。(Dish Network似乎已经准备利用这一趋势了,该公司在消费电子展上推出了一款将在今年晚些时候上市的4K机顶盒。)“The industry is rallying behind UHD,” says Samsung’s Lee. “I think now is the time, more than ever, to make sure the quality of UHD is refined.”三星的比尔o李说:“电视业正在集结起来持超高清电视。我认为现在是前所未有的完善超高清品质的好时机。”(财富中文网) /201501/352960

文章编辑: 千龙生活